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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712119/circulating-activin-a-predicts-survival-in-cancer-patients
#1
Audrey Loumaye, Marie de Barsy, Maxime Nachit, Pascale Lause, Aline van Maanen, Pierre Trefois, Damien Gruson, Jean-Paul Thissen
BACKGROUND: Several experimental evidences pinpoint the possible role of Activin A (ActA) as a driver of cancer cachexia. Supporting this hypothesis, we showed recently that human cancer cachexia is associated with high ActA levels. Moreover, ActA levels were correlated with body weight loss and skeletal muscle density, two prognostic factors in cancer patients. Our goal was therefore to investigate the value of ActA to predict survival in cancer patients. METHODS: Patients with colorectal or lung cancer were prospectively enrolled at the time of diagnosis or relapse between January 2012 and March 2014...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709594/emerging-roles-of-nuclear-phosphatase-scp4-in-ckd-associated-muscle-wasting
#2
Wai W Cheung, Sheng Hao, Robert H Mak
Cachexia with wasting of muscle protein is a serious complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Muscle protein phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target. Liu et al. reported that small C-terminal domain phosphatase (SCP) 4 was increased in muscles of patients and mice with CKD. Importantly, knockdown of SCP4 significantly ameliorated muscle wasting in CKD mice. Inhibition of SCP4 may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for muscle wasting in patients with CKD.
August 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708669/the-role-of-hypothalamic-inflammation-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-serotonin-in-the-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome
#3
Klaske van Norren, Jvalini T Dwarkasing, Renger F Witkamp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In cancer patients, the development of cachexia (muscle wasting) is frequently aggravated by anorexia (loss of appetite). Their concurrence is often referred to as anorexia-cachexia syndrome. This review focusses on the recent evidence underlining hypothalamic inflammation as key driver of these processes. Special attention is given to the involvement of hypothalamic serotonin. RECENT FINDINGS: The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is directly associated with higher mortality in cancer patients...
July 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701224/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-40-49
#4
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
Since the beginning of 2017, Chinese Journal of Cancer has published a series of important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology, which sparkle diverse thoughts, interesting communications, and potential collaborations among researchers all over the world. In this article, 10 more questions are presented as followed. Question 40. Why do mice being used as tumorigenesis models raised in different places or different conditions possess different tumor formation rate? Question 41. How could we generate more effective anti-metastasis drugs? Question 42...
July 13, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701059/brucea-javanica-oil-emulsion-alleviates-cachexia-induced-by-lewis-lung-cancer-cells-in-mice
#5
Chao Chen, Binbin Wang
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and possible mechanism of Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE) on cachexia, by observing changes in related indexes in mice with cachexia and identifying the genes responsible based on gene chip analysis. In the BJOE treatment group, body weight loss, tumor growth and metastasis were found obviously inhibited, food and water intake had markedly increased, and survival time was significantly prolonged, as compared to the control group. Moreover, the BJOE witnessed improvement in body weight, prevention of tumor metastasis and overall increase in survival time, as compared to Indometacin (IND, the positive control medicine)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691536/mabp1-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#6
Geraldine O'Sullivan Coyne, Mauricio Burotto
Inflammation is an established process in colorectal cancer development and a hallmark of progression, and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the morbidity and functional compromise associated with malignancy. MABp1, described as a first-in-class true human antibody against interleukin-1α, has undergone clinical trial evaluation in a number of indications, recently completing late phase clinical trial testing under Fast Track designation for cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome in colorectal cancer patients...
July 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685088/modified-glasgow-prognostic-score-in-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Koichi Kurishima, Hiroko Watanabe, Hiroichi Ishikawa, Hiroaki Satoh, Nobuyuki Hizawa
Systemic inflammatory response, which represents the presence of cachexia, is observed often in patients with lung cancer. To evaluate the prognostic significance of the presence of a systemic inflammatory response in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, a retrospective study using modified Glasgow prognostic Score (mGPS) was performed. This score is composed of serum albumin and C-reactive protein levels. All the patients with SCLC who were diagnosed in Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital and Mito Medical Center between April 1999 and July 2016 were included in this study...
July 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684736/fish-oil-enriched-nutrition-combined-with-systemic-chemotherapy-for-gastrointestinal-cancer-patients-with-cancer-cachexia
#8
Yumiko Shirai, Yoshinaga Okugawa, Asahi Hishida, Aki Ogawa, Kyoko Okamoto, Miki Shintani, Yuki Morimoto, Ryutaro Nishikawa, Takeshi Yokoe, Koji Tanaka, Hisashi Urata, Yuji Toiyama, Yasuhiro Inoue, Motoyoshi Tanaka, Yasuhiko Mohri, Ajay Goel, Masato Kusunoki, Donald C McMillan, Chikao Miki
Despite recent advances in chemotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer, a crucial factor related to poor prognosis is reduced tolerance to chemotherapy induced by cancer cachexia. Fish oil (FO)-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) modulates inflammation in patients with various malignancies; however, the impact of FO-enriched nutrition as a combined modality therapy on clinical outcomes remains controversial. We systemically analysed chronological changes in biochemical and physiological status using bioelectrical impedance analysis in 128 gastrointestinal cancer patients provided with or without FO-enriched nutrition during chemotherapy...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680649/aorto-right-ventricular-fistula-a-rare-complication-of-abiotrophia-endocarditis
#9
Priyanka Bhattacharya, Aasim Mohammed, Eddy Mizrahi
A 41-year-old African male presented with worsening dyspnea and cachexia concerning for congestive heart failure. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a large mass attached to the aortic valve leaflet, mass attached to the flail anterior mitral valve leaflet, severe pulmonary hypertension and dilatation of the aortic root along with fistula between the right coronary aortic cusp and the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract. Blood cultures grew Abiotrophia Defectiva (AD) sensitive to vancomycin. Patient underwent emergent surgical closure of aorto RV fistula and aortic root replacement along with pulmonary and mitral valve replacement...
July 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677505/oncostatin-m-potential-implications-for-malignancy-and-metabolism
#10
Jacqueline M Stephens, Carrie M Elks
BACKGROUND: The gp130 cytokine, oncostatin M (OSM), serves several physiological and pathological functions. At the molecular level, OSM can directly or indirectly participate in tumorigenesis and insulin resistance development. Although OSM was initially found to be anti-proliferative in tumors, numerous tumorigenic roles for OSM have been reported in a variety of cancers. In metabolic diseases, OSM signaling may be required for homeostasis in both the liver and the adipose tissue, since abrogation of OSM signaling causes obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674292/diverse-functions-of-a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-with-thrombospondin-motif-1
#11
Satoshi Hirohata, Junko Inagaki, Takashi Ohtsuki
 A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-1 (ADAMTS1) was initially cloned from a colon cachexia cell line. In the last 20 years, novel matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes were found, and in addition to their original members (MMPs and membrane-type MMPs), the current MMP family contains a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and ADAMTS. ADAM and ADAMTS play essential roles in organogenesis as well as various diseases including osteoarthritis. ADAMTS has 19 members and can be divided into several groups according to their substrates...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672898/astragalus-polysaccharide-a-component-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-inhibits-muscle-cell-atrophy-cachexia-in-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-rat-model-of-chronic-renal-failure-by-activating-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#12
Zhenbo Geng, Lianbo Wei, Chunhua Zhang, Xiaohua Yan
The present study aimed to determine the effect of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) in an in vivo and in vitro rat model of muscle atrophy (cachexia) caused by chronic renal failure (CRF), along with the potential corresponding roles of atroglin-1 and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. A rat model of CRF was established using subtotal bilateral nephrectomy. It was observed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis that APS and the specific inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), significantly reduced the expression of atrogin-1, ubiquitin and the NF-κB subunit p65 mRNA in rat skeletal muscle in vivo and in vitro, respectively (P<0...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668555/the-obesity-paradox-an-analysis-of-pre-procedure-weight-trajectory-on-survival-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation
#13
Rodney De Palma, John Ivarsson, Kari Feldt, Nawzad Saleh, Andreas Ruck, Rikard Linder, Magnus Settergren
INTRODUCTION: Increased mortality has been observed in those with cardiovascular diseases who are of normal body mass index (BMI) compared to the overweight and the obese. A similar association has been demonstrated in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve (TAVI) implantation. However, it still remains unclear whether low or normal BMI itself is unfavourable or whether this is merely a reflection of cardiac cachexia due to severe aortic stenosis. The hypothesis for the study was that weight change prior to TAVI may be associated with increased mortality following the procedure...
June 28, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652656/systemic-interleukin-9-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-association-with-mucosal-healing-in-ulcerative-colitis
#14
Malgorzata Matusiewicz, Katarzyna Neubauer, Iwona Bednarz-Misa, Sabina Gorska, Malgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka
AIM: To evaluate circulating IL9 in inflammatory bowel disease and disease-associated anemia/cachexia and assess its potential as a mucosal healing marker. METHODS: Serum IL9 as well as other cytokines (IL1β, IL6, IL13, IFNγ, TNFα, and VEGF-A) were determined in 293 individuals: 97 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 74 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and in 122 apparently healthy controls. The clinical activity of CD and UC was expressed in terms of the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and the Mayo Scoring System (MDAI), respectively, and the severity of bowel inflammation in UC patients was assessed using Mayo endoscopic score...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652543/ghrelin-does-not-influence-cancer-progression-in-a-lung-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#15
Hironobu Tsubouchi, Hitomi Onomura, Yusuke Saito, Shigehisa Yanagi, Ayako Miura, Ayako Matsuo, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Masamitsu Nakazato
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is produced in the human stomach. Although ghrelin has therapeutic potential for cancer cachexia, ghrelin treatment may have a concern about accelerating cancer progression. Here, using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line HLC-1, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on molecular mechanisms linked to cancer progression, including cell viability, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and mitochondrial activity. Both types of mouse alveolar epithelial cells (types I and II) expressed the GHSR, as did the human normal airway cell lines BEAS-2B and HLC-1...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652535/clinical-application-of-ghrelin-for-chronic-respiratory-failure
#16
Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Yoshifumi Imazu, Yasuji Arimura, Shigehisa Yanagi, Hirotoshi Iiboshi, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic respiratory failure, which is often caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic lower respiratory tract infection, or interstitial pneumonia, often leads to cachexia with disease progression. Patients who have chronic respiratory failure with cachexia exhibit increased morbidity. Although cachectic status is an important clinical problem, there are no effective therapies for cachexia. Ghrelin has various effects, including increasing food intake, attenuating sympathetic nerve activity, inhibiting inflammation, increasing cardiac output, and controlling fat utilization...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651827/effects-of-nutrition-and-physical-exercise-intervention-in-palliative-cancer-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Alexandra Uster, Maya Ruehlin, Stefanie Mey, David Gisi, Ruud Knols, Reinhard Imoberdorf, Miklos Pless, Peter E Ballmer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cancer cachexia is multifactorial and should be targeted using a multimodal form of intervention. The purpose of the present trial was to test the effects of a combined nutrition and physical exercise program on cancer patients with metastatic or locally advanced tumors of the gastrointestinal and lung tracts. METHODS: Patients were randomized into two groups: One group received a minimum of three standardized individual nutritional counselling sessions and participated in a 60-min exercise program twice a week...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650393/orthotopic-patient-derived-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts-engraft-into-the-pancreatic-parenchyma-metastasize-and-induce-muscle-wasting-to-recapitulate-the-human-disease
#18
Kristina L Go, Daniel Delitto, Sarah M Judge, Michael H Gerber, Thomas J George, Kevin E Behrns, Steven J Hughes, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
OBJECTIVE: Limitations associated with current animal models serve as a major obstacle to reliable preclinical evaluation of therapies in pancreatic cancer (PC). In an effort to develop more reliable preclinical models, we have recently established a subcutaneous patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. However, critical aspects of PC responsible for its highly lethal nature, such as the development of distant metastasis and cancer cachexia, remain underrepresented in the flank PDX model...
June 22, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643734/the-significance-of-serum-leptin-level-in-patients-with-early-stage-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#19
Fatih Karatas, Bulent Yalcin, Suleyman Sahin, Hakan Akbulut, Gungor Utkan, Ahmet Demirkazik, Fikri Icli
BACKGROUNDS: The serum leptin level (SLL) has been shown to increase in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, available data regarding the relation between SLL and tumor subtypes, survival, cachexia, and tumor respectability in NSCLC are still under debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate SLL in NSCLC patients with and without cachexia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 71 patients with early stage NSCLC were enrolled in this prospective study...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637074/-nutrition-in-cancer-effective-in-prevention-and-treatment
#20
Jann Arends
Nutritional effects on cancer occurrence and on treatment outcome in cancer patients may depend on food preferences and on the quantity of foods supplied. However, it has been difficult to reliably show beneficial effects of specific dietary concepts on cancer incidence. On the other hand, obesity as a result of chronic overfeeding has been linked firmly to an increased risk of a number of cancers as well as on cancer recurrence after treatment. Metabolic consequences of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may be responsible for inducing and/or promoting cancer growth and should be antagonized by regular moderate physical activity in healthy subjects and in cancer survivors...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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