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Early onset

George H Thompson, Connie Poe-Kochert, Christina K Hardesty, Jochen Son-Hing, R Justin Mistovich
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin powder has been demonstrated to be safe in children, and yet there are no data on its use to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) in surgery for early-onset scoliosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of our patients treated for early-onset scoliosis in the period of 2010 to 2016. In 2010, we updated our standardized perioperative growing spine care path. The only later change was the gradual introduction of intrawound vancomycin powder...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Ina Israel, Felix Fluri, Fabian Schadt, Adreas Buck, Samuel Samnick
BACKGROUND: P-selectin is activated early after stroke, followed by a rapid decline. This time course can be used to generate important information on stroke onset. The latter is crucial for therapeutic decision-making of wake-up strokes (i.e. thrombolysis or not). Here we evaluated the specific p-selectin inhibitor 68Ga-Fucoidan for assessing p-selectin activation after ischemic stroke using PET. METHODS: 68Ga-Fucoidan was investigated in rats brain at 2-5 h (n=16), and additionally at 24-26 h (n=9) and 48 h (n=3) after induction of photothrombic stroke or in sham operated animals (n=6)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Song Luo, Lijuan Yang, Yanfei Luo
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a non-invasive technique that can reveal venous structures and iron in the brain. This retrospective study evaluated SWI, relative to other imaging techniques, for determining cerebral infarct size and early-stage clinical prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Within 3 days after onset, 22 patients with acute ischemic stroke underwent SWI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)...
March 20, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Kun Xue, Kaiyuan Du, Xiaoliang Shi, Yixiang Gan, Chunhua Bai
We study experimentally the formation of a dual hierarchical jetting pattern in dry dense particle media subjected to the radially divergent shock loadings in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. The distinct internal and external jetting patterns were formed on the internal and external surfaces of a ring at different times, respectively. The former features dozens of radially aligned fine filaments. By contrast, the latter consists of a large number of small spikes. Once the internal jets are fully developed, a novel proportionate growth is observed, in which distinguishable structures of the overall pattern all grow at the same rate until the interaction between the internal and external jets becomes significant, leading to the inversion of the internal jetting pattern...
March 20, 2018: Soft Matter
Carlo Pallotto, Gioele Simonte, Fabio Verzini, Massimo Lenti, Franco Baldelli, Daniela Francisci, Maurizio Fiorio
Propionibacterium acnes is a member of the human microbiota that has been recently associated with late-onset infections of indwelling devices, especially shoulder prosthesis. Aortic graft infection are rare events with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we describe the case of an abdominal aortic graft infection due to P. acnes with an unusual early onset. A review of the recent English language literature has been added.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Tatiana M Lanzieri, Winnie Chung, Jessica Leung, A Chantal Caviness, Jason L Baumgardner, Peggy Blum, Stephanie R Bialek, Gail Demmler-Harrison
Objectives To compare hearing trajectories among children with symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection through age 18 years and to identify brain abnormalities associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in asymptomatic case patients. Study Design Longitudinal prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods The study included 96 case patients (4 symptomatic and 92 asymptomatic) identified through hospital-based newborn cytomegalovirus screening from 1982 to 1992 and 72 symptomatic case patients identified through referrals from 1993 to 2005...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Petter Bjornstad, David Z Cherney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Compared to adult-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D), youth with T2D have a more aggressive phenotype with greater insulin resistance (IR), more rapid β cell decline, and higher prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Hyperfiltration is common in youth with T2D and predicts progressive DKD. Hyperfiltration is a consequence of early changes in intrarenal hemodynamic function, including increased renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular pressure...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Tali Sinai, Shely Ben-Avraham, Inbal Guelmann-Mizrahi, Michael R Goldberg, Larisa Naugolni, Galia Askapa, Yitzhak Katz, Marianna Rachmiel
PURPOSE: The use of soy products is common in young children with cow milk allergy (CMA). The aim was to examine prospectively the association between infantile consumption of soy-based formula, growth parameters and early pubertal signs, in comparison to cow milk-based formula. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted, selected from a cohort of infants prospectively followed from birth until the age of 3 years for eating habits and the development of IgE-mediated CMA...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Burkhard Lehner, Michael Akbar, Nicholas A Beckmann
BASICS: Postoperative surgical site infections of the spine have been described in up to 20% of patients and can result in serious consequences for the patient and substantial treatment costs. Typical bacteria often arise from skin or fecal flora. Various risk factors for infection have been described, including obesity, diabetes, high ASA scores, as well as intraoperative factors such as heavy blood loss, dural tears, or several revision procedures. Consequently, the prophylaxis with pre- and postoperative risk minimization is of particular importance...
March 20, 2018: Der Orthopäde
J Montag, B Petersen, A K Flögel, E Becker, A Lucas-Hahn, G J Cost, C Mühlfeld, T Kraft, H Niemann, B Brenner
Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease. About 30% of the patients are heterozygous for mutations in the MYH7 gene encoding the ß-myosin heavy chain (MyHC). Hallmarks of HCM are cardiomyocyte disarray and hypertrophy of the left ventricle, the symptoms range from slight arrhythmias to sudden cardiac death or heart failure. To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of the diseases' etiology we aimed to generate genome edited pigs with an HCM-mutation. We used TALEN-mediated genome editing and successfully introduced the HCM-point mutation R723G into the MYH7 gene of porcine fibroblasts and subsequently cloned pigs that were heterozygous for the HCM-mutation R723G...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marcello Panagia, Howard H Chen, Dominique Croteau, Yin-Ching Iris Chen, Chongzhao Ran, Ivan Luptak, Lee Josephson, Wilson S Colucci, David E Sosnovik
BACKGROUND: Substrate utilization in tissues with high energetic requirements could play an important role in cardiometabolic disease. Current techniques to assess energetics are limited by high cost, low throughput, and the inability to resolve multiple readouts simultaneously. Consequently, we aimed to develop a multiplexed optical imaging platform to simultaneously assess energetics in multiple organs in a high throughput fashion. METHODS AND RESULTS: The detection of 18F-Fluordeoxyglucose uptake via Cerenkov luminescence and free fatty acid uptake with a fluorescent C16 free fatty acid was tested...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Lívia de Figueiredo Diniz, Ana Lia Mazzeti, Ivo Santana Caldas, Isabela Ribeiro, Maria Terezinha Bahia
Combination therapy has been proposed as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of Chagas disease. In this study, we evaluated the effect of treatment with benznidazole combined with E1224 (ravuconazole prodrug) in an experimental murine model of acute infection. A first set of experiments assessed the range of E1224 doses required to induce parasitological cure using T. cruzi strains with different susceptibilities to benznidazole (Y and Colombian). All E1224 doses were effective in suppressing the parasitemia and preventing the death, however, parasitological cure was observed only in mice infected with Y strain...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Stéphanie Philtjens, Sara Van Mossevelde, Julie van der Zee, Eline Wauters, Lubina Dillen, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Rik Vandenberghe, Adrian Ivanoiu, Anne Sieben, Christiana Willems, Luisa Benussi, Roberta Ghidoni, Giuliano Binetti, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Pau Pastor, Monica Diez-Fairen, Miquel Aguilar, Alexandre de Mendonça, Gabriel Miltenberger-Miltényi, Isabel Hernández, Merce Boada, Agustín Ruiz, Benedetta Nacmias, Sandro Sorbi, Maria Rosário Almeida, Isabel Santana, Jordi Clarimón, Alberto Lleó, Giovanni B Frisoni, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Albert Lladó, Estrella Gómez-Tortosa, Ellen Gelpi, Marleen Van den Broeck, Karin Peeters, Patrick Cras, Peter P De Deyn, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Marc Cruts, Christine Van Broeckhoven
We investigated the genetic role of sortilin (SORT1) in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). SORT1 is the neuronal receptor for granulin, encoded by the progranulin gene (GRN), a major causal gene for inherited FTD. In Belgian cohorts of 636 FTD patients and 1066 unaffected control individuals, we identified 5 patient-only nonsynonymous rare variants in SORT1. Rare variant burden analysis showed a significant increase in rare coding variants in patients compared to control individuals (p = 0.04), particularly in the β-propeller domain (p = 0...
February 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Fiona M Baumer, Brenda E Porter
BACKGROUND: Sunflower Syndrome describes reflex seizures - typically eyelid myoclonia with or without absence seizures - triggered when patients wave their hands in front of the sun. While valproate has been recognized as the best treatment for photosensitive epilepsy, many clinicians now initially treat with newer medications; the efficacy of these medications in Sunflower Syndrome has not been investigated. We reviewed all cases of Sunflower Syndrome seen at our institution over 15 years to describe the clinical course, electroencephalogram (EEG), and treatment response in these patients...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Cassandra L Pattinson, Simon S Smith, Sally L Staton, Stewart G Trost, Karen J Thorpe
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between sleep parameters and weight status in a large sample of preschool children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from the Effective Early Educational Experiences for children (E4Kids) study were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: 1111 children aged 3 to 6 years from Queensland and Victoria, Australia. MEASUREMENTS: General linear modeling, with adjustment for significant control variables, assessed the impact of night sleep duration, total sleep duration, napping frequency, sleep timing (onset, offset and midpoint), and severity of sleep problems on standardized body mass index (BMI z score)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Sarah F Pollack, Olivia R Grocott, Kimberly A Parkin, Anna M Larson, Ronald L Thibert
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic imprinting disorder caused by loss of the maternally inherited Ube3a gene and is characterized by generalized epilepsy, limited expressive speech, sleep dysfunction, and movement disorders. Myoclonic seizures are often the first seizure type to appear, and myoclonic status, associated with developmental regression, may occur in the first few years of life. Additionally, there have been rare reports of prolonged episodes of myoclonus without electrographic correlate in adults with AS...
March 16, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
D A Kenny, C J Byrne
The advent of genomic selection has led to increased interest within the cattle breeding industry to market semen from young bulls as early as possible. However, both the quantity and quality of such semen is dictated by the age at which these animals reach puberty. Enhancing early life plane of nutrition of the bull stimulates a complex biochemical interplay involving metabolic and neuroendocrine signalling and culminating in enhanced testicular growth and development and earlier onset of sexual maturation...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
James Bluett, Jamie C Sergeant, Alex J MacGregor, Jacqueline R Chipping, Tarnya Marshall, Deborah P M Symmons, Suzanne M M Verstappen
BACKGROUND: Oral methotrexate (MTX) is the first-line therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, approximately one quarter of patients discontinue MTX within 12 months. MTX failure, defined as MTX cessation or the addition of another anti-rheumatic drug, is usually due adverse event(s) and/or inefficacy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the rate and predictors of oral MTX failure. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR), a primary care-based inception cohort of patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis (IP)...
March 20, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Nina Hautala, Mira Siiskonen, Virva Hannula, Kaisu Järvinen, Aura Falck
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual function and the ophthalmic status of young Finnish adults with long duration of type 1 diabetes in relation to the history of the metabolic control. METHODS: A population-based cohort of children with type 1 diabetes examined in the Northern Ostrobothnia hospital district in 1989 (n = 216) was re-examined 18 years later. High-contrast visual acuity (best-corrected visual acuity), contrast sensitivity, refractive error, lens status, intraocular pressure, stage of diabetic retinopathy and received treatments were evaluated...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Consuelo Walss-Bass, Robert Suchting, Rene L Olvera, Douglas E Williamson
BACKGROUND: Immune system abnormalities have been repeatedly observed in several psychiatric disorders, including severe depression and anxiety. However, whether specific immune mediators play an early role in the etiopathogenesis of these disorders remains unknown. METHODS: In a longitudinal design, component-wise gradient boosting was used to build models of depression, assessed by the Mood-Feelings Questionnaire-Child (MFQC), and anxiety, assessed by the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in 254 adolescents from a large set of candidate predictors, including sex, race, 39 inflammatory proteins, and the interactions between those proteins and time...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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