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Pneumococcal meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925848/hospitalizations-for-pneumococcal-diseases-in-tuscany-from-2002-to-2014-impact-of-universal-pediatric-vaccination-on-the-population
#1
Sara Boccalini, Ornella Varone, Martina Chellini, Luca Pieri, Antonino Sala, Cesare Berardi, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative organism of acute media otitis in children and meningitis and bacterial pneumonia in the community. Since 2008 in Tuscany, central Italy, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent vaccine, switched in 13-valent vaccine in 2010) was actively offered free of charge to all newborns. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal paediatric vaccination on the Tuscan population on hospitalizations potentially caused by S. pneumoniae, during pre-vaccination (PVP, 2002-2007) and vaccination period (VP, 2009-2014)...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917323/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-prevalent-invasive-multi-drug-resistant-strains-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#2
Rehab H Bahy, Hayam M Hamouda, Amal S Shahat, Aymen S Yassin, Magdy A Amin
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that causes serious invasive infections, such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in addition to mild upper respiratory tract infections. Protection from pneumococcal diseases is thought to be mediated mainly by serotype-specific antibodies to capsular antigens. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine consists of sugars (polysaccharides) from the capsule of the bacterium S. pneumoniae that are conjugated to a carrier protein. Three pneumococcal conjugated vaccines, each directed against a group of serotypes, are registered in Egypt; however, local vaccine production is required to cover the most prevalent serotypes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916211/a-32-year-study-of-the-effect-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-on-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-disease
#3
Ronald J Stanek, Nancy B Norton, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia and otitis media. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) represents the most serious presentation, occurs in approximately 1 in 4 cases and engenders case fatality rates (CFR) in pneumonia of 20-25% and meningitis of 35-40%. We investigated IPD for 32 years in an American city to assess the effect of differing pneumococcal vaccines on serotype occurrence and CFR among children and adults...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889801/production-and-purification-of-an-untagged-recombinant-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-pspa4pro-with-high-purity-and-low-endotoxin-content
#4
Douglas B Figueiredo, Eneas Carvalho, Mauricio P Santos, Stefanie Kraschowetz, Rafaela T Zanardo, Gilson Campani, Gabriel G Silva, Cíntia R Sargo, Antonio Carlos L Horta, Roberto de C Giordano, Eliane N Miyaji, Teresa C Zangirolami, Joaquin Cabrera-Crespo, Viviane Maimoni Gonçalves
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other conditions that kill thousands of children every year worldwide. The replacement of pneumococcal serotypes among the vaccinated population has evidenced the need for new vaccines with broader coverage and driven the research for protein-based vaccines. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) protects S. pneumoniae from the bactericidal effect of human apolactoferrin and prevents complement deposition. Several studies indicate that PspA is a very promising target for novel vaccine formulations...
November 26, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884476/systemic-immunization-with-rpotd-reduces-streptococcus-pneumoniae-nasopharyngeal-colonization-in-mice
#5
T R Converso, C Goulart, D Rodriguez, M Darrieux, L C C Leite
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a human pathogen that can cause otitis media, pneumonia and, in severe cases, meningitis and bacteremia. The pneumococcus expresses PotD, a protein belonging to the polyamines transporter complex called PotABCD. PotD is a membrane-associated protein that binds polyamines and has been shown to be important for virulence. In this work we demonstrate that subcutaneous immunization with rPotD reduces the bacterial load in the nasal tissue of mice, following intranasal challenge with a type 6B pneumococcus...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#6
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), e.g. acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis (AM), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and meningitis. The aim of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years who were hospitalized with HNIs in the Pediatrics Department in a general hospital between 1/1/2007-12/31/2014 were retrospectively identified...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864448/evaluation-of-a-rapid-antigen-test-for-detection-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#7
Angel Boulos, Derek Fairley, James McKenna, Peter Coyle
Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using lateral flow immunochromatography tests (ICTs) is an effective, rapid and low-cost method to diagnose pneumococcal meningitis. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Uni-Gold ICT to detect pneumococcal antigen in CSF specimens, compared with gold standard bacteriology and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) testing. CSF specimens (n=69) from patients with suspected bacterial meningitis were included in the study. 13/69 (19%) were positive and 56/69 (81%) were negative for pneumococcus by the gold standard tests...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863635/cochlear-implantation-of-solid-organ-transplant-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-therapy
#8
Bushra Ayub, Nancy M Young
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of infectious complications and healing problems in cochlear implant (CI) patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplant. STUDY DESIGN: IRB-approved retrospective chart review of implanted patients. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. METHODS: Seven patients of the more than 1000 implanted during the time period between 1991 and 2014 underwent cochlear implantation while on immunosuppressive therapy after having received a solid organ transplant...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862712/invasive-pneumococcal-infections-in-children-following-transplantation-in-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#9
Liset Olarte, Philana Ling Lin, William J Barson, Jose R Romero, Tina Q Tan, Laurence B Givner, Jill A Hoffman, John S Bradley, Kristina G Hultén, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Pediatric recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPI). Data on IPI in this population is scarce. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing the epidemiology of IPI among pediatric transplant recipients in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. METHODS: We identified transplant recipients with IPI at 8 children's hospitals in the U.S. from our surveillance database (2000-2014)...
November 9, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856137/therapeutic-hypothermia-and-inhalation-anesthesia-in-a-patient-with-severe-pneumococcal-meningitis-and-secondary-cardiac-arrest
#10
Nejc Bukovnik, Andrej Markota, Tomaž Velnar, Janez Rebol, Andreja Sinkovič
Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with increased mortality in patients with severe bacterial meningitis in a large randomized trial. It still remains a treatment strategy for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. There are several potential advantages of inhalational anesthetics as long-term sedation agents compared to intravenous sedation, however, uncontrollable increases of intracranial pressure were observed in neurocritical patients. Here we present a patient with severe bacterial meningitis and secondary cardiac arrest where therapeutic hypothermia and inhalational anesthesia were successfully used...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851410/1775-a-rare-case-of-pneumococcal-meningitis-and-vertebral-osteomyelitis
#11
Arber Kodra, David Wisa, Jay Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851389/1754-pneumocephalus-an-unusual-case-of-acute-frontal-sinusitis-and-pneumococcal-meningitis
#12
Brittaini Bunce, Taimur Khan, Gnan Thakore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845043/molecular-characterization-of-a-single-chain-antibody-variable-fragment-scfv-specific-for-pspa-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#13
ShinA Jang, Gyuhee Kim, Jihye Oh, Seungyeob Lee, Dongho Kim, Kook-Han Kim, Yong Ho Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Sangho Lee
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major infectious agent responsible for pneumonia, otitis media, sepsis and meningitis. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a well-characterized virulence factor localized on the surface and a target for vaccine development. In this study, we screened a single-chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) using phage display from a human synthetic library to select a clone 2B11. Affinity (Kd) of 2B11 was measured to be 5 nM using biolayer interferometry. 2B11 exhibited a dose-dependent recognition of recombinant PspA with no cross-reactivity towards pneumococcal antigens...
November 11, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844262/changes-in-the-pneumococcal-disease-related-hospitalisations-in-spain-after-the-replacement-of-7-valent-by-13-valent-conjugate-vaccine
#14
L Georgalis, A Mozalevskis, M V Martínez de Aragón, M Garrido-Estepa
In Spain, anti-pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for all children under 2 years old, high-risk groups and adults ≥65 years old. However, it is not funded in most autonomous communities. This study aims to compare pneumococcal disease hospitalisation rates between Period 1 (2007-2009), when 7-valent (PCV7) vaccine was available, and Period 2 (2011-2013), after the change to 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine in Spain. Data on hospitalisations were obtained from the National Registry of Hospitalisations. We calculated hospitalisation rates (HRs) and hospitalisation rate ratios (HRRs) among periods by age group and autonomous community, for all and by clinical presentation...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835970/detrimental-role-for-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-in-blood-borne-brain-infection
#15
JanWillem Duitman, Mercedes Valls Serón, JooYeon Engelen-Lee, Matthijs C Brouwer, C Arnold Spek, Diederik van de Beek
BACKGROUND: The most frequent pathogen that causes bacterial meningitis is the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein δ is a transcription factor that has recently been hypothesized to play a detrimental role in outcome of meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae. Here, we studied the role of C/EBPδ prior to the development of pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: Wild-type and C/EBPδ-deficient mice (C/EBPδ(-/-)) were intraveneously infected with S...
November 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832151/nationwide-trends-in-bacterial-meningitis-before-the-introduction-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-burkina-faso-2011-2013
#16
Dinanibè Kambiré, Heidi M Soeters, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Isaïe Medah, Lassana Sangare, Issaka Yaméogo, Guetawendé Sawadogo, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Soumeya Hema-Ouangraoua, Lesley McGee, Velusamy Srinivasan, Flavien Aké, Malika Congo-Ouédraogo, Soufian Sanou, Absatou Ky Ba, Ryan T Novak, Chris Van Beneden
BACKGROUND: Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. METHODS: Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831604/-epidemiologic-clinical-and-bacteriologic-characteristics-of-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-pediatric-patients-from-lima-peru
#17
Long Davalos, Yessica Terrazas, Ana Quintana, Martha Egoavil, Katherine Sedano, María E Castillo, Isabel Reyes, Eduardo Chaparro, Wilda Silva, Francisco Campos, Andrés Saenz, Roger Hernandez, Olguita Del Águila, Daniel Guillén Pinto, Theresa J Ochoa
Objectives.: To describe the clinical characteristics, lethality, antibiotic susceptibility, and serotype distribution of pneumococcal meningitis in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods.: A case series of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 16 years of age from two prospective, multicenter, passive surveillance studies of invasive pneumococcal diseases held in Lima-Peru from 2006 to 2008 and 2009 to 2011. Results.: We report 44 pneumococcal meningitis episodes; 68...
July 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830065/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-meningitis-in-well-vaccinated-immunocompetent-13-month-old-child-a-case-of-pcv13-failure
#18
Simon Kayemba-Kay's, Abdul Monem Badran, Cécile Lagneaux, Tamas Kovacs, Anne Heron
We report a 13-month-old immune-competent male child who was diagnosed with pneumococcal serotype 19A meningitis despite having received three PCV13 injections. Clinicians are reminded that bacterial meningitis can still occur, even in correctly vaccinated children. Investigations should include immune system screening along with abdominal ultrasound to exclude asplenia.
November 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827453/streptococcus-pneumoniae-resists-intracellular-killing-by-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-but-not-by-microglia
#19
Hugo Macedo-Ramos, Susana Ruiz-Mendoza, Rafael M Mariante, Erick V Guimarães, Lucas C Quadros-de-Souza, Mauricio M Paiva, Eliane de O Ferreira, Tatiana C A Pinto, Lucia M Teixeira, Silvana Allodi, Wagner Baetas-da-Cruz
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a type of specialized glial cell currently considered as having a double function in the nervous system: one regenerative, and another immune. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major agent of severe infections in humans, including meningitis. It is commonly found in the nasopharynx of asymptomatic carriers, and, under certain still unknown conditions, can invade the brain. We evaluated whether pneumococcal cells recovered from lysed OECs and microglia are able to survive by manipulating the host cell activation...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803171/the-early-adaptive-immune-response-in-the-pathophysiological-process-of-pneumococcal-meningitis
#20
Sandra Ribes, Stefan Nessler, Ev-Christin Heide, Dörthe Malzahn, Christina Perske, Wolfgang Brück, Roland Nau
BACKGROUND:  The adaptive immune system has been considered to play a minimal role in the early host response during bacterial meningitis. METHODS:  We investigated the progression and outcome of pneumococcal meningitis in Rag1(-/-) mice lacking functional B and T cells by assessing overall and symptom-free survival, bacteriological and histological studies, as well as flow cytometry and measurements of proinflammatory mediators. RESULTS:  The intracerebral injection of S...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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