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Laura M Best, Leah L Zhao, Tina Scardochio, Paul B S Clarke
RATIONALE: Adult rat 50-kHz vocalizations have been proposed to indicate a positive affective state, putatively revealed by a predominance of trill calls over flat calls. However, short-term exposure to non-sedative doses of the euphorigen morphine suppresses calling, with no discernible shift in trill or flat call prevalence. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether morphine acutely increases 50-kHz call rates or alters the relative prevalence of trill or flat calls, after long-term morphine exposure or acute pharmacological pretreatment...
October 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Ioannis A Dimitroulis, Panagiota Stamou, Adamantia Liapikou, Michail Toumbis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Masanori Mori, Yongli Ji, Santosh Kumar, Takamaru Ashikaga, Steven Ades
BACKGROUND: Methylnaltrexone is a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to relieve severe opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with advanced disease receiving palliative care. Its efficacy remains unknown in cancer patients who are not terminally ill. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of methylnaltrexone over 48 h in cancer patients who were not terminally ill. METHODS: In this single-dose phase II trial, cancer patients with a prognosis of ≥3 months and OIC with <3 laxations during the preceding week were eligible...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Chunsheng Hu, Zhenzhen Cai, Yuxin Lu, Xiaochen Cheng, Zuze Wu, Qinglin Zhang
We investigated the antinociceptive effect of local intramuscular injection of a plasmid encoding human proenkephalin (pVAX1-hPPE) on postoperative pain in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with incision-induced pain were intramuscularly injected into injured plantaris muscle with empty vector (pVAX1) or pVAX1-hPPE, respectively. Paw mechanical threshold and thermal latency in the 200μg pVAX1-hPPE treated rats were significantly higher at 6h and on 1day, and lasted until day 7 after intramuscular administration, respectively...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Wojciech Leppert, Jaroslaw Woron
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) significantly deteriorate patients' quality of life and may lead to noncompliance with opioid schedule and undertreatment of pain. Although traditional oral laxatives are the first-line treatment of OIC, they do not address OIBD pathophysiology, and display numerous adverse effects. OIC treatment includes prokinetics (lubiprostone), opioid switch, and changing route of opioid administration...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
F Janku, L K Johnson, D D Karp, J T Atkins, P A Singleton, J Moss
BACKGROUND: Methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist, is FDA-approved for treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC). Preclinical data suggest that MOR activation can play a role in cancer progression and can be a target for anticancer therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pooled data from advanced end-stage cancer patients with OIC, despite laxatives, treated in two randomized (phase III and IV), placebo-controlled trials with MNTX were analyzed for overall survival (OS) in an unplanned post hoc analysis...
August 29, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Lene Jarlbæk, Berit Johnsen, Ole Bo Hansen, Birte Hedal
The evidence for treatment of constipation in palliative care patients is poor. The condition of these patients is often complex, and results from studies performed in other patient groups cannot be extrapolated unconditionally. However, macrogol (polyethylene glycol), lactulose and sodium picosulphate seem to be well tolerated, and methylnaltrexone could be used in opioid-induced constipation, if the patients are not at risk from gastrointestinal perforation. The patients should be offered quiet and private surroundings, and attention should be payed to securing an optimal body position for defecation...
August 15, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Irene Sonu, George Triadafilopoulos, Jerry D Gardner
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials of several new treatments for opioid-induced constipation (OIC), chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) have focused on differences between subjects relieved of constipation with placebo and active treatment. Patients and clinicians however, are more interested in the probability these treatments provide actual relief of constipation and its associated symptoms. METHODS: We searched the medical literature using MEDLINE and Cochrane central register of controlled trials...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Sita Chokhavatia, Elizabeth S John, Mary Barna Bridgeman, Deepali Dixit
Constipation is a common and often debilitating condition in the elderly, which may be caused by underlying disease conditions, structural abnormalities in the bowel, and a variety of medications such as anticholinergics, antidepressants, and opiates. In this review, we focus on opioid-induced constipation (OIC), which is often underrecognized and undertreated in the elderly. When opioid therapy is initiated, healthcare providers are encouraged to evaluate risk factors for the development of constipation as part of a thorough patient history...
August 2016: Drugs & Aging
Parind B Patel, Stephen J Brett, David O'Callaghan, Aisha Anjum, Mary Cross, Jane Warwick, Anthony C Gordon
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal dysmotility and constipation are common problems in intensive care patients. The majority of critical care patients are sedated with opioids to facilitate tolerance of endotracheal tubes and mechanical ventilation, which inhibit gastrointestinal motility and lead to adverse outcomes. Methylnaltrexone is a peripheral opioid antagonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier and can reverse the peripheral side effects of opioids without affecting the desired central properties...
2016: BMJ Open
David Prichard, Christine Norton, Adil E Bharucha
Up to 40% of patients taking opioids develop constipation. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) may limit the adequate dosing of opioids for pain relief and reduce quality of life. Health professionals must therefore inquire about bowel function in patients receiving opioids. The management of OIC includes carefully re-evaluating the necessity, type and dose of opioids at each visit. Lifestyle modification and alteration of aggravating factors, the use of simple laxatives and, when essential, the addition of newer laxatives or opioid antagonists (naloxone, naloxegol or methylnaltrexone) can be used to treat OIC...
May 26, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Waldemar Siemens, Gerhild Becker
INTRODUCTION: Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a frequent adverse event that impairs patients' quality of life. This article evaluates the objective plus subjective efficacy and the safety of methylnaltrexone (MNTX) in OIC patients. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials from a recent systematic review were included. In addition, a PubMed search was conducted for January 2014 to December 21, 2015. We included randomized controlled trials with adult OIC patients, MNTX as study drug, and OIC as primary outcome...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Gabriela M Gonçalves, Saulo L Capim, Mário L A A Vasconcellos, Bruno G Marinho
The present study used behavioral analyses to investigate the involvement of the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway, serotoninergic, and opioid systems in the antinociceptive action of [(±)-(2,4,6-cis)-4-chloro-6-(naphthalen-1-yl)-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]methanol (CTHP) in mice. Oral administration of CTHP (1, 5, 10, and 30 mg/kg) exerted effects at higher doses in chemical models of nociception (the acetic acid writhing and formalin tests) as well as a thermal model (the tail-flick test). It was also found that pretreatment with L-N-nitroarginine methyl ester (nonselective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (selective inhibitor of nitric oxide-sensitive guanosyl cyclase), glibenclamide (selective ATP-sensitive K channel blocker), naloxone (nonselective opioid receptor blocker), and nor-binaltorphimine (selective κ-opioid receptor blocker), but not methylnaltrexone (peripheral μ-opioid receptor blocker) or naltrindole (selective δ-opioid receptor blocker), reversed the antinociceptive effect of CTHP...
September 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Satish S C Rao, Kulthep Rattanakovit, Tanisa Patcharatrakul
Constipation is a heterogeneous, polysymptomatic, multifactorial disease. Acute or transient constipation can be due to changes in diet, travel or stress, and secondary constipation can result from drug treatment, neurological or metabolic conditions or, rarely, colon cancer. A diagnosis of primary chronic constipation is made after exclusion of secondary causes of constipation and encompasses several overlapping subtypes. Slow-transit constipation is characterized by prolonged colonic transit in the absence of pelvic floor dysfunction...
May 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jorge López, Sarah N Fernández, María J Santiago, Javier Urbano, Rafael González, Cecilia Fernández-Llamazares, Jesús López-Herce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Neel Mehta, Kelli O'Connell, Gregory P Giambrone, Aisha Baqai, Sudhir Diwan
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common adverse effect in patients requiring long-term opioid therapy for pain control. Methylnaltrexone, a quaternary peripheral mu-opioid receptor antagonist, is an effective treatment of opioid induced constipation (OIC) without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. Our objective was to conduct a review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of methylnaltrexone for treatment of OIC, as well as to provide a clinical discussion regarding newly developed alternatives and provide the current treatment algorithm utilized at our institution...
2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Eugene R Viscusi, Andrew C Barrett, Craig Paterson, William P Forbes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with chronic noncancer pain, subcutaneous methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation (OIC) was examined in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) followed by an open-label extension (OLE). This study examined the reproducibility of RCT findings by analyzing data from placebo-treated patients who crossed over to methylnaltrexone. METHODS: Adults with less than 3 weekly rescue-free bowel movements (RFBMs), taking 50 mg or more of an oral morphine equivalent per day, were randomized to receive methylnaltrexone 12 mg or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by open-label methylnaltrexone 12 mg as needed for 8 weeks...
January 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Lynn R Webster, Darren M Brenner, Andrew C Barrett, Craig Paterson, Enoch Bortey, William P Forbes
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous methylnaltrexone is efficacious and well tolerated for opioid-induced constipation (OIC) but may theoretically disrupt opioid-mediated analgesia. METHODS: Opioid use, pain intensity, and opioid withdrawal (Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale [OOWS] and Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale [SOWS] scores) were reported in a randomized, double-blind trial with an open-label extension (RCT) and an open-label trial (OLT) evaluating safety in adults with chronic noncancer pain...
2015: Journal of Pain Research
Mellar Davis, Pamela Gamier
Constipation is common in the general population and for those on opioids and/or who are suffering from advanced cancer. Self-management consists of dietary changes, exercise, and laxatives. However, responses to self-management efforts are often inadequate to relieve the subjective and objective experience of constipation. Multiple new anti-constipating medications have recently been tested in randomized trials and the following are available commercially: probiotics, prucalopride, lubiprostone, linaclotide, elobixibat, antidepressants, methylnaltrexone, alvimopan, and naloxegol...
December 2015: Current Oncology Reports
Sam H Ahmedzai, Jason W Boland
INTRODUCTION: Constipation is a common adverse effect of opioids. As an example, constipation is reported in 52% of people with advanced malignancy, and this figure rises to 87% in people who are terminally ill and taking opioids. There is no reason to believe that people with chronic non-malignant disease who are prescribed opioids will be any less troubled by this adverse effect. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic overview and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of opioid antagonists for constipation in people prescribed opioids? The population we studied included people with any condition, although most studies were in people with cancer pain...
2015: Clinical Evidence
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