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Critical Rest

Catherine S Hubbard, Lino Becerra, Jonathan H Smith, Justin M DeLange, Ryan M Smith, David F Black, Kirk M Welker, Rami Burstein, Fred M Cutrer, David Borsook
The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥15 headache days/month) to episodic (EM; <15 headache days/month) migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11), as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and <15 headache days/month), compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12), showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Elena Bergon-Sendin, María Del Carmen Perez-Grande, David Lora-Pablos, Ana Melgar-Bonis, Noelia Ureta-Velasco, María Teresa Moral-Pumarega, Carmen Rosa Pallas-Alonso
BACKGROUND: Random audits are a safety tool to help in the prevention of adverse events, but they have not been widely used in hospitals. The aim of the study was to determine, through random safety audits, whether the information and material required for resuscitation were available for each patient in a neonatal intensive care unit and determine if factors related to the patient, time or location affect the implementation of the recommendations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observational study conducted in a level III-C neonatal intensive care unit during the year 2012...
October 17, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Benjamin B Massenburg, Hillary E Jenny, Saurabh Saluja, John G Meara, Mark G Shrime, Nivaldo Alonso
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is estimated to occur in 1 out of every 700 births, but for many people residing in low- and middle-income countries this deformity may be repaired late in life or not at all. This study aims to analyze worldwide provider-perceived barriers to the surgical repair of CLP in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, Smile Train distributed a multiple-choice, voluntary survey to healthcare providers to identify areas of need in CLP care worldwide...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Eric Klingelhoefer, Hendrik Bergert, Stephan Kersting, Stefan Ludwig, Norbert Weiss, Frank Schönleben, Robert Grützmann, Gabor Gäbel
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the most underestimated diseases because of its high prevalence and unfavorable prognosis. Many PAD patients without suitable autologous veins or options for endovascular treatment receive prosthetic above-knee femoropopliteal bypass (PAKB). Until now predictors of prosthetic bypass failure and of increased amputation risk remain indistinct. This study aimed to identify predictive factors associated with better bypass patency and limb salvage to achieve a more favorable outcome after PAKB reconstruction...
August 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Robyn T Rebbeck, Maram M Essawy, Florentin R Nitu, Benjamin D Grant, Gregory D Gillispie, David D Thomas, Donald M Bers, Razvan L Cornea
Using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we have developed and validated the first high-throughput screening (HTS) method to discover compounds that modulate an intracellular Ca(2+) channel, the ryanodine receptor (RyR), for therapeutic applications. Intracellular Ca(2+) regulation is critical for striated muscle function, and RyR is a central player. At resting [Ca(2+)], an increased propensity of channel opening due to RyR dysregulation is associated with severe cardiac and skeletal myopathies, diabetes, and neurological disorders...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilize DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Bruno Henrique Fumes, Mariane Aissa Andrade, Maraíssa Silva Franco, Fernando Mauro Lanças
The determination of residues and contaminants in complex matrices such as in the case of food, environmental and biological samples requires a combination of several steps to succeed in the aimed goal. At least three independent steps are integrated to provide the best available situation to deal with such matrices: (1) a sample preparation technique is employed to isolate the target compounds from the rest of the matrix; (2) a chromatographic (second) step further "purifies" the isolated compounds from the co-extracted matrix interferences; (3) a spectroscopy-based device acts as chromatographic detector (ideally containing a tandem high-resolution mass analyzer) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
David John Webb
Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as the failure to achieve an office BP target of <140/90 mmHg (<130/80 mmHg in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes) in patients with hypertension (HT), despite adherence to at least 3 antihypertensive medications at optimal tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic (Calhoun et al., Circulation 2008). TRH identifies patients with hard-to-treat HT, who might benefit from specialist investigation and treatment. Although some studies put the prevalence of TRH as >10%, these levels may be inflated by white-coat hypertension and poor adherence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Andreas Spiegler, Enrique C A Hansen, Christophe Bernard, Anthony R McIntosh, Viktor K Jirsa
When the brain is stimulated, for example, by sensory inputs or goal-oriented tasks, the brain initially responds with activities in specific areas. The subsequent pattern formation of functional networks is constrained by the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain. The extent to which information is processed over short- or long-range SC is unclear. Whole-brain models based on long-range axonal connections, for example, can partly describe measured functional connectivity dynamics at rest. Here, we study the effect of SC on the network response to stimulation...
September 2016: ENeuro
Karen Hodgson, Russell A Poldrack, Joanne E Curran, Emma E Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Harald Hh Göring, Nailin Yao, Rene L Olvera, Peter T Fox, Laura Almasy, Ravi Duggirala, Deanna M Barch, John Blangero, David C Glahn
Head movements are typically viewed as a nuisance to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, and are particularly problematic for resting state fMRI. However, there is growing evidence that head motion is a behavioral trait with neural and genetic underpinnings. Using data from a large randomly ascertained extended pedigree sample of Mexican Americans (n = 689), we modeled the genetic structure of head motion during resting state fMRI and its relation to 48 other demographic and behavioral phenotypes...
October 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
F Thomas, V Moulier, A Valéro-Cabré, D Januel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia and have been linked to likely disturbances of structural and functional connectivity within frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical networks involved in language and auditory functions. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown that alterations in the functional connectivity activity of the default-mode network (DMN) may also subtend hallucinations. Noninvasive neurostimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have the ability to modulate activity of targeted cortical sites and their associated networks, showing a high potential for modulating altered connectivity subtending schizophrenia...
October 11, 2016: Revue Neurologique
Kip Waite, Jane Rhule, David Bush, Barry Meisenberg
We undertook a retrospective review of a subset of expired patients at our community hospital to evaluate end-of-life care patterns and the use of advanced care planning tools among patients who died in the hospital. These 162 expired patients fell into 1 of the 3 diagnosis-related groups of cardiac, respiratory, or infectious disease. Seventy-nine percent of patients arrived to the hospital with no requested limitations in the extent of resuscitative efforts, even though 98% of all patients had major or extreme severity of illness and risk of mortality scores...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Alexander Klotz, Jens Georg, Lenka Bučinská, Satoru Watanabe, Viktoria Reimann, Witold Januszewski, Roman Sobotka, Dieter Jendrossek, Wolfgang R Hess, Karl Forchhammer
The molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in the transition of microbial cells from a resting state to the active vegetative state are critically relevant for solving problems in fields ranging from microbial ecology to infection microbiology. Cyanobacteria that cannot fix nitrogen are able to survive prolonged periods of nitrogen starvation as chlorotic cells in a dormant state. When provided with a usable nitrogen source, these cells re-green within 48 hr and return to vegetative growth. Here we investigated the resuscitation of chlorotic Synechocystis sp...
October 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Rosario Gajardo-Gómez, Valeria C Labra, Juan A Orellana
Under physiological conditions, microglia adopt a resting phenotype associated with the production of anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. In response to a wide variety of insults, these cells shift to an activated phenotype that is necessary for the proper restoration of brain homeostasis. However, when the intensity of a threat is relatively high, microglial activation worsens the progression of damage rather than providing protection, with potentially significant consequences for neuronal survival...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Pawan K Gupta, Murali Krishna, Anoop Chullikana, Sanjay Desai, Rajkumar Murugesan, Santanu Dutta, Uday Sarkar, Radhakrishnan Raju, Anita Dhar, Rajiv Parakh, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan, Pachaiyappan Viswanathan, Prasanth Kulapurathu Vellotare, Raviraja N Seetharam, Charan Thej, Mathiyazhagan Rengasamy, Sudha Balasubramanian, Anish S Majumdar
: : Critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to Buerger's disease is a major unmet medical need with a high incidence of morbidity. This phase II, prospective, nonrandomized, open-label, multicentric, dose-ranging study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of i.m. injection of adult human bone marrow-derived, cultured, pooled, allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSC) in CLI due to Buerger's disease. Patients were allocated to three groups: 1 and 2 million cells/kg body weight (36 patients each) and standard of care (SOC) (18 patients)...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
E Saarinen, P Kauhanen, M Söderström, A Albäck, M Venermo
INTRODUCTION: As the population ages and the incidence of diabetes increases, the expected number of patients with critical limb ischaemia (CLI) requiring distal revascularization will remain high or even increase. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term results of inframalleolar bypass. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 352 inframalleolar bypasses for CLI performed between 2002 and 2013 were included. Risk factors were evaluated and patency (both clinical and imaging based), leg salvage, survival, and amputation free survival (AFS) assessed...
October 2, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Quentin Welniarz, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze
The corticospinal tract (CST) plays a major role in cortical control of spinal cord activity. In particular, it is the principal motor pathway for voluntary movements. Here, we discuss: (i) the anatomic evolution and development of the CST across mammalian species, focusing on its role in motor functions; (ii) the molecular mechanisms regulating corticospinal tract formation and guidance during mouse development; and (iii) human disorders associated with abnormal CST development. A comparison of CST anatomy and development across mammalian species first highlights important similarities...
October 5, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Manish Saggar, Eva Tsalikian, Nelly Mauras, Paul Mazaika, Neil H White, Stuart Weinzimer, Bruce Buckingham, Tamara Hershey, Allan L Reiss
Sustained dysregulation of blood glucose (hyper or hypoglycemia) associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to cognitive deficits and altered brain anatomy and connectivity. However, a significant gap remains with respect to how T1D affects spontaneous at-rest connectivity in young developing brains. Here, using a large multi-site study, resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rsfMRI) data were examined in young children with T1D (N=57, mean age=7.88 years; 27F) as compared to age-matched non-diabetic controls (N=26, mean age=7...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes
Hong-Tu Li, Fang-Xu Jiang, Ping Shi, Tao Zhang, Xiao-Yu Liu, Xue-Wen Lin, Zhong-Yan San, Xi-Ning Pang
Islet transplantation provides curative treatments to patients with type 1 diabetes, but donor shortage restricts the broad use of this therapy. Thus, generation of alternative transplantable cell sources is intensively investigated worldwide. We previously showed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) can be reprogrammed to pancreatic-like cells through simultaneously forced suppression of Rest/Nrsf (repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuronal restrictive silencing factor) and Shh (sonic hedgehog) and activation of Pdx1 (pancreas and duodenal transcription factor 1)...
October 3, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Russell G Port, William Gaetz, Luke Bloy, Dah-Jyuu Wang, Lisa Blaskey, Emily S Kuschner, Susan E Levy, Edward S Brodkin, Timothy P L Roberts
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is hypothesized to arise from imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission (E/I imbalance). Studies have demonstrated E/I imbalance in individuals with ASD and also corresponding rodent models. One neural process thought to be reliant on E/I balance is gamma-band activity (Gamma), with support arising from observed correlations between motor, as well as visual, Gamma and underlying GABA concentrations in healthy adults. Additionally, decreased Gamma has been observed in ASD individuals and relevant animal models, though the direct relationship between Gamma and GABA concentrations in ASD remains unexplored...
October 1, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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