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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456962/rna-fish-to-study-zygotic-genome-activation-in-early-mouse-embryos
#1
Noémie Ranisavljevic, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Edith Heard, Katia Ancelin
Characterizing the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is a central question in embryogenesis, and is critical for our understanding of early post-fertilization events in mammals. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA Seq) of mouse oocytes and early embryos has recently revealed that elaborate transcription patterns of genes and repeats are established post-fertilization. This occurs in the context of the gradually depleted maternal pool of RNA provided by the oocyte, which can confound the accurate analysis of the zygotic genome activation when the mRNA population is sequenced...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456956/role-of-micrornas-in-zygotic-genome-activation-modulation-of-mrna-during-embryogenesis
#2
Alessandro Rosa, Ali H Brivanlou
A fundamental process occurring during early development is the zygotic genome activation, i.e., the initiation of transcription from the embryonic genome. Before that step, cellular processes in the developing embryo are dictated by transcripts produced by the maternal genome and accumulated in the egg during oogenesis. The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) involves both the clearance of maternal RNAs and the initiation of transcription of the embryonic genome and is a tightly regulated process. In some species, decay of maternal transcripts may be facilitated by the activity of microRNAs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432826/ploidy-has-little-effect-on-timing-early-embryonic-events-in-the-haplo-diploid-wasp-nasonia
#3
Deanna Arsala, Jeremy A Lynch
The nucleocytoplasmic (N/C) ratio plays a prominent role in the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) in many animals. The effect of the N/C ratio on cell-cycle lengthening and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, where haploid embryos experience an additional division prior to completing cellularization and triploid embryos cellularize precociously by one division. In this study, we set out to understand how the obligate difference in ploidy in the haplodiploid wasp, Nasonia, affects the MZT and which aspects of the Drosophila MZT are conserved...
May 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381614/dynamic-rna-protein-interactions-underlie-the-zebrafish-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#4
Vladimir Despic, Mario Dejung, Mengting Gu, Jayanth Krishnan, Jing Zhang, Lydia Herzel, Korinna Straube, Mark B Gerstein, Falk Butter, Karla M Neugebauer
During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), transcriptionally silent embryos rely on post-transcriptional regulation of maternal mRNAs until zygotic genome activation (ZGA). RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are important regulators of post-transcriptional RNA processing events, yet their identities and functions during developmental transitions in vertebrates remain largely unexplored. Using mRNA interactome capture, we identified 227 RBPs in zebrafish embryos before and during ZGA, hereby named the zebrafish MZT mRNA-bound proteome...
April 5, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323615/stella-modulates-transcriptional-and-endogenous-retrovirus-programs-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#5
Yun Huang, Jong Kyoung Kim, Dang Vinh Do, Caroline Lee, Christopher A Penfold, Jan J Zylicz, John C Marioni, Jamie A Hackett, M Azim Surani
The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) marks the period when the embryonic genome is activated and acquires control of development. Maternally inherited factors play a key role in this critical developmental process, which occurs at the 2-cell stage in mice. We investigated the function of the maternally inherited factor Stella (encoded by Dppa3) using single-cell/embryo approaches. We show that loss of maternal Stella results in widespread transcriptional mis-regulation and a partial failure of MZT. Strikingly, activation of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) is significantly impaired in Stella maternal/zygotic knockout embryos, which in turn leads to a failure to upregulate chimeric transcripts...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192787/m-6-a-dependent-maternal-mrna-clearance-facilitates-zebrafish-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#6
Boxuan Simen Zhao, Xiao Wang, Alana V Beadell, Zhike Lu, Hailing Shi, Adam Kuuspalu, Robert K Ho, Chuan He
The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is one of the most profound and tightly orchestrated processes during the early life of embryos, yet factors that shape the temporal pattern of vertebrate MZT are largely unknown. Here we show that over one-third of zebrafish maternal messenger RNAs (mRNAs) can be N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modified, and the clearance of these maternal mRNAs is facilitated by an m(6)A-binding protein, Ythdf2. Removal of Ythdf2 in zebrafish embryos decelerates the decay of m(6)A-modified maternal mRNAs and impedes zygotic genome activation...
February 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100783/dual-functional-roles-of-molecular-beacon-as-a-microrna-detector-and-inhibitor
#7
Wai Ming Li, Ching-Man Chan, Andrew L Miller, Chow H Lee
MicroRNAs are essential in many cellular processes. The ability to detect microRNAs is important for understanding its function and biogenesis. This study is aimed at using a molecular beacon to detect miR-430 in developing zebrafish embryos as a proof of principle. miR-430 is crucial for the clearance of maternal mRNA during maternal zygotic transition in embryonic development. Despite its known function, the temporal and spatial expression of miR-430 remains unclear. We used various imaging techniques, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, spinning disk, and lightsheet microscopy, to study the localization of miR-430 and any developmental defects possibly caused by the molecular beacon...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073917/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-rnf114-and-tab1-degradation-are-required-for-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#8
Ye Yang, Cheng Zhou, Ying Wang, Weixiao Liu, Chao Liu, Liying Wang, Yujiao Liu, Yongliang Shang, Mingrui Li, Shuai Zhou, Yuanting Wang, Wentao Zeng, Jianli Zhou, Ran Huo, Wei Li
The functional role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway during maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rnf114, is highly expressed in mouse oocytes and that knockdown of Rnf114 inhibits development beyond the two-cell stage. To study the underlying mechanism, we identify its candidate substrates using a 9,000-protein microarray and validate them using an in vitro ubiquitination system. We show that five substrates could be degraded by RNF114-mediated ubiquitination, including TAB1...
February 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993988/a-mapk-cascade-couples-maternal-mrna-translation-and-degradation-to-meiotic-cell-cycle-progression-in-mouse-oocytes
#9
Qian-Qian Sha, Xing-Xing Dai, Yujiao Dang, Fuchou Tang, Junping Liu, Yin-Li Zhang, Heng-Yu Fan
Mammalian oocyte maturation depends on the translational activation of stored maternal mRNAs upon meiotic resumption. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) is a key oocyte factor that regulates maternal mRNA translation. However, the signal that triggers CPEB1 activation at the onset of mammalian oocyte maturation is not known. We provide evidence that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade couples maternal mRNA translation to meiotic cell cycle progression in mouse oocytes by triggering CPEB1 phosphorylation and degradation...
February 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881336/-outcome-analysis-of-monozygotic-twin-pregnancy-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#10
Shu-Xian Feng, Xue-Lan Li, Xing-Yu Zhou, Yu-Dong Liu, Ping-Ping Guo, De-Sheng Ye, Xin Chen, Shi-Ling Chen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence, management, and outcomes of monozygotic twin (MZT) pregnancy conceived by assisted reproductive techniques (ART). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of clinical pregnancies after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and introcytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) from January, 2010 to June 2015 at our center. We investigated the incidence, managements and outcomes of 94 MZT pregnancies...
November 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725350/cardiorespiratory-effects-of-isoflurane-in-asiatic-black-bears-ursus-thibetanus-anesthetized-with-intramuscular-medetomidine-and-zolazepam-tiletamine
#11
Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Jeong-Jin Yang, Seong-Hoon Seok, Dong-Joo Song, Seong-Chan Yeon
The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia, and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725165/improved-development-by-melatonin-treatment-after-vitrification-of-mouse-metaphase-ii-oocytes
#12
Yue Zhang, Wei Li, Yongshun Ma, Dian Wang, Xiaoxue Zhao, Changjun Zeng, Ming Zhang, Xianyin Zeng, Qinggang Meng, Guangbin Zhou
The study was aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the development potential of mouse MII oocytes after cryopreservation. Mouse MII oocytes were subjected first to vitrification/warming and 2 h of in vitro culture (phase 1), then to parthenogenetic activation (PA) followed by in vitro culture of parthenogenetic embryos (phase 2). Different concentrations of melatonin (0, 10(-9), 10(-6) mol/L) were added to the medium during either phase 1, phase 2 or both phases. The fresh oocytes were used as control...
October 8, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664211/do-arts-affect-the-incidence-of-monozygotic-twinning
#13
I Mateizel, S Santos-Ribeiro, E Done, L Van Landuyt, H Van de Velde, H Tournaye, G Verheyen
STUDY QUESTION: Does the manipulation of gametes or embryos during ARTs increase the risk for monozygotic twinning (MZT)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Frozen embryo transfer (ET) is associated with a lower MZT rate, while blastocyst culture is associated with an increased risk of monozygotic pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Monozygotic twins have a higher risk for perinatal complications. Although an increased incidence of monozygotic pregnancies after ART has been previously reported, data regarding the possible impact of different laboratory procedures are conflicting...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626377/broad-histone-h3k4me3-domains-in-mouse-oocytes-modulate-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#14
John Arne Dahl, Inkyung Jung, Håvard Aanes, Gareth D Greggains, Adeel Manaf, Mads Lerdrup, Guoqiang Li, Samantha Kuan, Bin Li, Ah Young Lee, Sebastian Preissl, Ingunn Jermstad, Mads Haugland Haugen, Rajikala Suganthan, Magnar Bjørås, Klaus Hansen, Knut Tomas Dalen, Peter Fedorcsak, Bing Ren, Arne Klungland
Maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is essential for the formation of a new individual, but is still poorly understood despite recent progress in analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation in early embryogenesis. Dynamic histone modifications may have important roles in MZT, but direct measurements of chromatin states have been hindered by technical difficulties in profiling histone modifications from small quantities of cells. Recent improvements allow for 500 cell-equivalents of chromatin per reaction, but require 10,000 cells for initial steps or require a highly specialized microfluidics device that is not readily available...
September 22, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594172/a-universal-code-for-mrna-stability
#15
Ying-Hsin Chen, Jeff Coller
Precise elimination of maternal mRNAs plays a critical role during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) to promote developmental processing. Two new studies demonstrate that, in eukaryotes, codon-mediated decay is a conserved mechanism to shape maternal mRNA stability by affecting deadenylation rate in a translation-dependent manner. These studies add to a growing body of literature suggesting that translational elongation rates are a major determinant of mRNA stability.
November 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591754/the-smaug-rna-binding-protein-is-essential-for-microrna-synthesis-during-the-drosophila-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#16
Hua Luo, Xiao Li, Julie M Claycomb, Howard D Lipshitz
Metazoan embryos undergo a maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) during which maternal gene products are eliminated and the zygotic genome becomes transcriptionally active. During this process RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) target maternal mRNAs for degradation. In Drosophila, the Smaug (SMG), Brain tumor (BRAT) and Pumilio (PUM) RBPs bind to and direct the degradation of largely distinct subsets of maternal mRNAs. SMG has also been shown to be required for zygotic synthesis of mRNAs and several members of the miR-309 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the MZT...
September 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378189/global-changes-of-the-rna-bound-proteome-during-the-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-in-drosophila
#17
Vasiliy O Sysoev, Bernd Fischer, Christian K Frese, Ishaan Gupta, Jeroen Krijgsveld, Matthias W Hentze, Alfredo Castello, Anne Ephrussi
The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is a process that occurs in animal embryos at the earliest developmental stages, during which maternally deposited mRNAs and other molecules are degraded and replaced by products of the zygotic genome. The zygotic genome is not activated immediately upon fertilization, and in the pre-MZT embryo post-transcriptional control by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) orchestrates the first steps of development. To identify relevant Drosophila RBPs organism-wide, we refined the RNA interactome capture method for comparative analysis of the pre- and post-MZT embryos...
July 5, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312806/monoclinic-phase-transformation-and-mechanical-durability-of-zirconia-ceramic-after-fatigue-and-autoclave-aging
#18
Yasmine A Mota, Caroline Cotes, Rodrigo F Carvalho, João P B Machado, Fabíola P P Leite, Rodrigo O A Souza, Mutlu Özcan
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the influence of two aging procedures on the biaxial flexural strength of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia ceramics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disc-shaped zirconia specimens and (ZE: E.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar; ZT: Zirkon Translucent, Zirkonzahn) (N = 80) (∅:12 mm; thickness:1.2 mm, ISO 6872) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) according to the aging procedures: C: Control, no aging; M: mechanical cycling (2 × 10(6) cycles/3...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235108/protein-palmitoylation-activate-zygotic-gene-expression-during-the-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#19
Zhaoxia Du, Xueran Chen, Xian Li, Kun He, Shufang Ji, Wei Shi, Aijun Hao
Upon fertilization, maternal factors direct development and trigger zygotic genome activation at the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). However, the factors that activate the zygotic program in vertebrates are not well defined. Here, we found that protein palmitoylation played an important role in acquiring transcriptional competency and orchestrating the clearance of the maternal program in zebrafish. After inhibition of protein palmitoylation, zebrafish embryos developed normally before the Mid-Blastula Transition (MBT); however, they did not initiate epiboly...
June 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197210/the-mrna-bound-proteome-of-the-early-fly-embryo
#20
Hans-Hermann Wessels, Koshi Imami, Alexander G Baltz, Marcin Kolinski, Anastasia Beldovskaya, Matthias Selbach, Stephen Small, Uwe Ohler, Markus Landthaler
Early embryogenesis is characterized by the maternal to zygotic transition (MZT), in which maternally deposited messenger RNAs are degraded while zygotic transcription begins. Before the MZT, post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is the dominant force in embryo patterning. We used two mRNA interactome capture methods to identify RBPs bound to polyadenylated transcripts within the first 2 h of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. We identified a high-confidence set of 476 putative RBPs and confirmed RNA-binding activities for most of 24 tested candidates...
July 2016: Genome Research
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