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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922293/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-cancer-cachexia
#1
Fabio Penna, Andrea Camperi, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Nicoletta Filigheddu, Paola Costelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The possibility to use vitamin D supplementation to improve muscle wasting, with particular focus on cancer cachexia, is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D exerts biological actions on myogenic precursor proliferation and differentiation, impinging on muscle regeneration. However, the effects of VitD supplementation in diseases associated with muscle atrophy, such as cancer cachexia, are poorly investigated. Data obtained in experimental models of cancer cachexia show that the administration of vitamin D to tumor-bearing animals is not able to prevent or delay both muscle wasting and adipose tissue depletion, despite increased expression of muscle vitamin D receptor...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921385/acute-impact-of-home-parenteral-nutrition-in-patients-with-late-stage-cancer-on-family-caregivers-preliminary-data
#2
Lidia Santarpia, Federico Bozzetti
PURPOSE: Since there is no information regarding quality of life of caregivers assisting patients with advanced malignancy on home parenteral nutrition, herewith we report a preliminary series of 19 patients who received total parenteral nutrition at home under the strict supervision of their relatives. METHODS: The relatives of 19 incurable patients with cancer-related cachexia, discharged from the hospital with a home parenteral nutrition program, were prospectively studied...
September 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920786/cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-associated-renal-amyloidosis-causing-protein-losing-nephropathy-in-a-red-kangaroo-macropus-rufus
#3
Mary Irene Thurber, Jenessa Gjeltema, Matthew Sheley, Ray F Wack
A 10-year-old male castrated red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) presented with mandibular swelling. Examination findings included pitting edema with no dental disease evident on examination or radiographs. The results of blood work were moderate azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and severely elevated urine protein:creatinine ratio (9.9). Radiographs showed an interstitial pattern of the caudal right lung, and an abdominal ultrasound demonstrated scant effusion. Symptomatic and empirical therapy with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor did not resolve clinical signs...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918909/progesterone-analogues-reduce-plasma-epstein-barr-virus-dna-load-and-improve-pain-control-in-recurrent-metastatic-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-patients-under-supportive-care
#4
Chia-Yen Hung, Tung-Liang Lin, Yung-Chia Kuo, Chia-Hsun Hsieh, Hung-Ming Wang, Cheng-Lung Hsu
BACKGROUND: Progesterone analogues, such as megestrol acetate (MA) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA), have been used for the palliative care of cancer cachexia for decades and have proven to increase body weight and improve quality of life and performance status. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of progesterone analogue use on quality of life in terms of pain control, performance status, body weight gain, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load in recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients...
August 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916460/the-effect-of-viroid-infection-of-citrus-trees-on-the-amoebicidal-activity-of-maltese-half-blood-citrus-sinensis-against-trophozoite-stage-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff
#5
Ghaya Zouaghi, Asma Najar, Olfa Chiboub, Ines Sifaoui, Manef Abderrabba, Jacob Lorenzo Morales
In order to promote a local Tunisian product, this study was designed to examine, for the first time, the anti-Acanthamoeba activity (Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff) of the essential oils of Tunisian Citrus sinensis peels (Maltese half-blood) and the effect of viroid plant infection on this activity. To do so, three samples of peels' essential oils were studied: from a healthy plant (Control), a plant inoculated with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and one inoculated with hot stunt cachexia viroid (HSVd). The samples were extracted by hydrodistillation from dried peels and characterized by GC-MS...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914642/implications-of-weight-loss-for-cancer-patients-receiving-radiotherapy
#6
Steven Kai Ming Lau, Puneeth Iyengar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer-associated weight loss is a common comorbid condition best described among patients with advanced malignancy receiving systemic therapy, but its relationship to patients undergoing radiation treatment is less well described. We review the interaction between cancer-associated weight loss and radiation treatment as well as its prognostic significance. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple studies demonstrate a consistent detrimental effect of cancer-associated weight loss either existing prior to treatment or developing during radiotherapy...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914557/an-analysis-of-the-types-of-recently-published-research-in-the-field-of-cachexia
#7
Louise G Shewan
Introduction Cachexia is a common complication of many and varied chronic disease processes, yet it has received very little attention as an area of clinical research effort until recently. We sought to survey the contemporary literature on published research into cachexia to define where it is being published and the proportion of output classified into the main types of research output. Methods I searched the PubMed listings under the topic research term "cachexia" and related terms for articles published in the calendar years of 2015 and 2016, regardless of language...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911073/treating-cancer-cachexia-an-evolving-landscape
#8
B Laird, M Fallon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902785/predictors-of-pancreatic-cancer-associated-weight-loss-and-nutritional-interventions
#9
Laura Nemer, Somashekar G Krishna, Zarine K Shah, Darwin L Conwell, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Mary Dillhoff, Denis C Guttridge, Alice Hinton, Andrei Manilchuk, Timothy M Pawlik, Carl R Schmidt, Erin E Talbert, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Phil A Hart
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is often accompanied by weight loss. We sought to characterize factors associated with weight loss and observed nutritional interventions, as well as define the effect of weight loss on survival. METHODS: Consecutive subjects diagnosed with PDAC (N = 123) were retrospectively evaluated. Univariate analysis was used to compare subjects with and without substantial (>5%) weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with weight loss, and survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox survival models...
October 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900540/treatment-of-diabetic-mice-with-the-sglt2-inhibitor-ta-1887-antagonizes-diabetic-cachexia-and-decreases-mortality
#10
Taichi Sugizaki, Shunshun Zhu, Ge Guo, Akiko Matsumoto, Jiabin Zhao, Motoyoshi Endo, Haruki Horiguchi, Jun Morinaga, Zhe Tian, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Keishi Miyata, Hiroshi Itoh, Yuichi Oike
A favorable effect of an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2i) on mortality of diabetic patients was recently reported, although mechanisms underlying that effect remained unclear. Here, we examine SGLT2i effects on survival of diabetic mice and assess factors underlying these outcomes. To examine SGLT2i treatment effects in a model of severe diabetes, we fed genetically diabetic db/db mice a high-fat diet and then assessed outcomes including diabetic complications between SGLT2i TA-1887-treated and control mice...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891198/targeted-medical-nutrition-for-cachexia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Philip C Calder, Alessandro Laviano, Fredrik Lonnqvist, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Maria Öhlander, Annemie Schols
BACKGROUND: Cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may benefit from nutritional support. This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of targeted medical nutrition (TMN) vs. an isocaloric comparator in pre-cachectic and cachectic patients with COPD. METHODS: Patients aged ≥50 years with moderate-to-severe COPD and involuntary weight loss or low body mass index (16-18 kg/m(2) ) were randomized 1:1 to receive TMN (~230 kcal; 2 g omega-3 fatty acids; 10 μg 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3) or isocaloric comparator twice daily for 12 weeks (ClinicalTrials...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887874/small-molecule-inhibition-of-murf1-attenuates-skeletal-muscle-atrophy-and-dysfunction-in-cardiac-cachexia
#12
Thomas Scott Bowen, Volker Adams, Sarah Werner, Tina Fischer, Paulien Vinke, Maria Noel Brogger, Norman Mangner, Axel Linke, Peter Sehr, Joe Lewis, Dittmar Labeit, Alexander Gasch, Siegfried Labeit
BACKGROUND: Muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) is a muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligase activated during clinical conditions associated with skeletal muscle wasting. Yet, there remains a paucity of therapeutic interventions that directly inhibit MuRF1 function, particularly in vivo. The current study, therefore, developed a novel compound targeting the central coiled coil domain of MuRF1 to inhibit muscle wasting in cardiac cachexia. METHODS: We identified small molecules that interfere with the MuRF1-titin interaction from a 130 000 compound screen based on Alpha Technology...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884400/nutrition-and-aging-a-practicing-oncologist-s-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Rishi Jain, Efrat Dotan
Malnutrition is common in patients with cancer and is associated with a variety of negative outcomes. These can include reduced treatment tolerance and worsened cancer prognosis. Various aspects of aging, including sensory, physical, or psychosocial changes, place older patients at a particularly high risk for malnutrition, and these geriatric factors must be identified early and addressed. Despite the lack of available evidence on the optimal nutritional interventions for older adults with cancer, the oncologist must be prepared to address the common nutritional concerns that arise in both advanced cancer and survivorship settings...
September 7, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884000/catabolic-and-anabolic-faces-of-insulin-resistance-and-their-disorders-a-new-insight-into-circadian-control-of-metabolic-disorders-leading-to-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Polina M Schwartsburd
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis during circadian behavioral cycles is critical. The processes controlling the switch between predominant lipolysis/fatty oxidation during fasting and predominant lipid storage/glucose oxidation following feeding are determined principally by insulin. Chronic elevated threshold of insulin resistance (IR) is a key pathological feature of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, sepsis and cancer cachexia; however, a temporal reduced threshold of IR is widely met in fasting/hibernation, pregnancy, antibacterial immunity, exercise and stress...
August 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883883/atractylodin-induces-myosin-light-chain-phosphorylation-and-promotes-gastric-emptying-through-ghrelin-receptor
#15
Yu Bai, Yan-Hua Zhao, Jian-Ya Xu, Xi-Zhong Yu, Yun-Xia Hu, Zhi-Qiang Zhao
Atractylodin is one of the main constituents in the rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea Thunb., being capable of treating cancer cachexia-anorexia and age-related diseases as an agonist of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSR was herein expressed in human gastric smooth muscle cells (HGSMCs) and activated by ghrelin receptor agonist L-692,585. Like L-692,585, atractylodin also increased Ca(2+) and enhanced the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) through GHSR in HGSMCs. In addition, atractylodin promoted gastric emptying and MLC phosphorylation in the gastric antrum of mice also through GHSR...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882973/elevated-serum-aa-epa-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-skeletal-muscle-depletion-in-cachexic-patients-with-advanced-gastro-intestinal-cancers
#16
Moeko Kitagawa, Seiji Haji, Teruyoshi Amagai
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of cancer patients has increased. Cancer patients are prone to sarcopenia as a result of the decrease in muscle mass and muscle weakness which occurs in cancer cachexia. Attention has been given on the effects of fatty acid administration on cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart-review study of consecutive patients with unresectable advanced GI cancer (stage IV) (n=46) receiving chemotherapy treatment in an outpatient or in-hospital setting between December 2012 and September 2015 at our Institution...
September 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865876/resistance-and-tolerance-defenses-in-cancer-lessons-from-infectious-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Sheila Rao, Janelle S Ayres
Infectious disease and cancer are two maladies with multiple similarities. Both types of disease induce activation of the host immune response and induce pathologies that compromise host heath and survival. In infection biology, defense against pathogens can be broken down into two distinct components called resistance and tolerance. Resistance protects the host by killing pathogens. Tolerance protects the host by alleviating the pathology caused by the infection. The conceptual framework of resistance and tolerance, concepts explored during infectious disease, is applicable to cancer, a condition for which patient survival is dependent on tumor eradication (resistance) and the mitigation of pathologies that occur during disease (tolerance)...
August 30, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859366/variation-by-stage-in-the-effects-of-prediagnosis-weight-loss-on-mortality-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-esophageal-cancer-patients
#18
S Shen, J L Araujo, N K Altorki, J R Sonett, A Rodriguez, K Sungur-Stasik, C F Spinelli, A I Neugut, J A Abrams
Cancer cachexia is increasingly recognized as a poor prognostic marker for various tumor types. Weight loss in esophageal cancer is multifactorial, as patients with bulky tumors also have reduced ability to eat. We aimed to investigate the relationship between prediagnosis weight loss and mortality in esophageal cancer and to determine whether these associations vary with tumor stage. We conducted a prospective cohort study of esophageal cancer patients at two tertiary centers. We recorded baseline patient characteristics including medications, smoking, body mass index, and weight loss in the year prior to diagnosis, and collected data on treatment and outcomes...
September 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858429/energy-imbalance-and-cancer-cause-or-consequence
#19
REVIEW
Xiaohui Wang, Wei Liu, Xiangyang Xie
Obesity has been an epidemic worldwide over the past decades and significantly increases the risk of developing a variety of deadly diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been well documented. The drastically increased frequency of a number of cancers in obesity has attracted growing interest. On one hand, how increased adiposity promotes cancer development remains poorly understood, despite the fact that considerable epidemiological evidence has suggested links between them...
August 31, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856140/new-insights-about-the-putative-role-of-myokines-in-the-context-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-and-secondary-cardiovascular-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Domenico Di Raimondo, Giuseppe Miceli, Gaia Musiari, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto
Exercise training prevents the onset and the development of many chronic diseases, acting as an effective tool both for primary and for secondary prevention. Various mechanisms that may be the effectors of these beneficial effects have been proposed during the past decades: some of these are well recognized, others less. Muscular myokines, released during and after muscular contraction, have been proposed as key mediators of the systemic effects of the exercise. Nevertheless the availability of an impressive amount of evidence regarding the systemic effects of muscle-derived factors, few studies have examined key issues: (I) if skeletal muscle cells themselves are the main source of cytokine during exercise; (II) if the release of myokines into the systemic circulation reach an adequate concentration to provide significant effects in tissues far from skeletal muscle; (III) what may be the role carried out by muscular cytokine regarding the well-known benefits induced by regular exercise, first of all the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise...
August 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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