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Coenzyme q

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704936/effects-of-a-new-nutraceutical-formulation-berberine-red-yeast-rice-and-chitosan-on-non-hdl-cholesterol-levels-in-individuals-with-dyslipidemia-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#1
Valentina Spigoni, Raffaella Aldigeri, Monica Antonini, Maria Maddalena Micheli, Federica Fantuzzi, Andrea Fratter, Marzia Pellizzato, Eleonora Derlindati, Ivana Zavaroni, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Alessandra Dei Cas
Increased non high-density lipoprotein (HDL)/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are independent risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) mortality with no documented threshold. A new combination of nutraceuticals (berberine 200 mg, monacolin K 3 mg, chitosan 10 mg and coenzyme Q 10 mg) with additive lipid-lowering properties has become available. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of the nutraceutical formulation (one daily) in lowering non-HDL cholesterol vs. placebo at 12 weeks in individuals with non-HDL-cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dL...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704608/the-electron-bifurcating-fixabcx-protein-complex-from-azotobacter-vinelandii-generation-of-low-potential-reducing-equivalents-for-nitrogenase-catalysis
#2
Rhesa Ledbetter, Amaya M Garcia-Costas, Carolyn E Lubner, David W Mulder, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Jacob H Artz, Angela Patterson, Timothy Magnuson, Zackary J Jay, H Diessel Duan, Jacquelyn Miller, Mary H Plunkett, John P Hoben, Brett M Barney, Ross P Carlson, Anne-Frances Miller, Brian Bothner, Paul W King, John W Peters, Lance C Seefeldt
The biological reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) by nitrogenase is an energetically demanding reaction that requires low-potential electrons and ATP; however, pathways used to deliver the electrons from central metabolism to the reductants of nitrogenase, ferredoxin or flavodoxin, remain unknown for many diazotrophic microbes. The FixABCX protein complex has been proposed to reduce flavodoxin or ferredoxin using NADH as the electron donor in a process known as electron bifurcation. Herein, the FixABCX complex from Azotobacter vinelandii was purified and demonstrated to catalyze an electron bifurcation reaction: oxidation of NADH (Em= -320 mV) coupled to reduction of flavodoxin semiquinone (Em= -460 mV) and reduction of coenzyme Q (Em= +10 mV)...
July 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690551/impact-of-chemical-analogs-of-4-hydroxybenzoic-acid-on-coenzyme-q-biosynthesis-from-inhibition-to-bypass-of-coenzyme-q-deficiency
#3
REVIEW
Fabien Pierrel
Coenzyme Q is a lipid that participates to important physiological functions. Coenzyme Q is synthesized in multiple steps from the precursor 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Mutations in enzymes that participate to coenzyme Q biosynthesis result in primary coenzyme Q deficiency, a type of mitochondrial disease. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation of patients is the classical treatment but it shows limited efficacy in some cases. The molecular understanding of the coenzyme Q biosynthetic pathway allowed the design of experiments to bypass deficient biosynthetic steps with analogs of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688734/first-moves-towards-photoautotrophic-synthetic-cells-in-vitro-study-of-photosynthetic-reaction-centre-and-cytochrome-bc1-complex-interactions
#4
Emiliano Altamura, Rosa Fiorentino, Francesco Milano, Massimo Trotta, Gerardo Palazzo, Pasquale Stano, Fabio Mavelli
Following a bottom-up synthetic biology approach it is shown that vesicle-based cell-like systems (shortly "synthetic cells") can be designed and assembled to perform specific function (for biotechnological applications) and for studies in the origin-of-life field. We recently focused on the construction of synthetic cells capable to converting light into chemical energy. Here we first present our approach, which has been realized so far by the reconstitution of photosynthetic reaction centre in the membrane of giant lipid vesicles...
June 26, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661441/loss-of-bone-mineral-density-associated-with-age-in-male-rats-fed-on-sunflower-oil-is-avoided-by-virgin-olive-oil-intake-or-coenzyme-q-supplementation
#5
Alfonso Varela-López, Julio J Ochoa, José M Llamas-Elvira, Magdalena López-Frías, Elena Planells, Lorenza Speranza, Maurizio Battino, José L Quiles
The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F₂-isoprostanes were measured...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658629/definition-of-a-high-confidence-mitochondrial-proteome-at-quantitative-scale
#6
Marcel Morgenstern, Sebastian B Stiller, Philipp Lübbert, Christian D Peikert, Stefan Dannenmaier, Friedel Drepper, Uri Weill, Philipp Höß, Reinhild Feuerstein, Michael Gebert, Maria Bohnert, Martin van der Laan, Maya Schuldiner, Conny Schütze, Silke Oeljeklaus, Nikolaus Pfanner, Nils Wiedemann, Bettina Warscheid
Mitochondria perform central functions in cellular bioenergetics, metabolism, and signaling, and their dysfunction has been linked to numerous diseases. The available studies cover only part of the mitochondrial proteome, and a separation of core mitochondrial proteins from associated fractions has not been achieved. We developed an integrative experimental approach to define the proteome of yeast mitochondria. We classified > 3,300 proteins of mitochondria and mitochondria-associated fractions and defined 901 high-confidence mitochondrial proteins, expanding the set of mitochondrial proteins by 82...
June 27, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637419/pharmacological-inhibitors-of-nad-biosynthesis-as-potential-anticancer-agents
#7
Stephanie Lucas, Claire Soave, Gazal Nabil, Zainab Ahmed, Guohua Chen, Hossny El-Banna, Q Ping Dou, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: Alteration of cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, which underlies exciting opportunities to develop effective, anti-cancer therapeutics by targeting through inhibition of cancer metabolism. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential coenzyme of energy metabolism and a signaling molecule linking cellular energy status to a spectrum of molecular regulation, has been shown to be in high demand in a variety of cancer cells. Depletion of NAD+ by inhibition of its key biosynthetic enzymes has become an attractive strategy to target cancer...
June 19, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618992/modulating-mitophagy-in-mitochondrial-disease
#8
Eszter Dombi, Heather Mortiboys, Joanna Poulton
Mitochondrial diseases may result from mutations in the maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or from mutations in nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Their bi-genomic nature makes mitochondrial diseases a very heterogeneous group of disorders that can present at any age and can affect any type of tissue. The autophagic-lysosomal degradation pathway plays an important role in clearing dysfunctional and redundant mitochondria through a specific quality control mechanism termed mitophagy. Mitochondria could be targeted for autophagic degradation for a variety of reasons including basal turnover for recycling, starvation induced degradation, and degradation due to damage...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603085/kaempferol-increases-levels-of-coenzyme-q-in-kidney-cells-and-serves-as-a-biosynthetic-ring-precursor
#9
Lucía Fernández-Del-Río, Anish Nag, Elena Gutiérrez Casado, Julia Ariza, Agape M Awad, Akil I Joseph, Ohyun Kwon, Eric Verdin, Rafael de Cabo, Claus Schneider, Jorge Z Torres, María I Burón, Catherine F Clarke, José M Villalba
Coenzyme Q (Q) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant essential in cellular physiology. Patients with Q deficiencies, with few exceptions, seldom respond to treatment. Current therapies rely on dietary supplementation with Q10, but due to its highly lipophilic nature, Q10 is difficult to absorb by tissues and cells. Plant polyphenols, present in the human diet, are redox active and modulate numerous cellular pathways. In the present study, we tested whether treatment with polyphenols affected the content or biosynthesis of Q...
June 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559279/the-ubik-protein-is-an-accessory-factor-necessary-for-bacterial-ubiquinone-uq-biosynthesis-and-forms-a-complex-with-the-uq-biogenesis-factor-ubij
#10
Laurent Loiseau, Cameron Fyfe, Laurent Aussel, Mahmoud Hajj Chehade, Sara B Hernández, Bruno Faivre, Djemel Hamdane, Caroline Mellot-Draznieks, Bérengère Rascalou, Ludovic Pelosi, Christophe Velours, David Cornu, Murielle Lombard, Josep Casadesús, Fabien Pierrel, Marc Fontecave, Frédéric Barras
Ubiquinone (UQ), also referred to as coenzyme Q, is a widespread lipophilic molecule in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in which it primarily acts as an electron carrier. Eleven proteins are known to participate in UQ biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, and we recently demonstrated that UQ biosynthesis requires additional, nonenzymatic factors, some of which are still unknown. Here, we report on the identification of a bacterial gene, yqiC, which is required for efficient UQ biosynthesis, and which we have renamed ubiK Using several methods, we demonstrated that the UbiK protein forms a complex with the C-terminal part of UbiJ, another UQ biogenesis factor we previously identified...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515908/renal-manifestations-of-primary-mitochondrial-disorders
#11
Josef Finsterer, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza
The aim of the present review was to summarize and discuss previous findings concerning renal manifestations of primary mitochondrial disorders (MIDs). A literature review was performed using frequently used databases. The study identified that primary MIDs frequently present as mitochondrial multiorgan disorder syndrome (MIMODS) at onset or in the later course of the MID. Occasionally, the kidneys are affected in MIDs. Renal manifestations of MIDs include renal insufficiency, nephrolithiasis, nephrotic syndrome, renal cysts, renal tubular acidosis, Bartter-like syndrome, Fanconi syndrome, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, nephrocalcinosis, and benign or malign neoplasms...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512131/h2s-oxidation-by-nanodisc-embedded-human-sulfide-quinone-oxidoreductase
#12
Aaron P Landry, David P Ballou, Ruma Banerjee
Buildup of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which functions as a signaling molecule but is toxic at high concentrations, is averted by its efficient oxidation by the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway. The first step in this pathway is catalyzed by a flavoprotein, sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which converts H2S to a persulfide and transfers electrons to coenzyme Q via a flavin cofactor. All previous studies on human SQR have used detergent-solubilized protein. Here, we embedded human SQR in nanodiscs (ndSQR) and studied highly homogenous preparations by steady-state and rapid-kinetics techniques...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482003/coenzyme-q10-reduces-sevoflurane-induced-cognitive-deficiency-in-young-mice
#13
G Xu, H Lu, Y Dong, D Shapoval, S G Soriano, X Liu, Y Zhang, Z Xie
Background.: Anaesthesia can induce cognitive deficiency in young rodents and monkeys. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the anaesthesia-induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioural deficits. We therefore assessed the effects of the mitochondrial energy enhancer coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) on anaesthesia-induced cognitive deficiency in young mice to investigate the role of mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods.: Young mice ( n =134) were randomly assigned into the following four groups: control plus corn oil vehicle (60% oxygen); 3% sevoflurane [2 h daily on postnatal day (P) 6, 7, and 8] plus vehicle; CoQ 10 (50 mg kg -1 ) plus vehicle; or 3% sevoflurane plus CoQ 10 plus vehicle...
May 7, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480405/potential-administration-of-lipoic-acid-and-coenzyme-q-against-adipogensis-target-for-weight-reduction
#14
Maryam A Al-Ghamdi, Hani Choudhry, Huda A Al-Doghather, Etimad H Huwait, Taha A Kumosani, Said S Moselhy
BACKGROUND: Body overweight and obesity were considered as a risk factor for many systemic diseases as diabetic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers. The lipoic acid and Co Q are considered as coenzymes needed for enhancement metabolic rate. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-obese effect of lipoic acid alone or combined with Co-Q in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety male albino rats (100-150g) were used in this study, divided into six groups (15 each)...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380598/dietary-whole-and-cracked-linseed-increases-the-proportion-of-oleic-and-%C3%AE-linolenic-acids-in-adipose-tissues-and-decreases-stearoyl-coenzyme-a-desaturase-acetyl-coenzyme-a-carboxylase-and-fatty-acid-synthase-gene-expression-in-the-longissimus-thoracis-muscle
#15
X Z Li, C G Yan, J Yu, Q S Gao, S H Choi, J S Shin, S B Smith
We hypothesized that supplementation of linseed in a beef cattle fattening diet would increase PUFA concentrations in intramuscular adipose tissue and depress (), (), and () gene expression by decreasing () expression. Conversely, supplemental linseed would upregulate expression of () and () in muscle of Yanbian Yellow steers. Thirty steers were assigned at random to 3 groups of 10 steers fed either the basal diet (corn grain and corn silage-based commercial concentrate [CON]), the CON diet plus 8% whole linseed (WLS; DM basis), or the CON diet plus 8% cracked linseed (CLS; DM basis) for 6 mo...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370744/novel-mutations-and-expression-changes-of-acetyl-coenzyme-a-carboxylase-are-associated-with-spirotetramat-resistance-in-aphis-gossypii-glover
#16
Y Pan, E Zhu, X Gao, R Nauen, J Xi, T Peng, X Wei, C Zheng, Q Shang
Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) catalyses the carboxylation of acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to produce malonyl-CoA during the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. Spirotetramat, an inhibitor of ACC, is widely used to control a range of sucking insects, including the Aphis gossypii. In the present study, Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) results demonstrated that ACC was significantly overexpressed in a laboratory-selected spirotetramat-resistant strain compared with the susceptible strain...
March 31, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357388/balanced-coq6-biosynthesis-is-required-for-lifespan-and-mitophagy-in-yeast
#17
Isabel González-Mariscal, Aléjandro Martín-Montalvo, Cristina Ojeda-González, Adolfo Rodríguez-Eguren, Purificación Gutiérrez-Ríos, Plácido Navas, Carlos Santos-Ocaña
Coenzyme Q is an essential lipid with redox capacity that is present in all organisms. In yeast its biosynthesis depends on a multiprotein complex in which Coq7 protein has both catalytic and regulatory functions. Coq7 modulates CoQ6 levels through a phosphorylation cycle, where dephosphorylation of three amino acids (Ser/Thr) by the mitochondrial phosphatase Ptc7 increases the levels of CoQ6. Here we analyzed the role of Ptc7 and the phosphorylation state of Coq7 in yeast mitochondrial function. The conversion of the three Ser/Thr to alanine led to a permanently active form of Coq7 that caused a 2...
February 3, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357127/metabolic-effects-of-a-mitochondrial-targeted-coenzyme-q-analog-in-high-fat-fed-obese-mice
#18
Brian D Fink, Deng Fu Guo, Chaitanya A Kulkarni, Kamal Rahmouni, Robert J Kerns, William I Sivitz
We recently reported that mitoquinone (mitoQ, 500 μmol/L) added to drinking water of C57BL/6J mice attenuated weight gain, decreased food intake, increased hypothalamic orexigenic gene expression, and mitigated oxidative stress when administered from the onset of high-fat (HF) feeding. Here, we examined the effects of mitoQ on pre-existing obesity in C57BL/6J mice first made obese by 107 days of HF feeding. In contrast to our preventative study, we found that already obese mice did not tolerate mitoQ at 500 μmol/L...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314870/perillyl-alcohol-a-pleiotropic-natural-compound-suitable-for-brain-tumor-therapy-targets-free-radicals
#19
REVIEW
Aline C Gomes, Angélica L Mello, Manuel G Ribeiro, Diogo G Garcia, Clovis O Da Fonseca, Marcela D'Alincourt Salazar, Axel H Schönthal, Thereza Quirico-Santos
Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol (POH) are promising natural compounds with pro-oxidant properties partly due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity owing to their activity as free radical scavengers, inhibition of coenzyme Q synthesis, activation of antioxidant-responsive elements (inducing detoxification enzymes) and induction of apoptosis. Activation of ER-stress responses generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are highly reactive free radicals mainly produced during mitochondrial electron transfer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis...
March 17, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173653/-coenzyme-q-10-treatment-for-one-child-with-coq6-gene-mutation-induced-nephrotic-syndrome-and-literature-review
#20
Q Cao, G M Li, H Xu, Q Shen, L Sun, X Y Fang, H M Liu, W Guo, Y H Zhai, B B Wu
Objective: To summarize the clinical manifestation and molecular characteristics of COQ6 mutation induced nephrotic syndrome, and to evaluate efficacy of CoQ(10) therapy. Method: Clinical data of the case with infantile nephrotic syndrome was summarized, including clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and family investigation. The patient received CoQ(10) 30 mg/(kg·d) therapy. Urine protein/creatinine ratio, serum albumin and creatinine were detected to assess the efficacy of the therapy. Result: (1) The 10 months old boy was presented with nephrotic level proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia...
February 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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