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Barri B Burrus, Kathleen Krieger, Regina Rutledge, Alexander Rabre, Sarah Axelson, Audra Miller, LeBretia White, Christine Jackson
BACKGROUND: Data suggest that adverse social determinants during adolescence can set in motion a lifetime of poor social and health outcomes. Vulnerable youths are at particularly high risk in this regard. OBJECTIVES: To identify and assess the current evidence base for adolescent-focused interventions designed to influence adulthood preparation that could affect longer-term social determinants. SEARCH METHODS: Using a systematic review methodology, we conducted an initial assessment of intervention evaluations targeting 6 adulthood preparation subject (APS) areas to assess the quality and character of the evidence base...
February 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Mara Pickhardt, Luise Adametz, Felicitas Richter, Bernhard Strauß, Uwe Berger
In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified...
February 13, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Angela D Bryan, Renee E Magnan, Arielle S Gillman, Elizabeth A Yeater, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, Alberta S Kong, Sarah J Schmiege
Importance: Adolescents in the juvenile justice system are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Concurrent use of alcohol and cannabis increase this risk. Objective: To determine whether a theory-based sexual risk-reduction intervention that included alcohol- and cannabis-focused content resulted in greater reductions in STIs than an intervention that included alcohol-related content only and an intervention that did not include substance use content...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Mher Barbarian, Andrea Bishop, Patricia Alfaro, Alain Biron, Daniel Adam Brody, Gabrielle Cunningham-Allard, Alexander Sasha Dubrovsky
INTRODUCTION: Although the Child Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems is a validated tool for the inpatient experience, it may not address features unique to the pediatric emergency department (PED). There is currently no publicly available validated patient-reported experience survey for the PED, and what matters most in this setting remains unknown. METHODS: Twelve semistructured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of parents of children younger than 14 years at a Canadian PED...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Christine M Gunn, Tracy A Battaglia, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Amanda K West, Nancy R Kressin
OBJECTIVE: Currently, 30 US states mandate that radiologists notify women when dense breast tissue is found on mammography. Little is understood about how notifications are perceived by recipients. This qualitative study sought to understand how dense breast notifications (DBNs) impact women's perceptions and their participation in follow-up care. METHODS: We assessed rates of DBN recall and conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 30 English-speaking women ages 40 to 74 after receiving a DBN from a Massachusetts hospital...
February 6, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Mamdooh Alzyood, Debra Jackson, Debra Brooke, Helen Aveyard
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review patients' and healthcare professionals' perceptions of patient involvement in promoting hand hygiene compliance in the hospital setting. BACKGROUND: Initiatives continue to emphasise the importance of involving patients in their safety at the point of care. A patient-centred care approach aims to empower patients to become active members of the healthcare team. However, understanding the perceptions of patients and healthcare professionals of patient involvement in promoting hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals has yet to be fully explored...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Hasan Sheikh, Aleksandar Brezar, Agata Dzwonek, Lawrence Yau, Lisa A Calder
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that patients have poor understanding of the discharge instructions provided from the emergency department (ED). The aims of this study are to determine if patient factors, such as income and level of education, correlate with patient understanding of discharge instructions and to explore if different patient populations prefer different resources for receiving discharge instructions. METHODS: We conducted live observations of physicians providing discharge instructions in the ED to 100 patients followed by a patient survey to determine their understanding in four domains (diagnosis, treatment plan, follow-up instructions, and return to ED (RTED) instructions) and collect patient demographics...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Fulden Sari, Deran Oskay, Abdurrahman Tufan
Up to 98% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients experienced fatigue. It is an important physical and cognitive symptom which has overwhelming, uncontrollable, and unpredictable affects throughout their whole life. RA fatigue composes of complex and multi-dimensional components which are pain, stress, depression, inflammation, and disability. The acknowledgement of fatigue is important, and fatigue should be measured in all RA trials alongside the core set. The aim of this study was to determine reliability and validity of Turkish version of Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue Multi-Dimensional Questionnaire in RA patients...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Claire L Vale, William J Cragg, Ben Cromarty, Bec Hanley, Annabelle South, Richard Stephens, Kate Sturgeon, Mitzy Gafos
BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement (PPI) in clinical trials aims to ensure that research is carried out collaboratively with patients and/or members of the public. However, current guidance on involving clinical trial participants in PPI activities is not consistent. METHODS: We reviewed the concept of participant involvement, based on our experience. Two workshops were held at the MRCCTU at UCL with the aim of defining participant involvement, considering its rationale; benefits and challenges; and identifying appropriate models for participant involvement in clinical trials...
February 7, 2018: Trials
Manli Zhang, Weiyi Xie, Yanzhi Xu, Xiangzhi Meng
Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual performance as a function of training. Recent studies found that auditory perceptual learning may improve phonological skills in individuals with developmental dyslexia in alphabetic writing system. However, whether auditory perceptual learning could also benefit the reading skills of those learning the Chinese logographic writing system is, as yet, unknown. The current study aimed to investigate the remediation effect of auditory temporal perceptual learning on Mandarin-speaking school children with developmental dyslexia...
January 29, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Mieko Omura, Teresa E Stone, Tracy Levett-Jones
Culture influences the way health-care professionals communicate with each other and their ability to relate to colleagues in an assertive manner. Cultural barriers can also make it difficult for nurses to speak up even when they have concerns about patient safety. An understanding of the potential impact of cultural factors is therefore needed when developing assertiveness communication training programs. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored Japanese nurses' perceptions of how culture and values impact assertive communication in health care...
February 6, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Miriam Hartmann, Margaret McConnell, Linda-Gail Bekker, Connie Celum, Thola Bennie, Jabulisile Zuma, Ariane van der Straten
In high prevalence environments relationship characteristics are likely to be associated with HIV risk, yet evidence indicates general underestimation of risk. Furthermore uncertainty about partner's risk may challenge PrEP demand among young African women. We conducted quantitative and qualitative interviews with women before and after HIV discussions with partners, to explore how partner's behavior affected risk perceptions and interest in PrEP. Twenty-three women were interviewed once; twelve had a follow-up interview after speaking to their partners...
February 5, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Emma L Karran, Susan L Hillier, Yun-Hom Yau, James H McAuley, G Lorimer Moseley
Background: Although it is broadly accepted that clinicians should endeavour to reassure patients with low back pain, to do so can present a significant clinical challenge. Guidance for how to provide effective reassurance is scarce and there may be a need to counter patient concerns arising from misinterpretation of spinal imaging findings. 'GLITtER' (Green Light Imaging Intervention to Enhance Recovery) was developed as a standardised method of communicating imaging findings in a manner that is reassuring and promotes engagement in an active recovery...
2018: PeerJ
C Rabec, J Gonzalez-Bermejo, A Cuvelier, P Cervantes, D Foret, L Mounier, B Melloni, J-F Muir
Cohort of patients initiated to home ventilation. Observational and prospective study. The effectiveness of home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for chronic respiratory failure (CRF) is well established. However, few data are available about home NIV prescription and utilization according to the different etiologies of respiratory failure. The ANTADIR Federation, in partnership with the Ventilatory Support Group of the French Speaking Pulmonary Society, has set up a national, observational and multicenter cohort study...
January 29, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
V Pinchi, M Focardi, F Pradella, R Grifoni, M Palandri, G A Norelli
The migratory flows to Europe from the African countries, Asia and Middle East, have hugely intensified in the recent years. In 2016, more than 98,000 out of a total of 260,000 migrants across the Mediterranean Sea arrived in Italy and in May 2017, the trend of arrivals is: Italy +576%; Greece -39% compared to previous years. Some migrants die before touching the sole of the European continent, during the crossing, often afforded with ships, made available by unscrupulous smugglers or criminal organizations, which are unsuitable for this type of transportation...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
Mie Kunio, Gee Wong, Peter M Markham, Elazer R Edelman
Sex-related differences have been noted in cardiovascular anatomy, pathophysiology, and treatment responses, yet we continued to drive evaluation of vascular device development in animal models without consideration of animal sex. We aimed to understand sex-related differences in the vascular responses to stent implantation by analyzing the pooled data of endovascular interventions in 164 Yucatan mini-swine (87 female, 77 male). Bare metal stents (BMS) or drug-eluting stents (DES) were implanted in 212 coronary arteries (63 single BMS implantation, 68 single DES implantation, 33 overlapped BMS implantation, and 48 overlapped DES implantation)...
2018: PloS One
Aboozar Eghdam, Ulrika Hamidi, Aniko Bartfai, Sabine Koch
INTRODUCTION: Social media has the potential to increase social participation and support for the well-being of individuals with chronic medical conditions. To date, Facebook is the most popular social medium for different types of communication. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the potential use of Facebook as a means of communication for persons with potential Mild Acquired Cognitive Impairment (MACI), a non-progressive mild cognitive impairment after an acquired brain injury...
2018: PloS One
Nnm Kwan, Amh Wong, Y Fang, Z Wang
OBJECTIVES: 'Get an early check - chrysanthemum tea' was a multimedia campaign promoting HIV testing targeting Chinese-speaking men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hong Kong, China. It ran from October to December 2015. This study was carried out to investigate the level of campaign exposure among Chinese-speaking MSM in Hong Kong and the association between uptake of HIV testing in the last 6 months and campaign exposure. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted 6 months after the campaign was launched...
January 24, 2018: HIV Medicine
Cabral A Bigman, Susan Mello, Ashley Sanders-Jackson, Andy S L Tan
Against a backdrop of increasing smoke-free policies, electronic cigarette use, and discussion about public health risks posed by smoking and vaping, this study examines psychosocial predictors of intentions to ask others not to use e-cigarettes (vape) and smoke - i.e., assertive communication intentions. A national sample of U.S. adults (n = 474) reported assertive communication intentions for public venues. Psychosocial correlates included perceived risks of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHSe) and secondhand vapor (SHVe), SHSe and SHVe attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived self-efficacy...
January 24, 2018: Health Communication
Elein Hernandez, Anne Fawcett, Emily Brouwer, Jeff Rau, Patricia V Turner
Although expectations for appropriate animal care are present in most developed countries, significant animal welfare challenges continue to be seen on a regular basis in all areas of veterinary practice. Veterinary ethics is a relatively new area of educational focus but is thought to be critically important in helping veterinarians formulate their approach to clinical case management and in determining the overall acceptability of practices towards animals. An overview is provided of how veterinary ethics are taught and how common ethical frameworks and approaches are employed-along with legislation, guidelines and codes of professional conduct-to address animal welfare issues...
January 22, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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