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Schizophrenia games

Liuqing Yang, Peifu Li, Haiying Mao, Huiling Wang, Chang Shu, Vibeke Bliksted, Yuan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Using paradigms from game theory, researchers have reported abnormal decision-making in social context in patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the underpinnings of the impairment. This study aimed to test whether theory of mind (ToM) deficits and/or neurocognitive dysfunctions mediate impaired social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared thirty-five patients with schizophrenia to thirty-eight matched healthy controls with regard to social decision-making using the mini Ultimatum Game (mini UG), a paradigm from game theory...
May 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Jianxin Shi, Ju-Hyun Park, Jubao Duan, Sonja T Berndt, Winton Moy, Kai Yu, Lei Song, William Wheeler, Xing Hua, Debra Silverman, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Jonine D Figueroa, Victoria K Cortessis, Núria Malats, Margaret R Karagas, Paolo Vineis, I-Shou Chang, Dongxin Lin, Baosen Zhou, Adeline Seow, Keitaro Matsuo, Yun-Chul Hong, Neil E Caporaso, Brian Wolpin, Eric Jacobs, Gloria M Petersen, Alison P Klein, Donghui Li, Harvey Risch, Alan R Sanders, Li Hsu, Robert E Schoen, Hermann Brenner, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Pablo Gejman, Qing Lan, Nathaniel Rothman, Laufey T Amundadottir, Maria Teresa Landi, Douglas F Levinson, Stephen J Chanock, Nilanjan Chatterjee
Recent heritability analyses have indicated that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to improve genetic risk prediction for complex diseases based on polygenic risk score (PRS), a simple modelling technique that can be implemented using summary-level data from the discovery samples. We herein propose modifications to improve the performance of PRS. We introduce threshold-dependent winner's-curse adjustments for marginal association coefficients that are used to weight the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PRS...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
Th Vorvolakos, S Arseniou, M Samakouri
Lead was one of the most dangerous environmental toxic substances for a long time in western countries, and this is still the case for many places on earth today. Its neurotoxic potential is highly significant but its secure blood level concentration remains unknown. The aim of this study was to approach the above issue from the perspective of social psychiatry. A systematic search was made of Dialog and Datastar interfaces for data regarding the neuropsychiatric complications of direct or chronic exposure to lead, and a review of the relevant literature was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, CAB Global Health and Cochrane...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Anya Pedersen, Robert Göder, Samuel Tomczyk, Patricia Ohrmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with schizophrenia reveal impaired decision-making strategies causing social, financial and health care problems. The extent to which deficits in decision-making reflect intentional risky choices in schizophrenia is still under debate. Based on previous studies we expected patients with schizophrenia to reveal a riskier performance on the GDT and to make more disadvantageous decisions on the IGT. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated 38 patients with schizophrenia and 38 matched healthy control subjects with two competing paradigms regarding feedback: (1) The Game of Dice Task (GDT), in which the probabilities of winning or losing are stable and explicitly disclosed to the subject, to assess decision-making under risk and (2) the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which requires subjects to infer the probabilities of winning or losing from feedback, to investigate decision-making under ambiguity...
August 7, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Wei-Peng Teo, Makii Muthalib, Sami Yamin, Ashlee M Hendy, Kelly Bramstedt, Eleftheria Kotsopoulos, Stephane Perrey, Hasan Ayaz
In the last decade, virtual reality (VR) training has been used extensively in video games and military training to provide a sense of realism and environmental interaction to its users. More recently, VR training has been explored as a possible adjunct therapy for people with motor and mental health dysfunctions. The concept underlying VR therapy as a treatment for motor and cognitive dysfunction is to improve neuroplasticity of the brain by engaging users in multisensory training. In this review, we discuss the theoretical framework underlying the use of VR as a therapeutic intervention for neurorehabilitation and provide evidence for its use in treating motor and mental disorders such as cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, and other related clinical areas...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Zina Berrada-Baby, Ali Oker, Matthieu Courgeon, Mathieu Urbach, Nadine Bazin, Michel-Ange Amorim, Jean-Claude Martin, Christine Passerieux, Paul Roux, Eric Brunet-Gouet
Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in their neurocognition and present cognitive biases. These impairments may lead to a deficit in recognizing helping intentions of others. To investigate recognition of help, we designed a card-guessing game (Virtual Help Recognition Paradigm) involving two successive virtual agents asking questions to the participant at different moments of the game. These questions were either empathetic (i.e. on the subject's feelings) or non-empathetic (i.e. on technical aspects of the game)...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Ahmad M Abu-Akel, Ian A Apperly, Stephen J Wood, Peter C Hansen
The mentalizing network is atypically activated in autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. While these disorders are considered diagnostically independent, expressions of both can co-occur in the same individual. We examined the concurrent effect of autism traits and psychosis proneness on the activity of the mentalizing network in 24 neurotypical adults while performing a social competitive game. Activations were observed in the paracingulate cortex and the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ). Autism traits and psychosis proneness did not modulate activity within the paracingulate or the dorsal component of the rTPJ...
May 17, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Isabelle Amado, Lindsay Brénugat-Herné, Eric Orriols, Colombe Desombre, Maxine Dos Santos, Zelda Prost, Marie-Odile Krebs, Pascale Piolino
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia impair everyday functioning and instrumental daily living activities. These disabilities can be partly responsible for chronicity and institutionalization. We present here a virtual reality (VR) tool in which patients with schizophrenia performed a virtual game in an imaginary town during a 3-month program. In a pilot study, seven patients with schizophrenia (DSM-5), institutionalized for many years, attended weekly 1-h-and-a-half sessions organized by two clinicians. During the first sessions, they listed together the difficulties they experienced in everyday organization and planning...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Maritta Välimäki, Christina Athanasopoulou, Mari Lahti, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that people with serious mental disorders spend time online for the purposes of disclosure, information gathering, or gaming. However, coherent information on the effects of social media on treatment for people with schizophrenia is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effects of social media interventions for supporting mental health and well-being among people with schizophrenia. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to determine the effects of social media interventions for supporting mental health and well-being among people with schizophrenia...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Stephen V Faraone, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Kevin M Antshel, Lenard Adler, Kurt Roots, Monika Heller
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative accuracies of the Conners' Brief Rating Scale, Parent Version, the Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT II), and a novel interactive game called "Groundskeeper" to discriminate child psychiatric patients with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We administered the three assessments to 113 clinically referred ADHD and non-ADHD patients who had been diagnosed with the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia- Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL), Version 19...
October 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Claudia Suenderhauf, Anna Walter, Claudia Lenz, Undine E Lang, Stefan Borgwardt
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic, and strongly disabling neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by cognitive decline, positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms respond well to antipsychotic medication and psycho-social interventions, in contrast to negative symptoms and neurocognitive impairments. Cognitive deficits have been linked to a poorer outcome and hence specific cognitive remediation therapies have been proposed. Their effectiveness is nowadays approved and neurobiological correlates have been reconfirmed by brain imaging studies...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Zafar Sharif, Alice Medalia, Richard S E Keefe, Philip Harvey, Gerard Bruder, Deanna M Barch, Tse Choo, Seonjoo Lee, Jeffrey A Lieberman
OBJECTIVE: Small-scale studies of auditory processing cognitive remediation programs have demonstrated efficacy in schizophrenia. We describe a multicenter, rater-blinded, randomized, controlled study of auditory-focused cognitive remediation, conducted from June 24, 2010, to June 14, 2013, and approved by the local institutional review board at all sites. METHOD: Prior to randomization, participants with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) were stabilized on a standardized antipsychotic regimen (lurasidone [40-160 mg/d]), followed by randomization to adjunctive cognitive remediation: auditory focused (Brain Fitness) versus control (nonspecific video games), administered 1-2 times weekly for 30 sessions...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Emmanuel Stip, Alexis Thibault, Alexis Beauchamp-Chatel, Steve Kisely
Computers, video games, and technological devices are part of young people's everyday lives. Hikikomori is a Japanese word describing a condition that mainly affects adolescents or young adults who live isolated from the world, cloistered within their parents' homes, locked in their bedrooms for days, months, or even years on end, and refusing to communicate even with their family. These patients use the Internet profusely, and only venture out to deal with their most imperative bodily needs. Although first described in Japan, cases have been described from around the world...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Rachel Loewy, Melissa Fisher, Danielle A Schlosser, Bruno Biagianti, Barbara Stuart, Daniel H Mathalon, Sophia Vinogradov
OBJECTIVE: Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis demonstrate cognitive impairments that predict later psychotic transition and real-world functioning. Cognitive training has shown benefits in schizophrenia, but has not yet been adequately tested in the CHR population. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, CHR individuals (N = 83) were given laptop computers and trained at home on 40 hours of auditory processing-based exercises designed to target verbal learning and memory operations, or on computer games (CG)...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Wai Shing Tse, Ann Siu Wah Wong, Fu Chan, Alfred Hin Tat Pang, Alyson Jane Bond, Chau Kiu Raymond Chan
AIM: Atypical antipsychotic treatment (e.g. risperidone) has been found to improve social functioning more than standard antipsychotic treatment. However, it is unclear which specific social behaviors are implicated in this improvement. The current study employed an interactive puzzle game to examine how social behaviors contribute to the improvement of social functioning by comparing patients receiving risperidone with those receiving trifluoperazine. METHODS: Scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, executive functioning, and social functioning were obtained from 24 patients with schizophrenia receiving either risperidone (n = 12) or trifluoperazine (n = 12), before their social behavior was measured in the interactive Tangrams Game...
May 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Maritta Välimäki, Jyrki Korkeila, Kaisa Kauppi, Johanna K Kaakinen, Suvi Holm, Jukka Vahlo, Olli Tenovuo, Heikki Hämäläinen, Jaana Sarajuuri, Pekka Rantanen, Tage Orenius, Aki Koponen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health problem. The recovery process for people with TBI is typically slow and dependent on complex and intensive assisted rehabilitation programs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects and feasibility of digital games for cognitive functioning and general well-being among people with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: This is a single-site feasibility study conducted in Finland, which uses a pragmatic, randomized controlled trial with three arms, and will recruit patients from the Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences in Finland...
February 9, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Nuria Segarra, Antonio Metastasio, Hisham Ziauddeen, Jennifer Spencer, Niels R Reinders, Robert B Dudas, Gonzalo Arrondo, Trevor W Robbins, Luke Clark, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Alterations in reward processes may underlie motivational and anhedonic symptoms in depression and schizophrenia. However it remains unclear whether these alterations are disorder-specific or shared, and whether they clearly relate to symptom generation or not. We studied brain responses to unexpected rewards during a simulated slot-machine game in 24 patients with depression, 21 patients with schizophrenia, and 21 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated relationships between brain activation, task-related motivation, and questionnaire rated anhedonia...
July 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
John A Engh, Eivind Andersen, Tom L Holmen, Egil W Martinsen, Jon Mordal, Gunnar Morken, Jens Egeland
BACKGROUND: The focus in recent years on physical inactivity and metabolic disturbances in individuals with schizophrenia raises the question of potential effects of physical activity. Physical activity has shown beneficial effects on cognition in healthy older individuals as well as on symptom severity in depression. However, opinions diverge regarding whether aerobic high-intensity interval training reduces cognition and key symptoms in schizophrenia. The main objective for the trial is to investigate the potential effects of aerobic high-intensity interval training on neurocognitive function and mental symptoms in outpatients with schizophrenia...
December 8, 2015: Trials
Olga López-Martín, Antonio Segura Fragoso, Marta Rodríguez Hernández, Iris Dimbwadyo Terrer, Begoña Polonio-López
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a programme based on a virtual reality game to improve cognitive domains in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 patients with schizophrenia, 20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received 10 sessions with Nintendo Wii(®) for 5 weeks, 50 minutes/session, 2 days/week in addition to conventional treatment. The control group received conventional treatment only...
March 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Long Zhang, Jiulai Tang, Yi Dong, Yifu Ji, Rui Tao, Zhitu Liang, Jingsong Chen, Yun Wu, Kai Wang
Although individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCH) share overlapping characteristics and may perform similarly on many cognitive tasks, cognitive dysfunctions common to both disorders do not necessarily share the same underlying mechanisms. Decision-making is currently a major research interest for both ASD and SCH. The aim of the present study was to make direct comparisons of decision-making and disorder-specific underlying neuropsychological mechanisms between the two disorders...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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