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Yuka Kawashima, Kyoko Kure, Kazuhito Arai
OBJECTIVES: To identify differences in skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue morphology between postorthodontic patients with attractive and unattractive frontal posed smiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The attractiveness of close-up photographs of frontal posed smiles in 100 adult female patients after conventional orthodontic treatment was evaluated by 20 dental students (10 men, 10 women) using a visual analogue scale. Posttreatment cephalograms of the 20 patients with the most attractive smiles (attractive group; mean age 23...
June 18, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Peter J Ciolek, Brandon L Prendes, Michael A Fritz
INTRODUCTION: The reconstructive goals following radical parotidectomy include restoration of symmetry, reanimation of the face, and reestablishment of oral competence. We present our experience utilizing the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap, orthodromic temporalis tendon transfer (OTTT), and facial nerve cable grafting to reestablish form and function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, 17 patients underwent radical parotidectomy followed by immediate reconstruction...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Ana Corcimaru, Mia C Morrell, Dean S Morrell
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research on the impact of the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) photograph on the residency selection process. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the role of the ERAS photograph in the dermatology residency selection outcome and to determine if photographs submitted by matched applicants differ from those of unmatched applicants. METHODS: We analyzed ERAS photographs submitted by dermatology residency applicants based on photograph characteristics related to composition, attire, facial expression, hairstyle, and accessories...
April 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Grace S Kao
This article describes a family that had to deal with grief from losing a family member. They sought help for 13-yr-old Katie's prolonged pain following a sprain. The family's unresolved grief over their second child's passing continued to emerge, peeping through the small talk, the wry smiles, the daily efforts to move and do, despite physical pain. As the demands of Katie's rehabilitation stripped away reserves of politeness and energy, the family's emotional pain became more fully uncovered.The author describes the 6-week course of physical and occupational therapies, pain medicine management, and individual and family behavioral health support...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Jeanne L Tsai, Elizabeth Blevins, Lucy Zhang Bencharit, Louise Chim, Helene H Fung, Dannii Y Yeung
While significant research has demonstrated that people's beliefs about a group shape how they judge members of that group, few studies have examined whether people's beliefs and values regarding emotion (their "ideal affect") shape how they socially judge people's emotional facial expressions. We predicted that the more people valued and ideally wanted to feel excitement and other high arousal positive states (HAP), the more affiliative (extraverted, agreeable) they would judge excited (vs. calm) faces...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sônia Saeger Meireles, Marilia Leão Goettems, Kaline Silva Castro, Fábio Correia Sampaio, Flávio Fernando Demarco
This study aimed to evaluate the effect on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of two treatment protocols for dental fluorosis in individuals enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Seventy volunteers, who lived in a fluorosis endemic area in Brazil, and had at least four maxillary anterior teeth showing fluorosis with a Thylstrup and Fejerskov index from 1 to 7, were randomized into two treatment groups (n= 35): GI- enamel microabrasion; or GII- microabrasion associated with at-home bleaching. Microabrasion was performed using 37% phosphoric acid and pumice, and at-home tooth bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide in a tray...
March 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Bogdan Spiru, Sabine Kling, Farhad Hafezi, Walter Sekundo
PURPOSE: To investigate the biomechanical properties of the ex vivo human cornea after flap-based versus cap-based laser refractive surgery in the same donor. METHODS: In this experimental study, 11 pairs of human corneas unsuitable for transplantation were equally divided into two groups. Corneas from the right eye were treated with femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FSLASIK) and corneas from the left eye with small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Pachymetry was measured in each eye directly before laser refractive surgery...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Nikolaus Luft, Ricarda G Schumann, Martin Dirisamer, Daniel Kook, Jakob Siedlecki, Christian Wertheimer, Siegfried G Priglinger, Wolfgang J Mayer
PURPOSE: To assess the wound healing, inflammation, and tissue ultrastructure in the human corneal stroma after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK). METHODS: Sixteen corneoscleral discs of 16 human donors unsuitable for corneal transplantation were obtained from an eye bank. Eight eyes underwent SMILE with -5.00 diopters (D) of myopic correction; in 3 of them the lenticule was not extracted. Further 5 donor corneas were subjected to FS-LASIK with -5...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Huamao Miao, Xiu Liu, Mi Tian, Jing Zhao, Xuejun Fang, Xingtao Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in intraocular scattering and Bowman's layer microdistortions after femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction using the continuous curvilinear lenticulerhexis technique (SMILE-CCL). METHODS: In this prospective study, 93 eyes of 93 patients (44 women, 49 men) were treated with SMILE-CCL. Mean age was 26.09 ± 4.39 years and mean spherical equivalent was -6.31 ± 2.16 diopters. The Objective Scatter Index (OSI) was examined with an objective optical quality analysis system...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Nour Malek, Daniel Messinger, Andy Yuan Lee Gao, Eva Krumhuber, Whitney Mattson, Ridha Joober, Karim Tabbane, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Discrete emotion theories emphasize the modularity of facial expressions, while functionalist theories suggest that a single facial action may have a common meaning across expressions. Smiles involving the Duchenne marker, eye constriction causing crow's feet, are perceived as intensely positive and sincere. To test whether the Duchenne marker is a general index of intensity and sincerity, we contrasted positive and negative expressions with and without the Duchenne marker in a binocular rivalry paradigm. Both smiles and sad expressions involving the Duchenne marker were perceived longer than non-Duchenne expressions, and participants rated all Duchenne expressions as more affectively intense and more sincere than their non-Duchenne counterparts...
June 11, 2018: Emotion
Alastair Stuart, Dan Z Reinstein, Ryan S Vida, Timothy J Archer, Glenn Carp
We describe a case of atypical diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) following small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). The patient presented with multiple focal white infiltrates 1 day after routine small-incision lenticule extraction surgery. An interface washout was performed, and the patient was managed with intensive topical steroids. Potential infectious keratitis was also investigated (by culture and Gram stain) and treated aggressively with steroids and antibiotics. The cultures were all negative with no growth, and the focal infiltrates gradually resolved, with no relapses at the 15-month postoperative follow-up and a faint 0...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Caoimhin Mac Giolla Phadraig, June Nunn, Philip McCallion, Mary McCarron
AIM: This review reports the prevalence of edentulism among adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) in the literature. METHODS: A systematic search strategy led to the screening of 1,089 titles and abstracts from PubMed and six additional articles. Inclusion criteria were applied. An estimate of the prevalence of edentulism was calculated. RESULTS: Nineteen studies (from 20 publications) met inclusion criteria: eighteen were cross-sectional surveys...
June 8, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
Yaoqi Xiang, Min Shen, Chao Xue, Di Wu, Yan Wang
The biomechanical behavior of human corneal stroma under uniaxial tension was investigated by the experimental analysis of cornea stromal lenticules taken out by corneal refractive surgery. Uniaxial tests were conducted to determine their stress-strain relationship and tensile strength. The Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel (GOH) model was used to describe biomechanical behavior of the corneal stroma. The theoretical stress-strain relationship of the GOH model in the uniaxial tensile test was deduced. The corneal specimens were collected from ten patients (4 male and 6 female), aged from 17 to 36...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Zhifang He, Jianping Liu, Zhiming Rao, Lili Wan
Previous studies have shown that smiling, fairness, intention, and the results being openness to the proposer can influence the responses in ultimatum games, respectively. But it is not clear that how the four factors might interact with each other in twos or in threes or in fours. This study examined the way that how the four factors work in resource distribution games by testing the differences between average rejection rates in different treatments. Two hundred and twenty healthy volunteers participated in an intentional version of the ultimatum game (UG)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Luigi Cattaneo, Vania Veroni, Sonia Boria, Giancarlo Tassinari, Luca Turella
Adults exposed to affective facial displays produce specific rapid facial reactions (RFRs) which are of lower intensity in males compared to females. We investigated such sex difference in a population of 60 primary school children (30 F; 30 M), aged 7-10 years. We recorded the surface electromyographic (EMG) signal from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomatici muscles, while children watched affective facial displays. Results showed the expected smiling RFR to smiling faces and the expected frowning RFR to sad faces...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Sana Ali, Padmanabh Jha, Usman Khan
Isolated brown or white defects of less than few tenths of millimeter depth can be successfully treated with microabrasion. However, for deeper enamel defects, a combination of various techniques such as microabrasion/macroabrasion along with bleaching or full or partial veneering are available. Template-assisted direct veneering technique helps for better separation and contouring of individual tooth through which composite resin can be applied directly to tooth structure and artistically sculpted. Frequently, the gingival hyperpigmentation is caused by excessive melanin deposits mainly located in the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the epithelium...
April 2018: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
Wenbo Cheng, Lingjia Liu, Shasha Yu, Yin Jing, Tong Zuo, Tong Cui, Hui Zhang, Jiaonan Ma, Pinghui Wei, Weiting Hao, Alex Ng, George Cheng, Victor Woo, Kin Chiu, Yan Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate real-time intraocular pressure (IOP) during small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in rabbit eyes for myopia correction. METHODS: During SMILE, real-time IOP was measured in the vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes with an optic fiber pressure sensor (OFPS). Two groups (n = 6 for each) underwent surgery, one group for a -2.00 diopter (D) refractive spherical correction and the other for a -6.00 D correction. RESULTS: During surgery, the IOP increased once the glass contact attached to the cornea (Pre-suction), and peaked 83...
June 6, 2018: Current Eye Research
Benjamin W Bellet, Jason M Holland, Robert A Neimeyer
A mourner's success in making meaning of a loss has proven key in predicting a wide array of bereavement outcomes. However, much of this meaning-making process takes place in an interpersonal framework that is hypothesized to either aid or obstruct this process. To date, a psychometrically validated measure of the degree to which a mourner successfully makes meaning of a loss in a social context has yet to be developed. The present study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a new measure called the Social Meaning in Life Events Scale (SMILES) in a sample of bereaved college students (N = 590)...
June 5, 2018: Death Studies
Marcello Mortillaro, Daniel Dukes
The majority of research on emotion expression has focused on static facial prototypes of a few selected, mostly negative emotions. Implicitly, most researchers seem to have considered all positive emotions as sharing one common signal (namely, the smile), and consequently as being largely indistinguishable from each other in terms of expression. Recently, a new wave of studies has started to challenge the traditional assumption by considering the role of multiple modalities and the dynamics in the expression and recognition of positive emotions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Virna Patusco, Carla Karina Carvalho, Marcos Augusto Lenza, Jorge Faber
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess whether scores assigned to the eyes, nose, mouth, and chin regions work as predictors of full smiling face scores. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the authors used the facial photographs of 86 smiling men. Photographs yielded 5 components: 1 of the face itself and 4 subcomponents (eyes, nose, mouth, and chin region). Raters assigned the photographs beauty scores that the authors measured morphometrically. The authors analyzed the predictive ability of the subcomponents against that of the full face...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
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