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Coenzyme q

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909452/the-levels-of-cortisol-and-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-child-and-adolescent-victims-of-sexual-abuse-with-or-without-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Şeref Şimşek, Tuğba Yüksel, İbrahim Kaplan, Cem Uysal, Hüseyin Aktaş
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortisol and oxidative stress levels and DNA damage differ between individuals who developed PTSD or not following a sexual trauma. METHODS: The study included 61 children aged between 5 and 17 years who sustained sexual abuse (M/F: 18/43). The patients were divided into two groups: patients with PTSD and patients without PTSD based, based on the results of a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS-PL and CAPS-CA)...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897404/doxorubicin-inhibits-muscle-inflammation-after-eccentric-exercise
#2
Sheng-Chih Huang, Jin-Fu Wu, Suchada Saovieng, Wei-Horng Chien, Ming-Fen Hsu, Xiao-Fei Li, Shin-Da Lee, Chih-Yang Huang, Chih-Yang Huang, Chia-Hua Kuo
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin, a widely used anti-tumour drug, is known to cause muscle loss in cancer patients. METHODS: Following an acute dose of doxorubicin injection (2.5 mg/kg per body weight), we examined macrophage distribution in rat soleus muscle challenged by eccentric exercise (downhill running). Long-term doxorubicin treatment (one injection every 3 days) on muscle mass and survival were also determined. RESULTS: Under non-exercised condition, increased tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA and decreased IL-10 mRNA were observed in soleus muscle of doxorubicin-treated rats, compared with saline-treated control rats...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872580/untargeted-polar-metabolomics-of-transformed-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells-expressing-varying-levels-of-human-arylamine-n-acetyltransferase-1
#3
Samantha M Carlisle, Patrick J Trainor, Xinmin Yin, Mark A Doll, Marcus W Stepp, J Christopher States, Xiang Zhang, David W Hein
INTRODUCTION: Human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is a phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme found in almost all tissues. Expression of NAT1 is elevated in several cancers including breast cancer. However, the exact mechanism by which NAT1 expression affects cancer risk and progression remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study explored polar metabolome differences between MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells expressing varying levels of NAT1 activity using an untargeted approach...
July 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856619/coq-deficiency-causes-disruption-of-mitochondrial-sulfide-oxidation-a-new-pathomechanism-associated-with-this-syndrome
#4
Marta Luna-Sánchez, Agustín Hidalgo-Gutiérrez, Tatjana M Hildebrandt, Julio Chaves-Serrano, Eliana Barriocanal-Casado, Ángela Santos-Fandila, Miguel Romero, Ramy Ka Sayed, Juan Duarte, Holger Prokisch, Markus Schuelke, Felix Distelmaier, Germaine Escames, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Luis C López
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, but it also has several other functions in the cellular metabolism. One of them is to function as an electron carrier in the reaction catalyzed by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which catalyzes the first reaction in the hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway. Therefore, SQR may be affected by CoQ deficiency. Using human skin fibroblasts and two mouse models with primary CoQ deficiency, we demonstrate that severe CoQ deficiency causes a reduction in SQR levels and activity, which leads to an alteration of mitochondrial sulfide metabolism...
November 17, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856618/coenzyme-q-deficiency-causes-impairment-of-the-sulfide-oxidation-pathway
#5
Marcello Ziosi, Ivano Di Meo, Giulio Kleiner, Xing-Huang Gao, Emanuele Barca, Maria J Sanchez-Quintero, Saba Tadesse, Hongfeng Jiang, Changhong Qiao, Richard J Rodenburg, Emmanuel Scalais, Markus Schuelke, Belinda Willard, Maria Hatzoglou, Valeria Tiranti, Catarina M Quinzii
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an electron acceptor for sulfide-quinone reductase (SQR), the first enzyme of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway. Here, we show that lack of CoQ in human skin fibroblasts causes impairment of hydrogen sulfide oxidation, proportional to the residual levels of CoQ. Biochemical and molecular abnormalities are rescued by CoQ supplementation in vitro and recapitulated by pharmacological inhibition of CoQ biosynthesis in skin fibroblasts and ADCK3 depletion in HeLa cells. Kidneys of Pdss2(kd/kd) mice, which only have ~15% residual CoQ concentrations and are clinically affected, showed (i) reduced protein levels of SQR and downstream enzymes, (ii) accumulation of hydrogen sulfides, and (iii) glutathione depletion...
November 17, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852445/a-metabolomics-driven-approach-reveals-metabolic-responses-and-mechanisms-in-the-rat-heart-following-myocardial-infarction
#6
Miso Nam, Youngae Jung, Do Hyun Ryu, Geum-Sook Hwang
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by myocardial necrosis resulting from prolonged ischemia. However, the biological mechanisms underlying MI remain unclear. METHODS: We evaluated metabolic and lipidomic changes in rat heart tissue from sham and MI at 1h, 1day and 10day after coronary ligation, using global profiling based on metabolomics. RESULTS: A time-dependent increase or decrease in polar and lipid metabolite levels was measured...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837315/cloning-and-characterization-of-decaprenyl-diphosphate-synthase-from-three-different-fungi
#7
Daisuke Moriyama, Tomohiro Kaino, Kazuyoshi Yajima, Ryota Yanai, Yasuhiro Ikenaka, Junzo Hasegawa, Motohisa Washida, Hirokazu Nanba, Makoto Kawamukai
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is composed of a benzoquinone moiety and an isoprenoid side chain of varying lengths. The length of the side chain is controlled by polyprenyl diphosphate synthase. In this study, dps1 genes encoding decaprenyl diphosphate synthase were cloned from three fungi: Bulleromyces albus, Saitoella complicata, and Rhodotorula minuta. The predicted Dps1 proteins contained seven conserved domains found in typical polyprenyl diphosphate synthases and were 528, 440, and 537 amino acids in length in B. albus, S...
November 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769915/clk1-deficiency-promotes-neuroinflammation-and-subsequent-dopaminergic-cell-death-through-regulation-of-microglial-metabolic-reprogramming
#8
Ruinan Gu, Fali Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaojun Han, Jay Liu, Zhaoxiang Ren, Yi Zhu, John L Waddington, Long Tai Zheng, Xuechu Zhen
Clock (Clk)1/COQ7 is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Here, we investigate the role of Clk1 in neuroinflammation and consequentially dopaminergic (DA) neuron survival. Reduced expression of Clk1 in microglia enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response and promoted aerobic glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis abolished Clk1 deficiency-induced hypersensitivity to the inflammatory stimulation. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that mTOR/HIF-1α and ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathways were involved in Clk1 deficiency-induced aerobic glycolysis...
October 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751905/the-conserved-regulation-of-mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-from-unicellular-eukaryotes-to-mammals
#9
REVIEW
Andrzej M Woyda-Ploszczyca, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to the mitochondrial anion carrier protein family and mediate regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free fatty acids, aldehydes such as hydroxynonenal, and retinoids activate UCPs. However, there are some controversies about the effective action of retinoids and aldehydes alone; thus, only free fatty acids are commonly accepted positive effectors of UCPs. Purine nucleotides such as GTP inhibit UCP-mediated mitochondrial proton leak. In turn, membranous coenzyme Q may play a role as a redox state-dependent metabolic sensor that modulates the complete activation/inhibition of UCPs...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741019/corneal-involvement-in-kearns-sayre-syndrome-responsive-to-coenzyme-q
#10
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731322/sequestration-of-ubiquitous-dietary-derived-pigments-enables-mitochondrial-light-sensing
#11
Dan Zhang, Kiera Robinson, Doina M Mihai, Ilyas Washington
Animals alter their physiological states in response to their environment. We show that the introduction of a chlorophyll metabolite, a light-absorbing pigment widely consumed in human diets, to Caenorhabditis elegans results in animals whose fat mass can be modulated by exposure to light, despite the worm consuming the same amount of food. In the presence of the chlorophyll metabolite, exposing the worms to light increased adenosine triphosphate, reduced oxidative damage, and increased median life spans, without an effect on animal reproduction...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729969/add-ons-in-ivf-programme-hype-or-hope
#12
A K Datta, S Campbell, B Deval, G Nargund
A series of new technologies and adjuvant therapies have been advocated in order to improve the success of IVF treatment. Dehydro-epiandrostenedione, growth hormones, Coenzyme Q 10, calcium ionosphores, immune therapy, heparin, low-dose aspirin, and vasodilators are among commonly prescribed pharmacological adjuvants. New technologies that are proposed to improve IVF outcomes include advanced sperm selection procedures, time- lapse embryo monitoring, preimplantation genetic screening, assisted hatching endometrial injury or embryo-glue...
December 28, 2015: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709644/a-case-of-hypopituitarism-accompanying-kearns-sayre-syndrome-treated-with-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Y-X Kang, Y-J Wang, Q Zhang, X-H Pang, W Gu
Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a disorder caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Here, we report an unusual case of Kearns-Sayre syndrome accompanied by hypopituitarism (deficiencies in reproductive and growth hormones). A 20-year-old male presented with growth retardation for the last 8 years, as well as the following findings: short stature, delayed puberty, myasthenia, an extraocular movement deficit, drooping eyelids, pectus carinatum and scoliosis. Cerebral enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed dysplasias of the pituitary, white matter and cerebellum...
October 6, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693056/mechanistic-details-of-early-steps-in-coenzyme-q-biosynthesis-pathway-in-yeast
#14
Laurie-Anne Payet, Mélanie Leroux, John C Willison, Akio Kihara, Ludovic Pelosi, Fabien Pierrel
Coenzyme Q (Q) is a redox lipid that is central for the energetic metabolism of eukaryotes. The biosynthesis of Q from the aromatic precursor 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) is understood fairly well. However, biosynthetic details of how 4-HB is produced from tyrosine remain elusive. Here, we provide key insights into this long-standing biosynthetic problem by uncovering molecular details of the first and last reactions of the pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, namely the deamination of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate by Aro8 and Aro9, and the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde to 4-HB by Hfd1...
October 20, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682344/pathways-for-arene-oxidation-in-non-heme-diiron-enzymes-lessons-from-computational-studies-on-benzoyl-coenzyme-a-epoxidase
#15
Tibor András Rokob
Oxygenation of aromatic rings using O2 is catalyzed by several non-heme carboxylate-bridged diiron enzymes. In order to provide a general mechanistic description for these reactions, computational studies were carried out at the ONIOM(B3LYP/BP86/Amber) level on the non-heme diiron enzyme benzoyl coenzyme A epoxidase, BoxB. The calculations revealed four possible pathways for attacking the aromatic ring: (a) electrophilic (2e(-)) attack by a bis(μ-oxo)-diiron(IV) species (Q pathway); (b) electrophilic (2e(-)) attack via the σ* orbital of a μ-η(2):η(2)-peroxo-diiron(III) intermediate (Pσ* pathway); (c) radical (1e(-)) attack via the π*-orbital of a superoxo-diiron(II,III) species (Pπ* pathway); (d) radical (1e(-)) attack of a partially quenched bis(μ-oxo)-diiron(IV) intermediate (Q' pathway)...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669165/mitochondrial-protein-functions-elucidated-by-multi-omic-mass-spectrometry-profiling
#16
Jonathan A Stefely, Nicholas W Kwiecien, Elyse C Freiberger, Alicia L Richards, Adam Jochem, Matthew J P Rush, Arne Ulbrich, Kyle P Robinson, Paul D Hutchins, Mike T Veling, Xiao Guo, Zachary A Kemmerer, Kyle J Connors, Edna A Trujillo, Jacob Sokol, Harald Marx, Michael S Westphall, Alexander S Hebert, David J Pagliarini, Joshua J Coon
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many human diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration, that are often linked to proteins and pathways that are not well-characterized. To begin defining the functions of such poorly characterized proteins, we used mass spectrometry to map the proteomes, lipidomes, and metabolomes of 174 yeast strains, each lacking a single gene related to mitochondrial biology. 144 of these genes have human homologs, 60 of which are associated with disease and 39 of which are uncharacterized...
November 2016: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632426/coenzyme-q10-plus-multivitamin-treatment-prevents-cisplatin-ototoxicity-in-rats
#17
Laura Astolfi, Edi Simoni, Filippo Valente, Sara Ghiselli, Stavros Hatzopoulos, Milvia Chicca, Alessandro Martini
Cisplatin (Cpt) is known to induce a high level of oxidative stress, resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species damaging the inner ear and causing hearing loss at high frequencies. Studies on animal models show that antioxidants may lower Cpt-induced ototoxicity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ototoxic effects of two different protocols of Cpt administration in a Sprague-Dawley rat model, and to test in the same model the synergic protective effects of a solution of coenzyme Q10 terclatrate and Acuval 400®, a multivitamin supplement containing antioxidant agents and minerals (Acu-Qter)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632419/probing-the-proton-channels-in-subunit-n-of-complex-i-from-escherichia-coli-through-intra-subunit-cross-linking
#18
Ablat Tursun, Shaotong Zhu, Steven B Vik
Respiratory Complex I appears to have 4 sites for proton translocation, which are coupled to the oxidation of NADH and reduction of coenzyme Q. The proton pathways are thought to be made of offset half-channels that connect to the membrane surfaces, and are connected by a horizontal path through the center of the membrane. In this study of the enzyme from Escherichia coli, subunit N, containing one of the sites, was targeted. Pairs of cysteine residues were introduced into neighboring α-helices along the proposed proton pathways...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630504/comparative-evaluation-of-co-enzyme-q10-and-melaleuca-alternifolia-as-antioxidant-gels-in-treatment-of-chronic-periodontitis-a-clinical-study
#19
Chetan Purushottam Raut, Kunal S Sethi
BACKGROUND: Conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Coenzyme Q10 and tea tree oil (TTO) are known to have potential therapeutic benefits in chronic periodontitis. AIMS: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (Perio Q(®)) and tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis...
July 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597161/discovery-of-a-new-structural-class-of-competitive-hdhodh-inhibitors-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-inflammatory-immunosuppressive-effects
#20
Wenbin Shen, Xiao Ren, Jingtong Zhu, Yan Xu, Jie Lin, Yeying Li, Feng Zhao, Haizhou Zheng, Ruolan Li, Xiaolan Cui, Xuexia Zhang, Xinhua Lu, Zhihui Zheng
Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH) is an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that involves in the fourth step of the biosynthesis of pyrimidine base. Inhibitors of hDHODH have been proven efficacy for the treatments of inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and cancer. In the present study, ascochlorin (ASC) and its derivatives, natural compounds from fungal metabolites, were discovered as hDHODH inhibitors by high-throughput screening. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that ASC competitively binds to hDHODH at the site of coenzyme Q substrate...
September 3, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
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