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Pneumococcal meningitis

Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Girish Kumar Chethrapilly Purushothaman, Bharathy Sukumar, Boopathi Kangusamy, Ambujam Nair Kapoor, Nivedita Gupta, Sanjay Madhav Mehendale
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, acute bacterial meningitis is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality among under five children, particularly in settings where vaccination for H. influenzae type b, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis is yet to be introduced in the national immunization programs. Estimation of disease burden of bacterial meningitis associated with these pathogens can guide the policy makers to consider inclusion of these newer vaccines in the immunization programs. A network of hospital based sentinel surveillance was established to generate baseline data on the burden of bacterial meningitis among children aged less than 5 years in India and to provide a platform for impact assessment following introduction of the Pentavalent and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV)...
2018: PloS One
Ewelina Gowin, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
BACKGROUND: There are many studies analysing the effect of SNPs in genes coding proteins which are involved in innate immune response on susceptibility to invasive bacterial disease. Many of them gave inconclusive results. Regarding the complexity of immune response and cooperation between particular elements, number of SNPs may have a cumulative effect on the susceptibility to bacterial meningitis. FINDINGS: In most studies cooccurrence of several SNPs was not analysed...
May 12, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Daniel Glikman, Ron Dagan, Galia Barkai, Diana Averbuch, Alex Guri, Noga Givon-Lavi, Shalom Ben-Shimol
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) resulted in a substantial reduction of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates. However, impact on non-severe IPD (mostly occult bacteremia) has not yet been fully elucidated.We assessed severe and non-severe IPD (SIPD and NSIPD, respectively) rate dynamics in children <5 years in Israel before and after PCV7/PCV13 implementation. METHODS: A prospective, population-based, nationwide surveillance...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Krishnee Moodley, Yacoob Mahomed Coovadia, Cheryl Cohen, Susan Meiring, Sarona M Lengand, Linda De Gouveia, Claire von Mollendorf, Penny Crowther-Gibson, Vanessa Quan, Brian Eley, Gary Reubenson, Trusha Nana, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: Neonatal invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in developing countries is poorly described. We provide a baseline description of neonatal IPD in South Africa, prior to implementation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009. METHODS: Data from children (age ≤ 2 years) with IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile specimen) from January 2003 - December 2008 were extracted from a national laboratory-based surveillance database...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yiling Jiang, Xiaoqin Yang, Kazuko Taniguchi, Tanaz Petigara, Machiko Abe
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the National Immunization Program (NIP) includes PPV23 as the primary vaccination for adults and catch-up cohorts. The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases recommends revaccination for older adults who received primary vaccination ≥5 years earlier. The cost-effectiveness of adding revaccination and/or continuing catch-up vaccination in the NIP was evaluated from the public payer perspective in Japan. METHODS: The Markov model included five health states: no pneumococcal disease, invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP), post-meningitis sequelae, and death...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Shahin Gaini, David Gudnason, Bjarni Á Steig, Jenny Jónsdóttir Nielsen
A 66 years old Caucasian woman with pneumococcal meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Five months later she was readmitted with fever and right side abdominal pain and diagnosed with pneumococcal spondylodiscitis. One year later she was treated for a severe chest X-ray confirmed left lobar pneumonia. Two years later she was diagnosed with a pneumococcal pneumonia in her left lung with septic shock. An immune deficiency screen revealed slightly reduced IgA levels, low IgG2 levels, low IgG3 levels and high IgG1 levels...
March 29, 2018: Infectious Disease Reports
Federico Iovino, Sigrun Thorsdottir, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Background: Pneumococci are the major cause of bacterial meningitis globally. To cause meningitis pneumococci interact with the 2 endothelial receptors, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invade the brain. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenously with bioluminescent pneumococci, and treated with ceftriaxone (1 hour postinfection) and anti-pIgR and PECAM-1 antibodies (1 or 5 hours postinfection), then monitored for 5 and 10 days...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maria-Cristina C Brandileone, Samanta C G Almeida, Ruth Minamisava, Ana-Lucia Andrade
BACKGROUND: In March 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Brazil. We describe the pneumococcal serotypes that caused invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) before and after the introduction of PCV10 using data from a national laboratory-based surveillance system. METHOD: We compared the prevalence of vaccine types (VT) and non-vaccine types (NVT) of Streptococcus pneumoniae in three periods, pre-PCV10 (January/2005-December/2009), early post-PCV10 (January/2010-December/2013), and late post-PCV10 (January/2014-December/2015), by episode in meningitis and non-meningitis cases and by age group...
April 9, 2018: Vaccine
M Klein, C Höhne, B Angele, T Högen, H W Pfister, H Tüfekci, U Koedel
OBJECTIVES: Therapy with antibiotics, dexamethasone, and supportive intensive care has improved the prognosis of pneumococcal meningitis, but mortality remains high. Here, we investigated an adjunctive combination therapy of the non-bacteriolytic antibiotic daptomycin plus several anti-inflammatory agents to identify the currently most promising adjunctive combination therapy for pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were infected by injection of pneumococci into the cisterna magna...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Anne H van der Spek, Olga V Surovtseva, Kin Ki Jim, Adri van Oudenaren, Matthijs C Brouwer, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Pieter J M Leenen, Diederik van de Beek, Arturo Hernandez, Eric Fliers, Anita Boelen
Innate immune cells, including macrophages, have recently been identified as novel target cells for thyroid hormone. We hypothesized that optimal intracellular concentrations of the active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) are essential for pro-inflammatory macrophage function. T3 is generated intracellularly by type 2 deiodinase (D2) and acts via the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). In zebrafish embryos, D2 knockdown increased mortality during pneumococcal meningitis. Primary murine D2KO macrophages exhibited impaired phagocytosis and partially reduced cytokine response to stimulation with bacterial endotoxin...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
Nuoh R Domo, Culbert Nuolabong, Kofi M Nyarko, Ernest Kenu, Phoebe Balagumyetime, Godfrey Konnyebal, Charles L Noora, Kofi D Ameme, Fred Wurapa, Edwin Afari
Objective: The Jirapa District in Ghana falls within the African meningitis belt where over 500 million people are at risk of epidemic meningitis. The district suffered an outbreak of Neisseria meningitides, W (NMW) in 2012 and a mixed outbreak of Streptococcus pneumonia and NMW in early 2016. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source, causative agents, and magnitude and assess health facility preparedness and propose control measures. Design and Setting: We conducted a descriptive study in all sub-districts of Jirapa, between 28th February to 10th April 2016...
December 2017: Ghana Medical Journal
Naomi Hauser, Miguel E Cervera-Hernandez, John Lonks, Najam Zaidi
Despite the dramatic decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease since the widespread use of the first pneumococcal vaccine, invasive and resistant disease still occurs. We present a case of ceftriaxone-resistant pneumococcal meningitis suggesting that continued vigilance is warranted for empiric treatment of meningitis when Streptococcus pneumoniae is a concern.
2018: IDCases
Johanna Fritscher, Daniel Amberger, Susanne Dyckhoff, Jan Philipp Bewersdorf, Ilias Masouris, Stefanie Voelk, Sven Hammerschmidt, Helga Maria Schmetzer, Matthias Klein, Hans-Walter Pfister, Uwe Koedel
Mast cells reside on and near the cerebral vasculature, the predominant site of pneumococcal entry into the central nervous system (CNS). Although mast cells have been reported to be crucial in protecting from systemic bacterial infections, their role in bacterial infections of the CNS remained elusive. Here, we assessed the role of mast cells in pneumococcal infection in vitro and in vivo . In introductory experiments using mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), we found that (i) BMMC degranulate and release selected cytokines upon exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae , (ii) the response of BMMC varies between different pneumococcal serotypes and (iii) is dependent on pneumolysin...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Karina Barbosa de Queiroz, Thaís Dos Santos Fontes Pereira, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Ricardo Santiago Gomez, Roney Santos Coimbra
Resveratrol (RSV) is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective, cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and has a safe profile. Besides, RSV modulates the expression of some miRNAs related to neurological disorders. Thus, we hypothesized that RSV can be neuroprotective in pneumococcal meningitis by modulating the global microRNA expression profile (miRNome). Eleven-day old rats were intracysternally infected with S. pneumoniae (~ 2 × 106 c.f.u.) and were orally administered with RSV (50 mg/kg) or vehicle in pre-treatment (before infection) or post-treatment schedules (3 and 18 h p...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Jinfei Yu, Bo Li, Xiaorui Chen, Jingcai Lu, Dandan Wang, Tiejun Gu, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of invasive pneumococcal disease, septicemia and meningitis that can result in high morbidity rates in children under five years old. The current polysaccharide-based vaccines can provide type-specific immunity, but a broad spectrum vaccine would provide greater coverage. Therefore, developing pneumococcal protein-based vaccines that can extend to more sera types is highly important.In this study, we vaccinated mice with a systemic vaccine via the subcutaneous (s.c...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Sara Tomczyk, Fernanda C Lessa, Jacqueline Sánchez, Chabela Peña, Josefina Fernández, M Gloria Carvalho, Fabiana Pimenta, Doraliza Cedano, Cynthia G Whitney, Jennifer R Verani, Hilma Coradin, Zacarías Garib, Lucia Helena De Oliveira, Jesús Feris-Iglesias
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effectiveness of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in resource-poor settings and PCV naïve populations. The Dominican Republic introduced PCV13 in September 2013 using a 2 + 1 schedule (2, 4, and 12 months) without a catch-up campaign. We evaluated PCV13 effectiveness against vaccine-type (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in the Dominican Republic. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Monica Rull, Sophie Masson, Nicolas Peyraud, Marco Simonelli, Alexandre Ventura, Claire Dorion, Francisco J Luquero, Florent Uzzeni, Iza Cigleneki
Introduction: The main causes of death during population movements can be prevented by addressing the population's basic needs. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a framework for decision making to help prioritize vaccinations in acute humanitarian emergencies. This article describes MSF's experience of applying this framework in addition to addressing key population needs in a displacement setting in Minkaman, South Sudan. Case description: Military clashes broke out in South Sudan in December 2013...
2018: Conflict and Health
Jeffrey N Weiser, Daniela M Ferreira, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae has a complex relationship with its obligate human host. On the one hand, the pneumococci are highly adapted commensals, and their main reservoir on the mucosal surface of the upper airways of carriers enables transmission. On the other hand, they can cause severe disease when bacterial and host factors allow them to invade essentially sterile sites, such as the middle ear spaces, lungs, bloodstream and meninges. Transmission, colonization and invasion depend on the remarkable ability of S...
March 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Fauzy Nasher, Sunniva Förster, Efe C Yildirim, Denis Grandgirard, Stephen L Leib, Manfred Heller, Lucy J Hathaway
BACKGROUND: Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria are successful colonizers of the human nasopharynx and often possess genes aliB-like ORF 1 and 2 in place of capsule genes. AliB-like ORF 2 binds peptide FPPQSV, found in Prevotella species, resulting in enhanced colonization. How this response is mediated is so far unknown. RESULTS: Here we show that the peptide increases expression of genes involved in release of host carbohydrates, carbohydrate uptake and carbohydrate metabolism...
March 27, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Ewelina Gowin, Bogna Świątek-Kościelna, Ewelina Kałużna, Ewa Strauss, Jacek Wysocki, Jerzy Nowak, Michał Michalak, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of single single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as their combinations in genes encoding proteins involved in the immune response in children with bacterial meningitis. The prospective study group consisted of 39 children with bacterial meningitis and 49 family members surveyed between 2012 and 2016. Eleven SNPs in five genes involved in immune response were analysed. The mean number of minor frequency alleles (MAF) of studied SNPs was lowest in the control group and highest in patients with pneumococcal meningitis...
January 1, 2018: Innate Immunity
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