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Pneumococcal meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931649/sequencing-of-the-variable-region-of-rpsb-to-discriminate-between-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-other-streptococcal-species
#1
Anne L Wyllie, Yvonne Pannekoek, Sandra Bovenkerk, Jody van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Bart Ferwerda, Diederik van de Beek, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński, Arie van der Ende
The vast majority of streptococci colonizing the human upper respiratory tract are commensals, only sporadically implicated in disease. Of these, the most pathogenic is Mitis group member, Streptococcus pneumoniae Phenotypic and genetic similarities between streptococci can cause difficulties in species identification. Using ribosomal S2-gene sequences extracted from whole-genome sequences published from 501 streptococci, we developed a method to identify streptococcal species. We validated this method on non-pneumococcal isolates cultured from cases of severe streptococcal disease (n = 101) and from carriage (n = 103), and on non-typeable pneumococci from asymptomatic individuals (n = 17) and on whole-genome sequences of 1157 pneumococcal isolates from meningitis in the Netherlands...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922054/economic-burden-of-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#2
Mehmet Ceyhan, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Kubra Aykac, Basak Hacibedel, Egemen Ozbilgili
The present study aimed to determine the cost of childhood pneumococcal infections under 5 years of age and to provide further data for future health economy studies. Electronic medical records of children diagnosed with meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae and all-cause pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM) between January 2013-April 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Direct costs for the treatments of hospitalized patients (pneumonia and pneumococcal meningitis) including costs of healthcare services consisted of costs of hospital bed, examination, laboratory analyses, scanning methods, consultation, vascular access procedures, and infusion and intravenous treatments...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915816/cramp-deficiency-leads-to-a-pro-inflammatory-phenotype-and-impaired-phagocytosis-after-exposure-to-bacterial-meningitis-pathogens
#3
Eugenia Kress, Julika Merres, Lea-Jessica Albrecht, Sven Hammerschmidt, Thomas Pufe, Simone C Tauber, Lars-Ove Brandenburg
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the host defence with a broad range of functions including direct antimicrobial activity and modulation of inflammation. Lack of cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) was associated with higher mortality and bacterial burden and impaired neutrophil granulocyte infiltration in a model of pneumococcal meningitis. The present study was designed to characterize the effects of CRAMP deficiency on glial response and phagocytosis after exposure to bacterial stimuli...
September 16, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898612/-paediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-before-universal-vaccination-1995-2015
#4
Muriel Ferreira, Henrique Oliveira, Nuno Costa Silva, Luís Januário, Fernanda Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in the private market in Portugal in 2001, reaching over the years a moderately high coverage. In July 2015, it was included in the National Immunisation Program. The aim of this study was to characterize invasive pneumococcal disease in a pediatric hospital before universal use of the vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of all children with Streptococcus pneumoniae identified by culture and/or molecular biology (available since 2008), in products obtained from sterile sites, from January 1995 to June 2015...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888095/magnesium-therapy-improves-outcome-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-by-altering-pneumolysin-pore-formation
#5
Sabrina Hupp, Sandra Ribes, Jana Seele, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Förtsch, Elke Maier, Roland Benz, Timothy J Mitchell, Roland Nau, Asparouh I Iliev
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and is characterised by high lethality and substantial cognitive disabilities in survivors. Here, we study the capacity of an established therapeutic agent, magnesium, to improve survival in pneumococcal meningitis by modulating the neurological effects of the major pneumococcal pathogenic factor pneumolysin. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used mixed primary glial and acute brain slice cultures, pneumolysin injection in infant rats, a mouse meningitis model, and complementary approaches such as Western blot, a black lipid bilayer conductance assay and live imaging of primary glial cells...
September 9, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887787/pneumococcal-vaccines-how-many-serotypes-are-enough
#6
REVIEW
Aaradhana Singh, A K Dutta
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes meningitis, pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis, sinusitis and otitis media specially in children and over 65 y age groups. It contributes significantly to under-five mortality and morbidity worldwide as well as in India. Use of pneumococcal vaccine seems to be the most effective measure to decrease the disease burden and reduction of under-five mortality. Many countries have already included Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV) in their National Immunization Programmes (NIP). Government of India has announced recently to include PCV13 in NIP in a phased manner...
September 9, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877714/successful-medical-management-of-a-case-of-austrian-syndrome-an-uncommon-entity-in-the-modern-antibiotic-era-a-case-report
#7
Muhammad Abdur Rahim, Shahana Zaman, Hasna Fahmima Haque, Samira Rahat Afroze, Khwaja Nazim Uddin
BACKGROUND: Austrian syndrome-the combination of meningitis, pneumonia and infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, is a rare entity. In literature only a few hundreds of cases are reported but surprisingly we did not find any report on Austrian syndrome in or from Bangladesh. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case history of a middle aged Bangladeshi diabetic man, who had fever, cough, shortness of breath and altered mentation. He had tachycardia, bi-basal lung crepitations, new cardiac murmurs and meningism...
September 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841854/distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-in-the-northeast-macro-region-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-after-the-introduction-of-conjugate-vaccine
#8
Marta Inês Cazentini Medeiros, Samanta Cristine Grassi Almeida, Maria Luiza Leopoldo Silva Guerra, Paulo da Silva, Ana Maria Machado Carneiro, Denise de Andrade
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) still challenge health systems around the world, even with advances in vaccination programs. The present study evaluated the frequency of various Spn serotypes isolated in Regional Health Care Network 13 (RRAS 13), which includes the regional health departments (RHDs) of Araraquara, Barretos, Franca and Ribeirão Preto, especially after the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in 2010. METHODS: The analyzed Spn strains were isolated from patients with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) and then sent to Adolfo Lutz Institute (ALI) for further confirmative identification tests during the period from 1998 to 2013...
August 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818574/antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-and-susceptibility-profiles-of-pneumococcal-isolates-recovered-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#9
Paulina A Hawkins, Patrick E Akpaka, Michele Nurse-Lucas, Rebecca Gladstone, Stephen D Bentley, Robert F Breiman, Lesley McGee, William H Swanston
INTRODUCTION: In Latin America and the Caribbean, pneumococcal infections were estimated to account for 12,000-18,000 deaths, 327,000 cases of pneumonia, 4,000 cases of meningitis and 1,229 cases of sepsis each year in children under five years old. Resistance of pneumococci to antimicrobial agents has evolved into a worldwide health problem in the last few decades. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 98 pneumococcal isolates collected in Trinidad and Tobago and associated genetic determinants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813518/changes-in-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-bacterial-meningitis-and-infant-mortality-5-years-following-introduction-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-a-3-0-schedule
#10
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Bryan Blette, Rafaela Briceño, Jorge Alemán, Michael G Hudgens, Gilberto Moreno, Ana Ordoñez, Julio Rocha, David J Weber, Erick Amaya
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803139/the-effect-of-age-on-the-manifestations-and-outcomes-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-adults
#11
Thomas J Marrie, Gregory J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
BACKGROUND: While a considerable amount is known about the effect of age on the manifestations and outcomes of pneumonia, the same is not true for invasive pneumococcal disease . METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of all cases (2435) of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in Northern Alberta from 2000 to 2014. Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease/100,000, sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, and invasive pneumococcal disease -related outcomes were compared for the following age groups - 17 to 54, 55 -64, 65 to 74 and 75 years and over...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801724/pneumococcal-meningitis-and-endocarditis-in-an-infant-possible-improved-survival-with-factor-v-leiden-mutation
#12
Sitikant Mohapatra, Assaf Doulah, Elspeth Brown
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of invasive meningeal and/or lung disease are not uncommon, Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis is rare especially in healthy pediatric population. New studies have suggested a strong association between factor V leiden (FVL) mutation and favorable outcomes in critically ill children. A healthy 10 month old presented with sepsis and meningeal signs, was later confirmed to have Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and endocarditis...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792379/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-lytic-antibiotic-therapy-are-we-adding-insult-to-injury-during-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-sepsis
#13
Lauren April Brown, Andrea M Mitchell, Tim J Mitchell
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), otherwise known as 'the pneumococcus', is a fascinating microbe that continues to pose a significant problem to public health. Currently there are no specific National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) or British Thoracic Society (BTS) clinical guidelines referring to the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infection. NICE clinical guidelines suggest the use of lytic β-lactam antibiotic regimens for the management of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial meningitis; infections for which S...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780272/current-challenges-in-the-accurate-identification-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-its-serogroups-serotypes-in-the-vaccine-era
#14
REVIEW
Rosemol Varghese, Ranjith Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis and other invasive diseases resulting in high mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five. Inaccurate identification of S. pneumoniae masks the exact estimation of disease burden and could delay treatment options. This is the common problem most frequently faced in developing countries due to several reasons that include poor infrastructure, insensitive operational procedures and lack of expertise. Inconsistent methods for phenotypic detection often delay the early identification and confirmation of S...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776337/changes-in-the-serotype-distribution-among-antibiotic-resistant-carriage-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-children-after-the-introduction-of-the-extended-valency-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#15
Joon Kee Lee, Ki Wook Yun, Eun Hwa Choi, Sun Jung Kim, Seong Yeon Lee, Hoan Jong Lee
This study investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 3,820 nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from infants and children who presented with respiratory symptoms at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from July 2010 to June 2015 after the introduction of the extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined using the Quellung reaction and E-test, respectively. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 397 (10...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765563/quantitative-proteomics-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-paediatric-pneumococcal-meningitis
#16
Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Richard J Bennett, Carmen Martínez-Rodríguez, Małgorzata Wnęk, Gavin Laing, Graeme Hickey, Lynn McLean, Robert J Beynon, Enitan D Carrol
Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for diseases causing major global public health problems, including meningitis, pneumonia and septicaemia. Despite recent advances in antimicrobial therapy, pneumococcal meningitis remains a life-threatening disease. Furthermore, long-term sequelae are a major concern for survivors. Hence, a better understanding of the processes occurring in the central nervous system is crucial to the development of more effective management strategies. We used mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics to identify protein changes in cerebrospinal fluid from children with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, compared with children admitted to hospital with bacterial meningitis symptoms but negative diagnosis...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749326/pneumococcal-neuraminidase-activates-tgf-%C3%AE-signalling
#17
Nina Gratz, Lip Nam Loh, Beth Mann, Geli Gao, Robert Carter, Jason Rosch, Elaine I Tuomanen
Neuraminidase A (NanA) is an important virulence factor that is anchored to the pneumococcal cell wall and cleaves sialic acid on host substrates. We noted that a secreted allele of NanA was over-represented in invasive pneumococcal isolates and promoted the development of meningitis when swapped into the genome of non-meningitis isolates replacing cell wall-anchored NanA. Both forms of recombinant NanA directly activated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, increased SMAD signalling and promoted loss of endothelial tight junction ZO-1...
July 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737858/the-effects-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-and-pcv13-on-turkish-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-a-single-center-experience
#18
Halil Özdemir, Caner Yıldız, Selin Nar Ötgün, Hatice Erkol, Adem Karbuz, Bilge Aldemir Kocabaş, Tuğçe Tural Kara, Ayşegül Gözalan, Rıza Durmaz, Ergin Çiftçi, Derya Aysev, Erdal İnce
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this prospective single-center study was to determine the changings in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae in children with IPD after the period (1 to 7 years) of vaccination with PCV7 (2008) and PCV13 (2011). POPULATION AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 39 Turkish children with IPD between ages 1 month and 18 years in Ankara, Turkey. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified using standard laboratory procedures from blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pleural fluid, and other sterile body fluids and tissues...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737622/changes-in-the-nature-and-severity-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-before-and-after-the-7-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programs-in-calgary-canada
#19
Leah J Ricketson, Nicholas G Conradi, Otto G Vanderkooi, James D Kellner
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence has decreased in children and the predominant serotypes causing disease have changed. This study describes changes in the clinical features of IPD in children (<18 years) before and after conjugate vaccine introduction. METHODS: The Calgary Area Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research (CASPER) study collects information on all IPD cases in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736993/molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-particularly-serotype19a-st320-that-emerged-in-krasnoyarsk-russia
#20
Irina N Protasova, Tsai-Wen Wan, Natalya V Bakhareva, Wei-Chun Hung, Wataru Higuchi, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tatyana A Yelistratova, Natalya A Ilyenkova, Yelena S Sokolovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Ivan V Reva, Galina V Reva, Sergey V Sidorenko, Lee-Jene Teng, Olga V Peryanova, Alla B Salmina, Tatsuo Yamamoto
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common human pathogen, colonizes the nasopharynx and causes diseases including acute otitis media (AOM). We herein report pneumococcal serotype distributions in children before and after PCV7 vaccination and in patients with pneumococcal disease in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk). Analyses included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ST typing, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, virulence-related surface protein gene (VSG) typing with novel primers, and a structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy...
July 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
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