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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428966/nutrition-and-metabolism-in-burn-patients
#1
REVIEW
Audra Clark, Jonathan Imran, Tarik Madni, Steven E Wolf
Severe burn causes significant metabolic derangements that make nutritional support uniquely important and challenging for burned patients. Burn injury causes a persistent and prolonged hypermetabolic state and increased catabolism that results in increased muscle wasting and cachexia. Metabolic rates of burn patients can surpass twice normal, and failure to fulfill these energy requirements causes impaired wound healing, organ dysfunction, and susceptibility to infection. Adequate assessment and provision of nutritional needs is imperative to care for these patients...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427849/sarcopenia-cachexia-and-muscle-performance-in-heart-failure-review-update-2016
#2
REVIEW
Masakazu Saitoh, Junichi Ishida, Wolfram Doehner, Stephan von Haehling, Markus S Anker, Andrew J S Coats, Stefan D Anker, Jochen Springer
Cachexia in the context of heart failure (HF) has been termed cardiac cachexia, and represents a progressive involuntary weight loss. Cachexia is mainly the result of an imbalance in the homeostasis of muscle protein synthesis and degradation due to a lower activity of protein synthesis pathways and an over-activation of protein degradation. In addition, muscle wasting leads to of impaired functional capacity, even after adjusting for clinical relevant variables in patients with HF. However, there is no sufficient therapeutic strategy in muscle wasting in HF patients and very few studies in animal models...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426181/prognostic-significance-of-cachexia-score-assessed-by-ct-in-male-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
E Y Kim, H Y Lee, Y S Kim, I Park, H K Ahn, E K Cho, Y M Jeong, J H Kim
To determine the prognostic significance of CT-determined cachexia scores (CSs) in 127 consecutive male small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat tissues at the third lumbar vertebra (L3) were retrospectively measured on baseline CT images. CSs were determined based on the presence of sarcopenia and/or adipopenia. According to the presence of sarcopenia (L3 muscle index <55 cm(2) /m(2) , 86.8%) and adipopenia (L3 fat index <22 cm(2) /m(2) , 11.8%), CSs were defined as follows: CS2 (sarcopenia and adipopenia, 11...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425423/pathology-and-molecular-analysis-of-hapalotrema-mistroides-digenea-spirorchiidae-infecting-a-mediterranean-loggerhead-turtle-caretta-caretta
#4
M Santoro, F Di Nocera, D Iaccarino, S P Lawton, A Cerrone, B Degli Uberti, M D'Amore, A Affuso, S Hochscheid, F Maffucci, G Galiero
Turtle blood flukes belonging to the family Spirorchiidae (Digenea) represent a major threat for sea turtle health and are considered the most important parasitic cause of turtle stranding and mortality worldwide. Despite the large diversity of spirorchiid species found globally, there are only 2 records for free-ranging Mediterranean sea turtles that date back to the late 1800s involving just Hapalotrema mistroides Monticelli, 1896. This study describes the first fatal confirmed case of spirorchiidiasis in a free-ranging Mediterranean loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus) and, owing to the complexities of taxonomic identification of these parasites, provides the first molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of H...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423519/vitamin-d-and-vdr-in-cancer-cachexia-and-muscle-regeneration
#5
Andrea Camperi, Fabrizio Pin, Domiziana Costamagna, Fabio Penna, Maria Lopez Menduina, Zaira Aversa, Teresa Zimmers, Roberto Verzaro, Raffaella Fittipaldi, Giuseppina Caretti, Francesco Maria Baccino, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Paola Costelli
Low circulating levels of vitamin D were associated with decreased muscle strength and physical performance. Along this line, the present study was aimed to investigate: i) the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in cancer-induced muscle wasting; ii) the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects muscle phenotype in tumor-bearing animals.Rats bearing the AH130 hepatoma showed decreased circulating vitamin D compared to control rats, while muscle vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA was up-regulated. Both circulating vitamin D and muscle VDR expression increased after vitamin D administration, without exerting appreciable effects on body weight and muscle mass...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417157/impact-of-cachexia-on-outcomes-in-aggressive-lymphomas
#6
Reem Karmali, Taha Alrifai, Ibtihaj A M Fughhi, Ronald Ng, Vineela Chukkapalli, Palmi Shah, Sanjib Basu, Sunita Nathan, Kelly Szymanski-Grant, Leo I Gordon, Parameswaran Venugopal, Frank J Penedo, Jeffrey A Borgia
Cancer cachexia is defined as a state of involuntary weight loss, attributed to altered body composition with muscle mass loss and/or loss of adiposity. Identifying the association between cancer cachexia and outcomes may pave the way for novel agents that target the cancer cachexia process. Clinical parameters for measurement of cancer cachexia are needed. We conducted a single-institution retrospective analysis that included 86 NHL patients with the aim of identifying an association between cancer cachexia and outcomes in aggressive lymphomas using the cachexia index (CXI) suggested by Jafri et al...
April 17, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416007/disseminated-alveolar-echinococcosis-resembling-metastatic-malignancy-a-case-report
#7
Laura Caire Nail, Ezequiel Rodríguez Reimundes, Christelle Weibel Galluzzo, Dan Lebowitz, Yasmine Lucile Ibrahim, Johannes Alexander Lobrinus, François Chappuis
BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis is a potentially lethal zoonosis caused by larval forms of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Humans are aberrant intermediate hosts who become infected by ingestion of egg-contaminated food or water or via physical contact with domestic or wild animals that carry the parasite in their small intestine. In humans, the disease usually affects the liver and can spread to other organs causing metastatic infiltration. In this report, we describe an advanced presentation of human alveolar echinococcosis mimicking metastatic malignancy...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410500/cancer-is-a-propagandist
#8
Giamila Fantuzzi
Communication among cells (also known as cross-talk) plays a prominent role in the current knowledge of the pathophysiology of cancer and of cancer-associated conditions such as paraneoplastic syndromes and cachexia that are responsible for much of cancer's morbidity and mortality. Yet, biomedical scientists lack an explicit unifying frame that places this exchange of molecular information at the core of their understanding of cancer as a systemic disease. Propaganda is a type of information that aims at misleading, a form of communication intended primarily to serve the messenger...
April 11, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410220/reprogramming-induced-by-isoliquiritigenin-diminishes-melanoma-cachexia-through-mtorc2-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling
#9
Xiao-Yu Chen, De-Fang Li, Ji-Chun Han, Bo Wang, Zheng-Ping Dong, Li-Na Yu, Zhao-Hai Pan, Chuan-Jun Qu, Ying Chen, Shi-Guo Sun, Qiu-Sheng Zheng
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a member of the flavonoids, is known to have anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The effect of ISL on reprogramming in cancer cells, however, remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of ISL on reprogramming in human melanoma A375 cells. ISL (15 μg/ml) significantly inhibited A375 cell proliferation, anchorage independent cell proliferation and G2/M cell cycle arrest after ISL exposure for 24 h. However, there were no significant changes in apoptosis rate. Terminal differentiation indicators (melanin content, melanogenesis mRNA expression, tyrosinase (TYR) activity) were all up-regulated by ISL treatment...
March 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401689/progressive-resistance-training-prt-improves-rheumatoid-arthritis-outcomes-a-district-general-hospital-dgh-model
#10
Klara Morsley, Berna Berntzen, Lisa Erwood, Toby Bellerby, Lyn Williamson
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid cachexia is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and develops soon after diagnosis, despite adequate drug therapy. It is associated with multiple adverse effects on body composition, function and mortality. Progressive resistance training (PRT) improves these outcomes but is not widely prescribed outside of a research setting. The aim of the present study was to explore the practicality and effectiveness of providing PRT to patients in a district general hospital within the constraints of existing resources...
April 12, 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398519/sedentary-behaviour-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-definition-measurement-and-implications-for-health
#11
Sally A M Fenton, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Joan L Duda, George S Metsios, George D Kitas
RA is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by high grade-inflammation, and associated with elevated cardiovascular risk, rheumatoid-cachexia and functional impairment. Sedentary behaviour (SB) is linked to heightened inflammation, and is highly pervasive in RA, likely as a result of compromised physical function and persistent fatigue. This high sedentarity may exacerbate the inflammatory process in RA, and hold relevance for disease-related outcomes. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the definition, measurement and health relevance of SB in the context of RA...
April 7, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398233/therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-ghrelin-pathway
#12
REVIEW
Gustav Colldén, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller
Ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). Since then, ghrelin has been found to exert a plethora of physiological effects that go far beyond its initial characterization as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. Among the numerous well-established effects of ghrelin are the stimulation of appetite and lipid accumulation, the modulation of immunity and inflammation, the stimulation of gastric motility, the improvement of cardiac performance, the modulation of stress, anxiety, taste sensation and reward-seeking behavior, as well as the regulation of glucose metabolism and thermogenesis...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396056/connecting-the-metabolic-and-immune-responses-to-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Thomas R Flint, Douglas T Fearon, Tobias Janowitz
Separate research fields have advanced our understanding of, on the one hand, cancer immunology and, on the other hand, cachexia, the fatal tumor-induced wasting syndrome. A link between the host's immune and metabolic responses to cancer remained unexplored. Emerging work in preclinical models of colorectal and pancreatic cancer has unveiled tumor-induced reprogramming of liver metabolism in cachexia that leads to suppression of antitumor immunity and failure of immunotherapy. As research efforts in metabolism and immunology in cancer are rapidly expanding, it is timely to discuss the metabolic and immunological determinants of the cancer-host interaction...
April 7, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393216/cancer-induced-cardiac-cachexia-pathogenesis-and-impact-of-physical-activity-review
#14
Yassine Belloum, Françoise Rannou-Bekono, François B Favier
Cachexia is a wasting syndrome observed in many patients suffering from several chronic diseases including cancer. In addition to the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, cancer cachexia results in cardiac function impairment. During the severe stage of the disease, patients as well as animals bearing cancer cells display cardiac atrophy. Cardiac energy metabolism is also impeded with disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and reduced oxidative capacity, although the available data remain equivocal. The release of inflammatory cytokines by tumor is a key mechanism in the initiation of heart failure...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392077/a-novel-and-useful-predictive-indicator-of-prognosis-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-the-prognostic-nutritional-index
#15
M Keskin, M I Hayıroğlu, T Keskin, A Kaya, M A Tatlısu, S Altay, A O Uzun, E B Börklü, T S Güvenç, I I Avcı, Ö Kozan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The prognostic impact of poor nutritional status and cardiac cachexia in myocardial infarction is not clearly understood. Recent studies have implied a prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in colorectal surgeries and postoperative septic complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of PNI in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the in-hospital and long-term (3 years) prognostic impact of PNI on 1823 patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention...
January 18, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390870/insulin-not-glutamine-dipeptide-reduces-lipases-expression-and-prevents-fat-wasting-and-weight-loss-in-walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats
#16
Hely de Morais, Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Milene Ortiz Silva, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Maria Isabel Lovo Martins, Ângelo Rafael Carpinelli, Tânia Longo Mazucco, Roberto Barbosa Bazotte, Helenir Medri de Souza
Cachexia is the main cause of mortality in advanced cancer patients. We investigated the effects of insulin (INS) and glutamine dipeptide (GDP), isolated or associated, on cachexia and metabolic changes induced by Walker 256 tumor in rats. INS (NPH, 40 UI/kg, sc) or GDP (1.5g/kg, oral gavage) was once-daily administered during 11 days after tumor cell inoculation. GDP, INS or INS+GDP treatments did not influence the tumor growth. However, INS and INS+GDP prevented retroperitoneal fat wasting and body weight loss of tumor-bearing rats...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375879/glycine-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-metabolic-homeostasis
#17
René Koopman, Marissa K Caldow, Daniel J Ham, Gordon S Lynch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the recent literature on the role of glycine in skeletal muscle during times of stress. RECENT FINDINGS: Supplemental glycine protects muscle mass and function under pathological conditions. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle leads to increased cellular serine and glycine production and activation of NADPH-generating pathways and glutathione metabolism. These studies highlight how glycine availability modulates cellular homeostasis and redox status...
April 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375677/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#18
Valentina Mantegazza, Anna Apostolo, Alfred Hager
Recently, the number of patients with congenital heart diseases reaching adulthood has been progressively increasing in developed countries and new issues are emerging regarding them: the evaluation of their capacity to cope with physical activity, and whether this knowledge can be used to optimize medical management. A symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test has proven to be an essential tool because it can objectively evaluate the functional cardiovascular capacity of these patients, identify the pathological mechanisms of the defect (circulatory failure, shunts, pulmonary hypertension) and help prescribe an individualized rehabilitation program when needed...
April 4, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373612/impact-of-a-multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-nutrition-team-on-evaluating-sarcopenia-cachexia-and-practice-of-rehabilitation-nutrition
#19
Yoji Kokura, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Keisuke Maeda, Shinta Nishioka, Saori Nakahara
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine whether the presence of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation nutrition team affects sarcopenia and cachexia evaluation and practice of rehabilitation nutrition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using online questionnaire among members of the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Nutrition (JARN) was conducted. Questions were related to sarcopenia and cachexia evaluation and practice of rehabilitation nutrition. RESULTS: 677 (14...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369068/all-trans-retinoic-acid-suppresses-the-angiopoietin-tie2-pathway-and-inhibits-angiogenesis-and-metastasis-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Na Li, Yanjuan Lu, Daoming Li, Xiangyu Zheng, Jingyao Lian, Shanshan Li, Huijuan Cui, Linda Zhang, Luqian Sang, Ying Wang, Jane J Yu, Taiying Lu
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the second common cancer in Henan province and is well-known for aggressiveness and dismal prognosis. Adjuvant therapies, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endoscopic treatment have not improved survival rates in patients with late stage esophageal carcinoma. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the active ingredient of Vitamin A and affects a wide spectrum of biological processes including development, growth, neural function, immune function, reproduction, and vision...
2017: PloS One
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