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Francesca Pretto, Carmen Ghilardi, Michele Moschetta, Andrea Bassi, Alessandra Rovida, Valentina Scarlato, Laura Talamini, Fabio Fiordaliso, Cinzia Bisighini, Giovanna Damia, Maria Rosa Bani, Rosanna Piccirillo, Raffaella Giavazzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2016: Oncotarget
David R Stather, Alain Tremblay, Elaine Dumoulin, Paul MacEachern, Alex Chee, Christopher Hergott, Jacob Gelberg, Gary A Gelfand, Paul Burrowes, John H MacGregor, Christopher H Mody
BACKGROUND: Intracavitary pulmonary aspergilloma is a chronic, debilitating fungal infection. Without definitive therapy, death can occur from massive hemoptysis, cachexia, or secondary infection. Although surgical resection is the standard therapy, it is not possible for many patients owing to poor pulmonary function or medical comorbidities. Aspergilloma removal through bronchoscopy is an important alternative therapy that may be available in select cases. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cases referred to the University of Calgary Interventional Pulmonary Service for transbronchial removal of intracavitary aspergilloma from January 1, 2009, to January 1, 2014...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Tadashi Yoshida, Patrice Delafontaine
Patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and cachexia. We previously demonstrated that Ang II, via its type 1 receptor (AT1R), causes muscle protein breakdown and apoptosis, and inhibits satellite cell (SC) proliferation and muscle regeneration, likely contributing to cachexia in CHF and CKD. In contrast, AT2R expression is robustly induced during SC differentiation and it potentiates muscle regeneration. To understand mechanisms regulating AT2R expression and its potential role in muscle regeneration in chronic diseases we used a mouse model of CHF and found that muscle regeneration was markedly reduced and that this was accompanied by blunted increase of AT2R expression...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jéssica V Mansson, Fernanda D Alves, Andréia Biolo, Gabriela C Souza
CONTEXT: Ghrelin is a hormone that stimulates weight gain and increases appetite. For these reasons, it has been used for treatment of cachexia syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the use of ghrelin in cachexia patients to better understand the most prevalent clinical outcomes, particularly since the type and dosage of hormone used and the route and duration of administration often varies. DATA SOURCES: A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, SciELO, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Alessandro Laviano, Gianluca Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Angela Koverech
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cachexia is a negative prognostic factor in cancer patients. The pathogenesis is related to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. However, whether nutritional support may contribute to effectively prevent and treat cachexia remains a debated issue. RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent evidence demonstrates that anabolic windows of opportunity occur during the clinical trajectory of cancer patients. Also, the use of specific nutrients, namely omega-3 fatty acids, may enhance the efficacy of nutritional support when tumor-driven inflammatory response is high...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Angela M Sanford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to examine the concept of anorexia of aging, including its complex pathophysiology and the multifaceted interventions required to prevent adverse health consequences from this geriatric syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Anorexia of aging is extremely common, occurring in up to 30% of elderly individuals; however, this diagnosis is frequently missed or erroneously attributed to a normal part of the aging process. With aging, impairments in smell and taste can limit the desire to eat...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Rulin Sun, Santao Zhang, Xing Lu, Wenjun Hu, Ning Lou, Yan Zhao, Jia Zhou, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-induced muscle wasting, which commonly occurs in cancer cachexia, is characterized by impaired quality of life and poor patient survival. To identify an appropriate treatment, research on the mechanism underlying muscle wasting is essential. Thus far, studies on muscle wasting using cancer cachectic models have generally focused on early cancer cachexia (ECC), before severe body weight loss occurs. In the present study, we established models of ECC and late cancer cachexia (LCC) and compared different stages of cancer cachexia using two cancer cachectic mouse models induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)...
October 12, 2016: Oncology Reports
Francesco Demaria, Franco De Crescenzo, Anna Maria Caramadre, Adele D'Amico, Antonella Diamanti, Fabiana Fattori, Maria Pia Casini, Stefano Vicari
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare multisystemic autosomal recessive disorder mainly caused by mutations in the nuclear gene TYMP, encoding thymidine phosphorylase. It generally appears in childhood and is clinically characterized by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ptosis, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, peripheral neuropathy, and diffuse leukoencephalopathy on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The disease is clinically heterogeneous with the main symptoms being gastrointestinal, with an important weight loss...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Vitor Hugo Nunes do Nascimento, Carla Dos Santos Lima, Jorge Tadeu Campos Paixão, Jofre Jacob da Silva Freitas, Katia Simone Kietzer
PURPOSE: To assess antioxidant effects of açaí seed extract on anorexia-cachexia induced by Walker-256 tumor. METHODS: A population of 20 lab rats were distributed into four groups (n=5): Control Group (CG), which only received tumor inoculation. Experimental Group-100 (EG-100), with animals submitted to tumor inoculation and treated with seed extract in a 100 mg / ml concentration through gavage. Experimental Group-200 (EG-200), with animals submitted to tumor inoculation and treated with seed extract in a 200 mg / ml concentration...
September 2016: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
S Aydin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Takayasu Ito, Eiji Ishikawa, Hiroshi Matsuo, Mika Fujimoto, Tomohiro Murata, Kenichi Isoda, Hitoshi Mizutani, Masaaki Ito
Renal failure and infectious disease are strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with severe generalized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB-sev gen). However, it is reportedly difficult to introduce hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). We encountered a 32-year-old man with RDEB-sev gen in whom hemodialysis with a native AVF was introduced that favorably affected his long-term survival. This patient eventually died because of cachexia related to the recurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma 51 months after hemodialysis introduction...
May 2016: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Laís Rosa Viana, Rafael Canevarolo, Anna Caroline Perina Luiz, Raquel Frias Soares, Camila Lubaczeuski, Ana Carolina de Mattos Zeri, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia)...
October 3, 2016: BMC Cancer
Jarosław Szefel, Wiesław J Kruszewski, Mariusz Szajewski, Maciej Ciesielski, Ewa Sobczak, Maksymilian Czerepko, Wiesława Łysiak-Szydłowska
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no established guidelines regarding the use of long-chain triglycerides (LCT) vs. medium-chain triglycerides medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)/long-chain triglycerides (LCT) in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Severe malnutrition of patients with refractory cachexia (RC) often causes their disqualification from invasive methods of treatment thus decreasing their quality of life and survival time. AIM: To compare the changes in nutritional state of patients with RC receiving PN with LCT and LCT/MCT lipid emulsions and to assess the influence of enteral nutrition on their survival time...
2016: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Martin J Hicks, Maria J Chiuchiolo, Douglas Ballon, Jonathan P Dyke, Eric Aronowitz, Kosuke Funato, Viviane Tabar, David Havlicek, Fan Fan, Dolan Sondhi, Stephen M Kaminsky, Ronald G Crystal
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary intracranial brain tumor in adults with a mean survival of 14 to 15 months. Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a significant role in GBM progression, with amplification or overexpression of EGFR in 60% of GBM tumors. To target EGFR expressed by GBM, we have developed a strategy to deliver the coding sequence for cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, directly to the CNS using an adeno-associated virus serotype rh...
2016: PloS One
Hui-Fang Wang, Juan Wang, Yan-Ling Wang, Jian-Jian Fan, Gui-Lin Mo, Feng-Yin Gong, Zhi-Ming Chai, Jin Zhang, Hua-Xing Meng, Chang-Xin Li, Jun-Hong Guo, Chuan-Qiang Pu
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with mitochondrial alterations. MNGIE is characterized by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, peripheral neuropathy, and leukoencephalopathy. The condition is caused by mutation of the TYMP gene. We studied the clinical and biochemical characteristics of a family with MNGIE. The proband was a 48-year-old male presenting with diarrhea and progressive weight loss. He also had ptosis and exhibited eyeball fixation...
October 5, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Benjamin Weide, Tina Schäfer, Alexander Martens, Anastasia Kuzkina, Laura Uder, Seema Noor, Claus Garbe, Patrick N Harter, Michel Mittelbronn, Jörg Wischhusen
Biomarkers are strongly needed for diagnostic surveillance of metastatic melanoma patients. Based on its known association with tumor metastasis and its ability to induce cancer cachexia we investigated serum levels of growth and differentiation factor 15 (sGDF-15) as marker for overall survival (OS). sGDF-15 was retrospectively measured by ELISA in 761 samples obtained at distinct time points during routine clinical care of stage III/IV melanoma patients. In the entire cohort sGDF-15 ≥1.5ng/mL was strongly associated with reduced OS after assessment...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Sasikarn Chamchod, Clifton D Fuller, Abdallah S R Mohamed, Aaron Grossberg, Jay A Messer, Jolien Heukelom, G Brandon Gunn, Micheal E Kantor, Hillary Eichelberger, Adam S Garden, David I Rosenthal
OBJECTIVES: We undertook a challenge to determine if one or more height-weight formula(e) can be clinically used as a surrogate for direct CT-based imaging assessment of body composition before and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, who are at risk for cancer- and therapy-associated cachexia/sarcopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-institution study included 215 HNC patients, treated with curative radiotherapy between 2003 and 2013...
October 2016: Oral Oncology
F Giap, S K M Lau, B S Gannavaparu, P Iyengar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Chaoyi Wang, Dunwei Guo, Qiang Wang, Song You, Zhongpeng Qiao, Yong Liu, Hang Dai, Hua Tang
To examine the effects of aliskiren, a small-molecule renin inhibitor, on cancer cachexia and to explore the underlying mechanisms. A cancer cachexia model was established by subcutaneously injecting C26 mouse colon carcinoma cells into isogenic BALB/c mice. Aliskiren was administered intragastrically [10 mg/kg body weight (BW)] on day 5 (as a preventive strategy, AP group) or on day 12 (as a therapeutic strategy, AT group) after C26 injection. Mice that received no C26 injection (healthy controls, HC group) or only C26 injection but not aliskiren (cancer, CA group) were used as controls...
September 21, 2016: Oncology Reports
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