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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938676/risk-factors-for-mortality-from-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-pcp-in-non-hiv-patients-a-meta-analysis
#1
Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang, Hui Qu
The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938442/angiotensin-ii-causes-beta-cell-dysfunction-through-an-er-stress-induced-pro-inflammatory-response
#2
Stanley M H Chan, Yeh-Siang Lau, Alyson A Miller, Jacqueline M Ku, Simon Potocnik, Ji-Ming Ye, Owen L Woodman, Terence P Herbert
The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increase in the activation of renin angiotensin system (RAS) and inhibition of RAS reduces the incidence of new onset diabetes. Importantly, angiotensin II (AngII), independently of its vasoconstrictor action causes beta-cell inflammation and dysfunction, which may be an early step in the development of type-2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine how AngII causes beta cell dysfunction. Islets of Langerhans were isolated from C57BL/6J mice that had been infused with AngII in the presence or absence of taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and effects on ER stress, inflammation and beta cell function determined...
August 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938419/nocturnal-urinary-excretion-of-fsh-and-lh-in-children-and-adolescents-with-normal-and-early-puberty
#3
Nanna Kolby, Alexander S Busch, Lise Aksglaede, Kaspar Sørensen, Jorgen Holm Petersen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Anders Juul
Context: Clinical use of single serum gonadotropin measurements in children is limited by the pulsatile section of FSH and LH. However, first morning voided (FMV) urine may integrate the fluctuating gonadotropin serum levels. Objective: We aimed to evaluate urinary and serum gonadotropin levels according to age, sex and pubertal stage in healthy children and to assess the clinical use of FMV urinary gonadotropins in children with disordered puberty. Design: Cross-sectional part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty study and longitudinal study of patients...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938253/guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency-circi-in-critically-ill-patients-part-i-society-of-critical-care-medicine-sccm-and-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-esicm-2017
#4
Djillali Annane, Stephen M Pastores, Bram Rochwerg, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S Cooper, Paul E Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M Olsen, Sophia C Rodgers, James A Russell, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2008 consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in adult and pediatric patients. PARTICIPANTS: A multispecialty task force of 16 international experts in critical care medicine, endocrinology, and guideline methods, all of them members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and/or the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. DESIGN/METHODS: The recommendations were based on the summarized evidence from the 2008 document in addition to more recent findings from an updated systematic review of relevant studies from 2008 to 2017 and were formulated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology...
September 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938014/intestinal-helminth-infection-drives-carcinogenesis-in-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#5
Eva Pastille, Annika Frede, Henry J McSorley, Jessica Gräb, Alexandra Adamczyk, Sebastian Kollenda, Wiebke Hansen, Matthias Epple, Jan Buer, Rick M Maizels, Robert Klopfleisch, Astrid M Westendorf
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. Parasitic infections caused by helminths have been shown to modulate the host's immune response by releasing immunomodulatory molecules and inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs). This immunosuppressive state provoked in the host has been considered as a novel and promising approach to treat IBD patients and alleviate acute intestinal inflammation...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937952/modeling-the-long-term-consequences-of-repeated-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries
#6
Denes V Agoston
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) caused by playing collision sports or by exposure to blasts during military operations can lead to late onset, chronic diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative condition that manifests in increasingly severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities years after the last injury. Currently, because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, confirmation of a CTE diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of the brain. The hallmarks of CTE are abnormal accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein, TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and astroglial abnormalities, but the pathomechanism leading to these terminal findings remains unknown...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937943/multiomics-analysis-of-tumor-microenvironment-reveals-gata2-and-mirna-124-3p-as-potential-novel-biomarkers-in-ovarian-cancer
#7
Esra Gov, Medi Kori, Kazim Yalcin Arga
Ovarian cancer is a common and, yet, one of the most deadly human cancers due to its insidious onset and the current lack of robust early diagnostic tests. Tumors are complex tissues comprised of not only malignant cells but also genetically stable stromal cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind epithelial-stromal crosstalk in ovarian cancer is a great challenge in particular. In the present study, we performed comparative analyses of transcriptome data from laser microdissected epithelial, stromal, and ovarian tumor tissues, and identified common and tissue-specific reporter biomolecules-genes, receptors, membrane proteins, transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and metabolites-by integration of transcriptome data with genome-scale biomolecular networks...
September 22, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937236/impact-of-early-aggressive-nutrition-on-retinal-development-in-premature-infants
#8
N Lenhartova, K Matasova, Z Lasabova, K Javorka, A Calkovska
The normal retinal development is interrupted by preterm birth and a retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) may develop as its consequence. ROP is characterized by aberrant vessel formation in the retina as a response to multiple risk factors influencing the process of retinal angiogenesis. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play an important role in the process of normal retinal vascularization. Insufficient nutrition during the first 4 postnatal weeks results in low serum levels of IGF-1, which is essential for correct retinal vessels formation, ensuring survival of the newly formed endothelial cells...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936432/severity-of-premenstrual-symptoms-predicted-by-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio
#9
Yoshiki Kaneoke, Tomohiro Donishi, Akihiko Iwahara, Toshio Shimokawa
Women of reproductive age often experience a variety of unpleasant symptoms prior to the onset of menstruation. While genetics may influence the variability of these symptoms and their severity among women, the exact causes remain unknown. We hypothesized that symptom variability originates from differences in the embryonic environment and thus development caused by variation in exposure to sex hormones. We measured the second to fourth digit ratios (2D:4D) in 402 young women and investigated the potential relationships of this ratio premenstrual symptoms using a generalized linear model...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936379/consanguinity-associated-with-increased-prevalence-and-severity-of-bipolar-disorder-in-pakistan-a-case-report-highlighting-the-genetic-link
#10
Muhammad Aadil, Aitzaz Munir, Hasnain Arshad, Feham Tariq, Muhammad Jahanzaib Anwar, Noman Amjad, Anum Akhlaq
This case report highlights the genetic link associated with bipolar disorder and rising prevalence of such cases in Pakistan due to the lack of knowledge and understanding of the disease. It also shows that a family history of bipolar disorder is associated with more aggressive episodes, early onset, and treatment relapse. Further studies are warranted to fully understand the pathophysiology of genetic linkages causing bipolar disorder so we can understand the natural course of illness and provide effective treatment...
July 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936210/novel-mutations-of-the-tetratricopeptide-repeat-domain-7a-gene-and-phenotype-genotype-comparison
#11
Reyin Lien, Yung-Feng Lin, Min-Wei Lai, Hui-Ying Weng, Ren-Chin Wu, Tang-Her Jaing, Jing-Long Huang, Shih-Feng Tsai, Wen-I Lee
The gastrointestinal tract contains the largest lymphoid organ to react with pathogenic microorganisms and suppress excess inflammation. Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) can suffer from refractory diarrhea. In this study, we present two siblings who began to suffer from refractory diarrhea with a poor response to aggressive antibiotic and immunosuppressive treatment after surgical release of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Their lymphocyte proliferation was low, but superoxide production and IL-10 signaling were normal...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936076/association-of-attention-deficit-hyperkinetic-disorder-with-alcohol-use-disorders-in-fishermen
#12
Manoj Kumar, Balaji Bharadwaj, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Gomathi Ramaswamy, Gilbert Marie Majella, Palanivel Chinnakali, Gautam Roy
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use is a widely prevalent problem and poses hazard during work for certain groups such as fishermen. Disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperkinetic Disorder (ADHD) correlate with early onset and greater severity of alcohol use disorders. AIMS: We planned to study the frequency of ADHD among fishermen in a fishing hamlet of southern India using adult ADHD self-reported scale (ASRS) and correlated with the severity of alcohol use disorder as evidenced by age at initiation of alcohol use, presence of harmful use, or dependence use as defined by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936066/cognitive-impairment-in-rural-elderly-population-in-ecuador
#13
Xavier Wong-Achi, Gabriela Egas, Dayana Cabrera
INTRODUCTION: The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935942/oxygen-evolution-reaction-dynamics-monitored-by-an-individual-nanosheet-based-electronic-circuit
#14
Peiyao Wang, Mengyu Yan, Jiashen Meng, Gengping Jiang, Longbing Qu, Xuelei Pan, Jefferson Zhe Liu, Liqiang Mai
The oxygen evolution reaction involves complex interplay among electrolyte, solid catalyst, and gas-phase and liquid-phase reactants and products. Monitoring catalysis interfaces between catalyst and electrolyte can provide valuable insights into catalytic ability. But it is a challenging task due to the additive solid supports in traditional measurement. Here we design a nanodevice platform and combine on-chip electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, temporary I-V measurement of an individual nanosheet, and molecular dynamic calculations to provide a direct way for nanoscale catalytic diagnosis...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935803/the-hidden-simplicity-of-subduction-megathrust-earthquakes
#15
M-A Meier, J P Ampuero, T H Heaton
The largest observed earthquakes occur on subduction interfaces and frequently cause widespread damage and loss of life. Understanding the rupture behavior of megathrust events is crucial for earthquake rupture physics, as well as for earthquake early-warning systems. However, the large variability in behavior between individual events seemingly defies a description with a simple unifying model. Here we use three source time function (STF) data sets for subduction zone earthquakes, with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 7, and show that such large ruptures share a typical universal behavior...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935756/perinatal-hypercholesterolemia-exacerbates-atherosclerosis-lesions-in-offspring-by-altering-metabolism-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-bile-acids
#16
Charlotte Trenteseaux, Anh-Thu Gaston, Audrey Aguesse, Guillaume Poupeau, Pierre de Coppet, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Jamila Laschet, Valérie Amarger, Michel Krempf, Estelle Nobecourt-Dupuy, Khadija Ouguerram
OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies suggest that maternal hypercholesterolemia may be relevant for the early onset of cardiovascular disease in offspring. We investigated the effect of perinatal hypercholesterolemia on the atherosclerosis development in the offspring of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and the underlying mechanism. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Atherosclerosis and related parameters were studied in adult male or female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice offspring from either normocholesterolemic or hypercholesterolemic mothers and normocholesterolemic fathers...
September 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935580/higher-growth-rate-and-gene-expression-in-male-zebra-finch-embryos-are-independent-of-manipulation-of-maternal-steroids-in-the-eggs
#17
Dorota Lutyk, Makhsud Tagirov, Szymon Drobniak, Joanna Rutkowska
Sexual dimorphism in prenatal development is widespread among vertebrates, including birds. Its mechanism remains unclear, although it has been attributed to the effect of maternal steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to investigate how increased levels of steroid hormones in the eggs influence early embryonic development of male and female offspring. We also asked whether maternal hormones take part in the control of sex-specific expression of the genes involved in prenatal development. We experimentally manipulated hormones' concentrations in the egg yolk by injecting zebra finch females prior to ovulation with testosterone or corticosterone...
September 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935420/down-syndrome-beta-amyloid-and-neuroimaging
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth Head, Alex Helman, David Powell, Frederick Schmitt
This review focuses on the role of Aβ in AD pathogenesis in Down syndrome and current approaches for imaging Aβ in vivo. We will describe how Aβ deposits with age, the posttranslational modifications that can occur, and detection in biofluids. Three unique case studies describing partial trisomy 21 cases without APP triplication, and the occurrences of low level mosaic trisomy 21 in an early onset AD patient are presented. Brain imaging for Aβ includes those by positron emission tomography and ligands (Pittsburgh Compound B, Florbetapir, and FDDNP) that bind Aβ have been published and are summarized here...
September 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935330/acute-delayed-tension-pneumopericardium-the-first-reported-case-after-elective-lobectomy
#19
Salvatore Torre, Jennifer Lee, Stephen O'Connor, Sarah A Early, Ronan Ryan
Pneumopericardium is an overall rare condition caused by increased intrathoracic positive pressure. Different mechanisms can contribute to its development. It can be observed in both pediatric and adult populations. Only a small percentage of patients have cardiac tamponade. We describe the first case of delayed tension pneumopericardium after elective lobectomy. Sudden symptom onset and clinical management are discussed. Only an accurate and quick patient assessment allowed diagnosing this condition and, hence, its correct treatment...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935245/early-onset-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-definition-revisited-prospective-study-and-literature-review
#20
Rinaldo Focaccia Siciliano, Bruno Azevedo Randi, Danielle Menosi Gualandro, Roney Orismar Sampaio, Márcio Sommer Bittencourt, Christian Emmanuel da Silva PelaesRN, Alfredo José Mansur, Pablo Maria Alberto Pomerantzeff, Flávio Tarasoutchi, Tânia Mara Varejão Strabelli
OBJECTIVE: to determine prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) annual incidence and to evaluate its current classification based on the epidemiological distribution of identified agents, and their sensitivity profile. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2014, consecutive cases of PVE within the first year of valve surgery were included in a prospective cohort study. Incidence, demographic, clinical, microbiological and in-hospital mortality data of PVE patients were recorded...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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