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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791579/case-2-2018-73-year-old-male-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy-cachexia-and-shock
#1
Rafael Amorim Belo Nunes, Jussara de Almeida Bruno, Hilda Sara Monteiro Ramirez, Léa Maria Macruz Ferreira Demarchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785246/modulating-metabolism-to-improve-cancer-induced-muscle-wasting
#2
REVIEW
Fabio Penna, Riccardo Ballarò, Marc Beltrá, Serena De Lucia, Paola Costelli
Muscle wasting is one of the main features of cancer cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome frequently occurring in oncologic patients. The onset of cachexia is associated with reduced tolerance and response to antineoplastic treatments, eventually leading to clinical conditions that are not compatible with survival. Among the mechanisms underlying cachexia, protein and energy dysmetabolism play a major role. In this regard, several potential treatments have been proposed, mainly on the basis of promising results obtained in preclinical models...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785242/role-of-oxidative-stress-as-key-regulator-of-muscle-wasting-during-cachexia
#3
REVIEW
Johanna Ábrigo, Alvaro A Elorza, Claudia A Riedel, Cristian Vilos, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Lisbell Estrada, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition mainly characterized by a loss of muscular mass and the contractile capacity of the skeletal muscle as a consequence of muscular weakness and decreased force generation. Cachexia is defined as a pathological condition secondary to illness characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass with or without loss of fat mass and with concomitant diminution of muscle strength. The molecular mechanisms involved in cachexia include oxidative stress, protein synthesis/degradation imbalance, autophagy deregulation, increased myonuclear apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784194/off-label-megestrol-in-patients-with-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-associated-with-malignancy-and-its-treatments
#4
Jose M Garcia, Tatyana A Shamliyan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781585/group-i-paks-support-muscle-regeneration-and-counteract-cancer-associated-muscle-atrophy
#5
Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780646/incorporating-cystatin-c-to-predict-methotrexate-elimination-in-patients-with-cns-lymphoma-and-suspicious-renal-function
#6
Jason N Barreto, Allison L McClanahan, Andrew D Rule, Carrie A Thompson, Erin Frazee
High-dose methotrexate (MTX; ≥1 g/m2 ) is a renally eliminated and nephrotoxic first-line therapy for central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Creatinine-based estimation of renal function is the recommended approach to dosing MTX in these cases, but nonrenal determinants of creatinine production and elimination in cancer patients such as malnutrition and cachexia lead to overestimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by this method and a heightened risk for drug toxicity. Serum cystatin C is one of the first readily available, relatively inexpensive, endogenous biomarkers to emerge as a practical adjunct to creatinine for estimation of renal function for drug dosing...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779814/should-omega-3-fatty-acids-be-used-for-adjuvant-treatment-of-cancer-cachexia
#7
REVIEW
Daryna Sergiyivna Lavriv, Pedro Miguel Neves, Paula Ravasco
OBJECTIVES: Cancer cachexia is characterised by a progressive loss of muscle, resulting in functional impairment and shorter survival. Therefore, omega-3 has been studied for its role as an anti-cachectic therapy. This systematic review identified studies published on use of omega-3 in cancer cachexia in order to examine the potential benefit. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature using PubMed and B-on databases was conducted to identify clinical trials published between 2000 and 2015, to evaluate the effect of n-3 PUFAs on nutritional features and Quality of Life in cancer cachexia...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774118/proteomic-profiling-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-in-cancer-cachexia-alterations-in-sarcomeric-and-mitochondrial-protein-expression
#8
Angie M Y Shum, Anne Poljak, Nicholas L Bentley, Nigel Turner, Timothy C Tan, Patsie Polly
Background: Cancer cachexia is observed in more than 50% of advanced cancer patients, and impairs quality of life and prognosis. A variety of pathways are likely to be dysregulated. Hence, a broad-spectrum understanding of the disease process is best achieved by a discovery based approach such as proteomics. Results: More than 300 proteins were identified with > 95% confidence in correct sequence identification, of which 5-10% were significantly differentially expressed in cachectic tissues ( p -value of 0...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761924/decreased-hepatic-response-to-glucagon-adrenergic-agonists-and-camp-in-glycogenolysis-gluconeogenesis-and-glycolysis-in-tumor-bearing-rats
#9
Giuliana R Biazi, Isabele G Frasson, Daniele R Miksza, Hely de Morais, Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Gisele L Bertolini, Helenir M de Souza
The response to glucagon and adrenaline in cancer cachexia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in liver perfusion of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia. Liver ATP content was also investigated. Rats without tumor (healthy) were used as controls. Agonists α (phenylephrine) and β (isoproterenol) adrenergic, instead of adrenaline, and cAMP, the second messenger of glucagon and isoproterenol, were used in an attempt to identify mechanisms involved in the responses...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754258/glycerol-induced-injury-as-a-new-model-of-muscle-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Mohamed A A Mahdy
Skeletal muscle regenerates efficiently following injuries and diseases. However, muscle regeneration is compromised in several conditions by adipocyte infiltration and excessive collagen deposition. Adipocyte infiltration is a characteristic feature of sarcopenia, diabetes, cachexia, muscular dystrophies and advanced cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), while excessive collagen deposition is a hallmark of muscular dystrophies and severe muscle injuries, such as lacerations, contusions and strains. Muscle adipogenesis and fibrosis are major causes of muscle weakness that impairs muscle function...
May 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746226/medical-oncologists-beliefs-practices-and-knowledge-regarding-marijuana-used-therapeutically-a-nationally-representative-survey-study
#11
Ilana M Braun, Alexi Wright, John Peteet, Fremonta L Meyer, David P Yuppa, Dragana Bolcic-Jankovic, Jessica LeBlanc, Yuchiao Chang, Liyang Yu, Manan M Nayak, James A Tulsky, Joji Suzuki, Lida Nabati, Eric G Campbell
Background Although almost every state medical marijuana (MM) law identifies cancer as a qualifying condition, little research supports MM's use in oncology. We hypothesized that the discrepancy between these laws and the scientific evidence base poses clinical challenges for oncologists. Oncologists' beliefs, knowledge, and practices regarding MM were examined in this study. Methods In November 2016, we mailed a survey on MM to a nationally-representative, random sample of 400 medical oncologists. Main outcome measures included whether oncologists reported discussing MM with patients, recommended MM clinically in the past year, or felt sufficiently informed to make such recommendations...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745361/a-window-beneath-the-skin-how-computed-tomography-assessment-of-body-composition-can-assist-in-the-identification-of-hidden-wasting-conditions-in-oncology-that-profoundly-impact-outcomes
#12
L E Daly, C M Prado, A M Ryan
Advancements in image-based technologies and body composition research over the past decade has led to increased understanding of the importance of muscle abnormalities, such as low muscle mass (sarcopenia), and more recently low muscle attenuation (MA), as important prognostic indicators of unfavourable outcomes in patients with cancer. Muscle abnormalities can be highly prevalent in patients with cancer (ranging between 10 and 90 %), depending on the cohort under investigation and diagnostic criteria used...
May 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742642/successful-brincidofovir-treatment-of-metagenomics-detected-adenovirus-infection-in-a-severely-ill-stat1-deficient-patient
#13
Diana Averbuch, Rifaat Safadi, Daniel Dar, Dana Wolf, Meir Cherniak, Rotem Sorek, Sharon Amit
A STAT1-deficient patient presented with prolonged fever, cachexia, anemia, hypoalbuminemia and finally relapsing debilitating mycobacterial osteomyelitis while receiving a previously effective antimycobacterial treatment. Progression despite rigorous workup and multiple antibiotics prompted shotgun metagenomics revealing adenovirus in liver samples. Brincidofovir led to a complete, sustained clinical recovery, including of osteomyelitis, probably attributed to reversal of adenovirus-induced immune dysregulation...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740928/incidence-timing-and-impact-of-comorbidity-on-second-hip-fracture-a-population-based-study
#14
Lara Harvey, Barbara Toson, Rebecca Mitchell, Henry Brodaty, Brian Draper, Jacqueline Close
BACKGROUND: To quantify the incidence and timing of second hip fracture, and to evaluate the relative impact of comorbidities on risk of second hip fracture. METHODS: Hospitalization records for individuals aged ≥65, admitted to a New South Wales hospital for fall-related hip fracture between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2009 were linked. Comorbidities were identified from the records using a 1-year look-back period. To calculate second hip fracture rates, individuals were followed until death, fracture or end of study period (31 December 2012)...
May 8, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738575/adoptive-transfer-of-dendritic-cells-expressing-cd11c-reduces-the-immunological-response-associated-with-experimental-colitis-in-balb-c-mice
#15
Lisiery N Paiatto, Fernanda G D Silva, Áureo T Yamada, Wirla M S C Tamashiro, Patricia U Simioni
INTRODUCTION: In addition to conventional therapies, several new strategies have been proposed for modulating autoimmune diseases, including the adoptive transfer of immunological cells. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be one of the most promising treatments for autoimmune disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of adoptive transfer of DCs obtained from both naïve and ovalbumin (OVA)-tolerant mice on the severity of TNBS induced colitis and analyze the eventual protective mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737795/the-anti-wasting-effects-of-l-carnitine-supplementation-on-cancer-experimental-data-and-clinical-studies
#16
Mahsa Esfahani, Sahar Sahafi, Ali Derakhshandeh, Azadeh Moghaddas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that affects the large majority of patients with end-stage cancer. No known therapy exists to effectively overcome the severe symptoms of cachexia, which include anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. This study considered the results of both experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine and its derivatives as potential therapies for cachexia in patients with cancer. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: All available English-language papers on the use of L-carnitine in patients with cachexia related to cancer, including reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical trials, were obtained by searching multiple databases, including all Elsevier publications, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, clinical trials, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731967/anti-cachectic-effect-of-antrodia-cinnamomea-extract-in-lung-tumor-bearing-mice-under-chemotherapy
#17
Meng-Chuan Chen, Wen-Lin Hsu, Tz-Chong Chou
Skeletal muscle atrophy, the most characteristic feature of cancer cachexia, often occurs in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) a widely used edible medical fungus, exhibits hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatment with the ethonolic extract of AC ameliorates cachexia symptoms, especially muscle wasting, in lung tumor-bearing mice treated with chemotherapy. Our results revealed that gemcitabine and cisplatin-induced severe body weight loss and skeletal muscle atrophy in the mice with cancer were greatly attenuated after AC extract administration...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731235/assessment-of-nutritional-status-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-using-hand-grip-strength-tool
#18
Ashraf Mohamed Abd El Basset Bakr, Bothina Mohamed Hasaneen, Dina AbdelRasoul Helal Bassiouni
OBJECTIVE: Muscle status assessment is crucial for diagnosis of protein energy wasting PEW/cachexia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. Hand grip strength (HGS) has been used in muscle power assessment in adult CKD. However, no data is available about its usefulness in children with CKD. Hence, we aimed to study the reliability of HGS in reflecting the muscle power and thus, nutritional status in children with CKD. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this Observational cross sectional study we enrolled 73 CKD children; 45 had end stage kidney disease (ESKD) on hemodialysis (HD) and 28 had CKD but not on dialysis yet...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722201/treating-cachexia-using-soluble-acvr2b-improves-survival-alters-mtor-localization-and-attenuates-liver-and-spleen-responses
#19
Tuuli A Nissinen, Jaakko Hentilä, Fabio Penna, Anita Lampinen, Juulia H Lautaoja, Vasco Fachada, Tanja Holopainen, Olli Ritvos, Riikka Kivelä, Juha J Hulmi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia increases morbidity and mortality, and blocking of activin receptor ligands has improved survival in experimental cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully uncovered. METHODS: The effects of blocking activin receptor type 2 (ACVR2) ligands on both muscle and non-muscle tissues were investigated in a preclinical model of cancer cachexia using a recombinant soluble ACVR2B (sACVR2B-Fc). Treatment with sACVR2B-Fc was applied either only before the tumour formation or with continued treatment both before and after tumour formation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719601/increased-gut-permeability-in-cancer-cachexia-mechanisms-and-clinical-relevance
#20
Laure B Bindels, Audrey M Neyrinck, Audrey Loumaye, Emilie Catry, Hannah Walgrave, Claire Cherbuy, Sophie Leclercq, Matthias Van Hul, Hubert Plovier, Barbara Pachikian, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Philippe Langella, Patrice D Cani, Jean-Paul Thissen, Nathalie M Delzenne
Intestinal disorders often occur in cancer patients, in association with body weight loss, and this alteration is commonly attributed to the chemotherapy. Here, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia induced by ectopic transplantation of C26 cancer cells, we discovered a profound alteration in the gut functions (gut permeability, epithelial turnover, gut immunity, microbial dysbiosis) independently of any chemotherapy. These alterations occurred independently of anorexia and were driven by interleukin 6. Gut dysfunction was found to be resistant to treatments with an anti-inflammatory bacterium ( Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ) or with gut peptides involved in intestinal cell renewal (teduglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue)...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
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