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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788964/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-quiescent-microglia-isolation-methods-from-postnatal-mouse-brains-and-limitations-of-bv2-cells
#1
Yingbo He, Xiang Yao, Natalie Taylor, Yuchen Bai, Timothy Lovenberg, Anindya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Microglia play key roles in neuron-glia interaction, neuroinflammation, neural repair, and neurotoxicity. Currently, various microglial in vitro models including primary microglia derived from distinct isolation methods and immortalized microglial cell lines are extensively used. However, the diversity of these existing models raises difficulty in parallel comparison across studies since microglia are sensitive to environmental changes, and thus, different models are likely to show widely varied responses to the same stimuli...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786410/percutaneous-deep-venous-arterialization-in-patients-with-critical-limb-ischemia-a-technical-note
#2
Steven Kum, Eline Huizing, Michiel A Schreve, Çagdas Ünlü, Roberto Ferraresi, Lasitha B Samarakoon, Daniel A van den Heuvel
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the presentation of end stage peripheral arterial disease and typically presents with rest pain, ulceration and gangrene. The outcome of conservative treatment is poor and often leads to amputations. Arterial revascularization plays an important role in amputation prevention. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of CLI patients cannot be revascularized and subsequently end up with a palliative amputation. This has led to the need and exploration of new treatment options in this no option subgroup of CLI...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785748/the-relation-of-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-to-later-shyness-moderation-by-neighborhood-quality
#3
Hui Zhang, Tracy L Spinrad, Nancy Eisenberg, Linlin Zhang
The purpose of the study was to predict young children's shyness from both internal/biological (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) and external (i.e., neighborhood quality) factors. Participants were 180 children at 42 (Time 1; T1), 72 (T2), and 84 (T3) months of age. RSA data were obtained at T1 during a neutral film in the laboratory. Mothers reported perceived neighborhood quality at T2 and children's dispositional shyness at T1 and T3. Path analyses indicated that resting RSA interacted with neighborhood quality to predict T3 shyness, even after controlling for earlier family income and T1 shyness...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784642/identification-of-key-lipids-critical-for-platelet-activation-by-comprehensive-analysis-of-the-platelet-lipidome
#4
Bing Peng, Sascha Geue, Cristina Coman, Patrick Münzer, Dominik Kopczynski, Canan Has, Nils Hoffmann, Mailin-Christin Manke, Florian Lang, Albert Sickmann, Meinrad Gawaz, Oliver Borst, Robert Ahrends
Platelet integrity and function critically depend on lipid composition. However, the lipid inventory in platelets was hitherto not quantified. Here, we examined the lipidome of murine platelets using lipid-category tailored protocols on a quantitative lipidomics platform. We could show that the platelet lipidome comprises almost 400 lipid species and covers a concentration range of seven orders of magnitude. A systematic comparison of the lipidomics network in resting and activated murine platelets, validated in human platelets, revealed that less than 20% of the platelet lipidome is changed upon activation, involving mainly lipids containing arachidonic acid...
May 21, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784482/role-of-surface-electrocardiograms-in-patients-with-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices
#5
REVIEW
Emanuela T Locati, Giuseppe Bagliani, Alessio Testoni, Maurizio Lunati, Luigi Padeletti
Surface electrocardiograms, both resting 12-lead electrocardiographs and ambulatory electrocardiograph monitoring, play an essential role in establishing indications for cardiac implantable electronic devices (pacemakers, cardiac implantable defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapies), and in the evaluation of patients already implanted. Current devices have prolonged memory capabilities (defined as Holter functions) and remote monitoring functions, to evaluate the electrical properties and the automatic detection of arrhythmias...
June 2018: Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783906/bulleyaconitine-a-attenuates-hyperexcitability-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-induced-by-spared-nerve-injury-the-role-of-preferably-blocking-nav1-7-and-nav1-3-channels
#6
Man-Xiu Xie, Jie Yang, Rui-Ping Pang, Wei-An Zeng, Han-Dong Ouyang, Yan-Qing Liu, Xian-Guo Liu
Background Oral administration of Bulleyaconitine A, an extracted diterpenoid alkaloid from Aconitum bulleyanum plants, is effective for treating chronic pain in rats and in human patients, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Results As the hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons resulting from the upregulation of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels has been proved critical for development of chronic pain, we tested the effects of Bulleyaconitine A on Nav channels in rat spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783143/metallic-nanocatalysts-for-electrochemical-co-2-reduction-in-aqueous-solutions
#7
Yuanxing Wang, Cailing Niu, Dunwei Wang
How to effectively and efficiently reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to value-added chemicals represent a frontier in catalysis research. Due to the high activation energy needs and the endothermic nature of CO2 reduction, the reactions are difficult to carry out. When H2 O is present, hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) often compete favorably with CO2 reduction reactions. For these reactions, catalysts are of critical importance to CO2 reduction. In this article, we review the various metal nanocatalysts for electrochemical CO2 reduction (ECR) reactions...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773801/lrrc8-vrac-anion-channels-enhance-%C3%AE-cell-glucose-sensing-and-insulin-secretion
#8
Till Stuhlmann, Rosa Planells-Cases, Thomas J Jentsch
Glucose homeostasis depends critically on insulin that is secreted by pancreatic β-cells. Serum glucose, which is directly sensed by β-cells, stimulates depolarization- and Ca2+ -dependent exocytosis of insulin granules. Here we show that pancreatic islets prominently express LRRC8A and LRRC8D, subunits of volume-regulated VRAC anion channels. Hypotonicity- or glucose-induced β-cell swelling elicits canonical LRRC8A-dependent VRAC currents that depolarize β-cells to an extent that causes electrical excitation...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767781/adolescent-condom-use-and-connectivity-in-the-social-planful-brain
#9
Justin D Caouette, Karen A Hudson, Angela D Bryan, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
Objective: To reduce rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancy among adolescents, it is critical to investigate brain connectivity that may underlie adolescents' sexual health decision-making in the context of intercourse. This study explored relationships between adolescent condom use frequency and the brain's resting-state functional connectivity, to identify differential patterns of social-affective processing among sexually active youth. Methods: In this study, N = 143 sexually active adolescents (68...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766944/craniovertebral-junction-evaluation-by-computed-tomography-in-asymptomatic-individuals-in-the-indian-population
#10
Chinmaya Dash, Raghav Singla, Mohit Agarwal, Ambuj Kumar, Hitesh Kumar, Shashwat Mishra, Bhawani S Sharma
Background: The available literature on the anatomy and imaging of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) focusses on the osteometric indices described for the detection of abnormal relationships between the components of CVJ. However, a knowledge of the normal osteometry of this region in the Indian population is critically important for the operating surgeon as it may influence the surgical technique as well as the choice, size and configurations of the implants. It is also important to determine whether critical differences exist between the osteometric data of Indians and the rest of the world for this part of the anatomy...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765067/wildfire-smoke-impacts-activity-and-energetics-of-wild-bornean-orangutans
#11
W M Erb, E J Barrow, A N Hofner, S S Utami-Atmoko, E R Vogel
Indonesia's peatlands experience frequent and intense wildfires, producing hazardous smoke with consequences for human health, yet there is a lack of research into adverse effects on wildlife. We evaluated the effects of smoke on the activity and energy balance of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in a peat swamp forest at the Tuanan Research Station, Central Kalimantan. We collected behavioural data and urine samples from four adult flanged males before, during, and after wildfires between March 2015 and January 2016...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764037/-the-value-of-high-resolution-diffusion-weighted-imaging-in-differentiating-benign-and-malignant-epithelial-tumors-of-parotid-gland
#12
B H Wen, J L Cheng, H X Zhang, Z X Zhang, F F Wang, K K Xue
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of RESOLVE DWI in the evaluation of benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland. Methods: A total of 106 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University with epithelial tumors of parotid gland confirmed by pathology from July 2015 to October 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative routine MRI and RESOLVE DWI, the ADC average values were calculated, t test were used to compare the ADC values of benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland...
May 8, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762377/glucose-requirements-of-the-developing-human-brain
#13
Manu S Goyal, Marcus E Raichle
Adequate nutrition is critical for human brain development, which depends particularly upon glucose. The adult human brain accounts for 20% to 25% of total body resting glucose consumption, and studies indicate that the developing brain requires an even greater percentage of glucose. Here we critically review the currently available data on glucose requirements for early childhood brain development. Implications of these findings are then discussed in the context of childhood malnutrition and future areas of investigation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761962/-study-on-regurgitation-using-the-coupling-model-of-left-ventricular-assist-device-and-cardiovascular-system
#14
Fangqun Wang, Zhenhai Wu, Teng Jing, Qing Xu, Jinhao Yao, Jinghua Ji
Regurgitation is an abnormal condition happens when left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) operated at a low speed, which causes LVAD to fail to assist natural blood-pumping by heart and thus affects patients' health. According to the degree of regurgitation, three LVAD's regurgitation states were identified in this paper: no regurgitation, slight regurgitation and severe regurgitation. Regurgitation index ( RI ), which is presented based on the theory of dynamic closed cavity, is used to grade the regurgitation of LVAD...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760066/socioeconomic-status-moderates-age-related-differences-in-the-brain-s-functional-network-organization-and-anatomy-across-the-adult-lifespan
#15
Micaela Y Chan, Jinkyung Na, Phillip F Agres, Neil K Savalia, Denise C Park, Gagan S Wig
An individual's environmental surroundings interact with the development and maturation of their brain. An important aspect of an individual's environment is his or her socioeconomic status (SES), which estimates access to material resources and social prestige. Previous characterizations of the relation between SES and the brain have primarily focused on earlier or later epochs of the lifespan (i.e., childhood, older age). We broaden this work to examine the relationship between SES and the brain across a wide range of human adulthood (20-89 years), including individuals from the less studied middle-age range...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758642/marangoni-instability-in-a-thin-film-heated-from-below-effect-of-nonmonotonic-dependence-of-surface-tension-on-temperature
#16
Rajkumar Sarma, Pranab Kumar Mondal
We investigate Marangoni instability in a thin liquid film resting on a substrate of low thermal conductivity and separated from the surrounding gas phase by a deformable free surface. Considering a nonmonotonic variation of surface tension with temperature, here we analytically derive the neutral stability curve for the monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability (for both the long-wave and short-wave perturbations) under the framework of linear stability analysis. For the long-wave instability, we derive a set of amplitude equations using the scaling k∼(Bi)^{1/2}, where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755402/default-mode-network-oscillatory-coupling-is-increased-following-concussion
#17
Benjamin T Dunkley, Karolina Urban, Leodante Da Costa, Simeon M Wong, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Concussion is a common form of mild traumatic brain injury. Despite the descriptor "mild," a single injury can leave long-lasting and sustained alterations to brain function, including changes to localized activity and large-scale interregional communication. Cognitive complaints are thought to arise from such functional deficits. We investigated the impact of injury on neurophysiological and functionally specialized resting networks, known as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), using magnetoencephalography...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750986/associations-of-functional-connectivity-and-walking-performance-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Rachel E Bollaert, Kyle Poe, Elizabeth A Hubbard, Robert W Motl, Lara A Pilutti, Curtis L Johnson, Bradley P Sutton
BACKGROUND: Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) often demonstrate impaired walking performance, and neuroimaging methods such as resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) may support a link between central nervous system damage and disruptions in walking. OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between RSFC in cortical networks and walking performance in persons with MS. METHODS: 29 persons with MS underwent 3-T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and we computed RSFC among 68 Gy matter regions of interest in the brain...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750878/perfusion-scintigraphy-in-the-assessment-of-autologous-cell-therapy-in-diabetic-patients-with-critical-limb-ischemia
#19
A Nemcova, A Jirkovska, M Dubsky, R Bem, V Fejfarova, V Woskova, A Pysna, M Buncova
Perfusion scintigraphy with technetium-99-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) is often used for assessing myocardial function but the number of studies concerning lower limb perfusion is limited. The aim of our study was to assess whether (99m)Tc-MIBI was an eligible method for evaluation of the effect of cell therapy on critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetic patients. (99m)Tc-MIBI of calf muscles was performed before and 3 months after autologous cell therapy (ACT) in 24 diabetic patients with CLI...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749724/lighting-up-the-thioflavin-t-by-parallel-stranded-tg-ga-n-dna-homoduplexes
#20
Jinbo Zhu, Zhiqiang Yan, Weijun Zhou, Chuanbo Liu, Jin Wang, Erkang Wang
Thioflavin T (ThT) was once regarded to be a specific fluorescent probe for the human telomeric G-quadruplex, but more other kinds of DNA were found that can also bind to ThT in recent years. Herein, we focus on G-rich parallel-stranded DNA and utilize fluorescence, absorbance, circular dichroism and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy to investigate its interaction with ThT. Pyrene label and molecular modelling are applied to unveil the binding mechanism. We find a new class of non-G-quadruplex G-rich parallel-stranded (ps) DNA with the sequence of TG(GA)n can bind to ThT and increase the fluorescence with an enhancement ability superior to G-quadruplex...
May 11, 2018: ACS Sensors
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