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Pneumococcal meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318182/pneumococcal-meningitis-in-cantabria-spain-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era-2001-2015
#1
Esther González-Escartín, Itziar Angulo López, Elsa Ots Ruiz, Luis Martínez-Martínez, María J Cabero Pérez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of pneumococcal meningitis in children ≤ 14 years old following the market introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in our community. METHODS: Retrospective study of pneumococcal meningitis cases with a two-period analysis: pre-13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) (2001-2010) and post-PCV13 (2010-2015). Patient demographic and clinical data, and microbiological data were collected. RESULTS: Eighteen cases were diagnosed...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300164/role-of-purinergic-signaling-in-experimental-pneumococcal-meningitis
#2
Marco Zierhut, Susanne Dyckhoff, Ilias Masouris, Matthias Klein, Sven Hammerschmidt, Hans-Walter Pfister, Korcan Ayata, Marco Idzko, Uwe Koedel
Excessive neutrophilic inflammation contributes to brain pathology and adverse outcome in pneumococcal meningitis (PM). Recently, we identified the NLRP3 inflammasome/interleukin (IL)-1β pathway as a key driver of inflammation in PM. A critical membrane receptor for NLRP3 inflammasome activation is the ATP-activated P2 purinoceptor (P2R) P2X7. Thus, we hypothesized involvement of ATP and P2Rs in PM. The functional role of ATP was investigated in a mouse meningitis model using P2R antagonists. Brain expression of P2Rs was assessed by RT-PCR...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288168/a-novel-flow-cytometry-based-assay-for-the-quantification-of-antibody-dependent-pneumococcal-agglutination
#3
Marrit N Habets, Saskia van Selm, Christa E van der Gaast-de Jongh, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Marien I de Jonge
The respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. The first step towards infection is colonization of the nasopharynx. Recently, it was shown that agglutinating antibodies play an important role in the prevention of mucosal colonization with S. pneumoniae. Here, we present a novel method to quantify antibody-dependent pneumococcal agglutination in a high-throughput manner using flow cytometry. We found that the concentration of agglutinating antibodies against pneumococcal capsule are directly correlated with changes in the size and complexity of bacterial aggregates, as measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by light microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284682/childhood-pneumococcal-disease-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-incidence-serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility
#4
REVIEW
Pui-Ying Iroh Tam, Beth K Thielen, Stephen K Obaro, Ann M Brearley, Alexander M Kaizer, Haitao Chu, Edward N Janoff
BACKGROUND: Determining the incidence, disease-associated serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in Africa is essential in order to monitor the impact of these infections prior to widespread introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). METHODS: To provide updated estimates of the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing disease in Africa, we performed a systematic review of articles published from 2000 to 2015 using Ovid Medline and Embase...
March 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266699/rapidly-progressive-and-almost-lethal-pneumonia
#5
Juancarlo Martínez-González, Carlos Robles-Arias, William Rodríguez-Cintrón
We herein describe the case of a 65-year-old male patient who presented with Osler's triad, which is the combination of endocarditis, pneumonia, and meningitis. This report is even more unusual since the pathogen isolated was the invasive and virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3. The clinical entity described is also called Austrian syndrome. Even though rare in this antibiotic era, the syndrome remains one of high morbidity and mortality. This particular case is of paramount importance for the clinician reader...
March 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247176/detection-of-significant-pneumococcal-meningitis-biomarkers-by-ego-network
#6
Qian Wang, Zhifeng Lou, Liansuo Zhai, Haibin Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To identify significant biomarkers for detection of pneumococcal meningitis based on ego network. METHODS: Based on the gene expression data of pneumococcal meningitis and global protein-protein interactions (PPIs) data recruited from open access databases, the authors constructed a differential co-expression network (DCN) to identify pneumococcal meningitis biomarkers in a network view. Here EgoNet algorithm was employed to screen the significant ego networks that could accurately distinguish pneumococcal meningitis from healthy controls, by sequentially seeking ego genes, searching candidate ego networks, refinement of candidate ego networks and significance analysis to identify ego networks...
March 1, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245940/risk-stacking-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-indications-increases-mortality-in-unvaccinated-adults-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infections
#7
Jacob B Morton, Haley J Morrill, Kerry L LaPlante, Aisling R Caffrey
BACKGROUND: Several chronic disease states have been identified as pneumococcal vaccination indications due to their ability to increase pneumococcal disease development and subsequent mortality. However, the risk of mortality according to the number of these disease states present is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of concomitant, multiple risk factors (stacked risks) for pneumococcal disease on 30-day mortality in adults. METHODS: This was a national case-control study of unvaccinated older Veterans (≥50years of age) admitted to Veterans Affairs medical centers from 2002 to 2011 with serious pneumococcal infections (pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis) based on positive S...
February 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244176/can-infant-vaccination-prevent-pneumococcal-meningitis-outbreaks-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
EDITORIAL
James M Stuart
The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts is reviewing the technical evidence to inform policy on optimal use of infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV)(1). Since 2010, multivalent vaccines (PCV-10, PCV-13) have been successfully introduced with the support of Gavi the Vaccine Alliance into infant immunisation programmes across the developing world(2). One recommended schedule consists of three doses under the age of 6 months (3+0), with the aim of providing maximum protection to infants, the age group at highest risk of pneumococcal disease(3)...
February 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241127/vitamin-d-promotes-pneumococcal-killing-and-modulates-inflammatory-responses-in-primary-human-neutrophils
#9
Karthik Subramanian, Peter Bergman, Birgitta Henriques-Normark
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis worldwide. Despite clinical studies linking vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia, molecular mechanisms behind these observations remain unclear. In particular, the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil responses remain unknown. Using pneumococcal strains, primary neutrophils isolated from human blood, and sera from patients with frequent respiratory tract infections (RTIs), we investigated the effects of vitamin D on neutrophil bactericidal and inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokine regulation...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211009/pneumococcal-predictive-proteins-selected-by-microbial-genomic-approach-are-serotype-cross-reactive-and-bind-to-host-extracellular-matrix-proteins
#10
Ana Paula Corrêa Argondizzo, Cláudio Marcos Rocha-de-Souza, Marta de Almeida Santiago, Ricardo Galler, Joice Neves Reis, Marco Alberto Medeiros
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a colonizer of the human nasopharynx, which accounts for most of the community-acquired pneumonia cases and can cause non-invasive and invasive diseases. Current available vaccines are serotype-specific and the use of recombinant proteins associated with virulence is an alternative to compose vaccines and to overcome these problems. In a previous work, we describe the identification of proteins in S. pneumoniae by reverse vaccinology and the genetic diversity of these proteins in clinical isolates...
February 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196635/childhood-meningitis-in-kuwait-in-the-era-of-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-a-multicenter-study
#11
Hussain Sadeq, Entesar H Husain, Amna Alkoot, Suha Atyani, Abdullah Al-Fraij, Abdulrahman Al-Daithan, Talal AlSaleem, Anfal Taher, May Alenezi
This is a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiology and etiologies of childhood meningitis in Kuwait after the routine introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The data was collected from 196 patients in the period of 2010-2014. Aseptic meningitis accounted for 51% of the cases, bacterial meningitis accounted for 29% cases and partially treated meningitis were 20%. Organisms causing bacterial meningitis were: Streptococcus pneumoniae 40.4%, Neisseria meningitidis 17.6%, Haemophilus spp. 12.2%, other gram positive or negative 19...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187904/hydrotherapy-for-the-long-term-ventilated-patient-a-case-study-and-implications-for-practice
#12
REVIEW
Sally Wegner, Peter Thomas, Christine James
Hydrotherapy of mechanically ventilated patients has been shown to be safe and feasible in both the acute stages of critical illness and in those requiring long term mechanical ventilation. This case study describes the hydrotherapy sessions of a 36 year old female, who after suffering complications of pneumococcal meningitis, became an incomplete quadriplegic and required long term mechanical ventilation. When implementing hydrotherapy with patients on mechanical ventilation a number of factors should be considered...
February 7, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187060/risk-factors-in-children-older-than-5-years-with-pneumococcal-meningitis-data-from-a-national-network
#13
Fanny Hénaff, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Capucine Picard, Emmanuelle Varon, Christèle Gras Le Guen, Elise Launay
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of meningitis in children > 5 years old may be associated with specific predisposing factors that can be anatomic, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula or breach, or related to genetic susceptibility or N inborn or acquired immunologic defect. This study aimed to assess the anatomical and immunologic risk factors in children > 5 years old with pneumococcal meningitis and prospectively enrolled in the French national meningitis network. METHODS: We analyzed all data for children 5 to 15 years old with a diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis between 2001 and 2013...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161425/the-rise-and-fall-of-pneumococcal-serotypes-carried-in-the-pcv-era
#14
Vanessa T Devine, David W Cleary, Johanna M C Jefferies, Rebecca Anderson, Denise E Morris, Andrew C Tuck, Rebecca A Gladstone, Grace O'Doherty, Priyasharmila Kuruparan, Stephen D Bentley, Saul N Faust, Stuart C Clarke
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia worldwide. Vaccination using pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has therefore been part of the UK's childhood immunisation programme since 2006. Here we describe pneumococcal carriage rates in children under five years of age attending the paediatric department of a large UK hospital in response to vaccine implementation over seven winter seasons from 2006 to 2013. S. pneumoniae (n=696) were isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs (n=2267) collected during seven consecutive winters, October to March, 2006/7 to 2012/13...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149700/retrospective-study-of-prognostic-factors-in-pediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#15
Nan-Chang Chiu, Hsin Chi, Chun-Chih Peng, Hung-Yang Chang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Wei-Te Lei, Chien-Yu Lin
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading causative pathogen in pediatric pneumonia and bacteremia throughout the world. The invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is known as isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid, or peritoneal fluid). The aim of this study is to survey the clinical manifestations and laboratory results of IPD and identify the prognostic factors of mortality. From January 2001 to December 2006, a retrospective review of chart was performed in a teaching hospital in Taipei...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141831/b7-h3-augments-inflammatory-responses-and-exacerbates-brain-damage-via-amplifying-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-and-mapk-p38-activation-during-experimental-pneumococcal-meningitis
#16
Xuqin Chen, Yan Li, Siobhan Blankson, Min Liu, Danping Huang, H Paul Redmond, Jing Huang, Jiang Huai Wang, Jian Wang
The costimulatory protein B7-H3 has been shown to play a contributory role in the development and progression of experimental pneumococcal meningitis by augmentation of the innate immunity-associated inflammatory response via a TLR2-dependent manner. This study aimed to clarify the component(s) of TLR2-mediated signal transduction pathways responsible for B7-H3-augmented inflammatory response and subsequent brain damage during experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Administration of B7-H3 did not augment expression of TLR2 and other TLR2 upstream components, but led to an enhanced formation of MyD88-IRAK immunocomplex in the brain of S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132873/detection-of-macrolide-resistance-genes-in-culture-negative-specimens-from-bangladeshi-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-diseases
#17
Md Hasanuzzaman, Roly Malaker, Maksuda Islam, Abdullah H Baqui, Gary L Darmstadt, Cynthia G Whitney, Samir K Saha
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistance among pneumococci in Bangladesh has been observed. However, the scenario remains incomplete, as few isolates (<1%) are available from pneumonia cases and most pneumococcal meningitis cases (>80%) are culture-negative. This study optimised a triplex PCR method to detect macrolide resistance genes (MRGs) (mefA and ermB) and cpsA from culture-negative pneumococcal cases to predict the prevalence and level of macrolide resistance...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131730/distribution-of-capsular-types-and-drug-resistance-patterns-of-invasive-pediatric-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-teheran-iran
#18
Hamidreza Houri, Sedigheh Rafiei Tabatabaei, Yasaman Saee, Fatemeh Fallah, Mohammad Rahbar, Abdollah Karimi
OBJECTIVES: To explore the serotype distribution and drug resistance patterns of invasive pneumococcal isolates from children under 5 years of age. METHODS: During a 32-month period, 585 clinical samples (including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and synovial fluid) from children suspected of having meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, or septic arthritis were analyzed using the BACTEC culture system. Positive cultures were examined using biochemical tests and lytA amplification for the identification of pneumococcal strains...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114427/burden-of-pneumococcal-disease-in-northern-togo-before-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#19
Jennifer C Moïsi, Makawa-Sy Makawa, Haoua Tall, Kodjo Agbenoko, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Stanislas Tamekloe, Moussa Amidou, Judith E Mueller, Bradford D Gessner
BACKGROUND: S. pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis morbidity and mortality in the African meningitis belt, but little is known of its contribution to the burden of pneumonia in the region. We aimed to estimate the incidence of pneumococcal disease in children and adults in northern Togo, before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). METHODS AND FINDINGS: From May 1st 2010 to April 30th 2013, we systematically enrolled all hospitalized patients meeting a case definition of suspected meningitis or clinical pneumonia, residing in Tone or Cinkasse districts, northern Togo and providing informed consent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109706/cost-effectiveness-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-in-mongolia
#20
Neisha Sundaram, Cynthia Chen, Joanne Yoong, Munkh-Erdene Luvsan, Kimberley Fox, Amarzaya Sarankhuu, Sophie La Vincente, Mark Jit
OBJECTIVE: The Ministry of Health (MOH), Mongolia, is considering introducing 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in its national immunization programme to prevent the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of introducing PCV13 compared to no PCV vaccination in Mongolia. METHODS: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of introducing PCV13 compared to no PCV vaccination was assessed using an age-stratified static multiple cohort model...
February 15, 2017: Vaccine
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