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Pneumococcal meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813518/changes-in-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-bacterial-meningitis-and-infant-mortality-5-years-following-introduction-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-a-3-0-schedule
#1
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Bryan Blette, Rafaela Briceño, Jorge Alemán, Michael G Hudgens, Gilberto Moreno, Ana Ordoñez, Julio Rocha, David J Weber, Erick Amaya
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803139/the-effect-of-age-on-the-manifestations-and-outcomes-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-adults
#2
Thomas J Marrie, Gregory J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
BACKGROUND: While a considerable amount is known about the effect of age on the manifestations and outcomes of pneumonia, the same is not true for invasive pneumococcal disease . METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of all cases (2435) of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in Northern Alberta from 2000 to 2014. Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease/100,000, sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, and invasive pneumococcal disease -related outcomes were compared for the following age groups - 17 to 54, 55 -64, 65 to 74 and 75 years and over...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801724/pneumococcal-meningitis-and-endocarditis-in-an-infant-possible-improved-survival-with-factor-v-leiden-mutation
#3
Sitikant Mohapatra, Assaf Doulah, Elspeth Brown
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of invasive meningeal and/or lung disease are not uncommon, Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis is rare especially in healthy pediatric population. New studies have suggested a strong association between factor V leiden (FVL) mutation and favorable outcomes in critically ill children. A healthy 10 month old presented with sepsis and meningeal signs, was later confirmed to have Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and endocarditis...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792379/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-lytic-antibiotic-therapy-are-we-adding-insult-to-injury-during-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-sepsis
#4
Lauren April Brown, Andrea M Mitchell, Tim J Mitchell
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), otherwise known as 'the pneumococcus', is a fascinating microbe that continues to pose a significant problem to public health. Currently there are no specific National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) or British Thoracic Society (BTS) clinical guidelines referring to the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infection. NICE clinical guidelines suggest the use of lytic β-lactam antibiotic regimens for the management of community-acquired pneumonia and bacterial meningitis; infections for which S...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780272/current-challenges-in-the-accurate-identification-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-its-serogroups-serotypes-in-the-vaccine-era
#5
REVIEW
Rosemol Varghese, Ranjith Jayaraman, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis and other invasive diseases resulting in high mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five. Inaccurate identification of S. pneumoniae masks the exact estimation of disease burden and could delay treatment options. This is the common problem most frequently faced in developing countries due to several reasons that include poor infrastructure, insensitive operational procedures and lack of expertise. Inconsistent methods for phenotypic detection often delay the early identification and confirmation of S...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776337/changes-in-the-serotype-distribution-among-antibiotic-resistant-carriage-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-children-after-the-introduction-of-the-extended-valency-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#6
Joon Kee Lee, Ki Wook Yun, Eun Hwa Choi, Sun Jung Kim, Seong Yeon Lee, Hoan Jong Lee
This study investigated the serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 3,820 nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from infants and children who presented with respiratory symptoms at Seoul National University Children's Hospital from July 2010 to June 2015 after the introduction of the extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined using the Quellung reaction and E-test, respectively. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 397 (10...
September 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765563/quantitative-proteomics-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-paediatric-pneumococcal-meningitis
#7
Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Richard J Bennett, Carmen Martínez-Rodríguez, Małgorzata Wnęk, Gavin Laing, Graeme Hickey, Lynn McLean, Robert J Beynon, Enitan D Carrol
Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for diseases causing major global public health problems, including meningitis, pneumonia and septicaemia. Despite recent advances in antimicrobial therapy, pneumococcal meningitis remains a life-threatening disease. Furthermore, long-term sequelae are a major concern for survivors. Hence, a better understanding of the processes occurring in the central nervous system is crucial to the development of more effective management strategies. We used mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics to identify protein changes in cerebrospinal fluid from children with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, compared with children admitted to hospital with bacterial meningitis symptoms but negative diagnosis...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749326/pneumococcal-neuraminidase-activates-tgf-%C3%AE-signalling
#8
Nina Gratz, Lip Nam Loh, Beth Mann, Geli Gao, Robert Carter, Jason Rosch, Elaine I Tuomanen
Neuraminidase A (NanA) is an important virulence factor that is anchored to the pneumococcal cell wall and cleaves sialic acid on host substrates. We noted that a secreted allele of NanA was over-represented in invasive pneumococcal isolates and promoted the development of meningitis when swapped into the genome of non-meningitis isolates replacing cell wall-anchored NanA. Both forms of recombinant NanA directly activated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, increased SMAD signalling and promoted loss of endothelial tight junction ZO-1...
July 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737858/the-effects-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-and-pcv13-on-turkish-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-a-single-center-experience
#9
Halil Özdemir, Caner Yıldız, Selin Nar Ötgün, Hatice Erkol, Adem Karbuz, Bilge Aldemir Kocabaş, Tuğçe Tural Kara, Ayşegül Gözalan, Rıza Durmaz, Ergin Çiftçi, Derya Aysev, Erdal İnce
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this prospective single-center study was to determine the changings in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae in children with IPD after the period (1 to 7 years) of vaccination with PCV7 (2008) and PCV13 (2011). POPULATION AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 39 Turkish children with IPD between ages 1 month and 18 years in Ankara, Turkey. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified using standard laboratory procedures from blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pleural fluid, and other sterile body fluids and tissues...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737622/changes-in-the-nature-and-severity-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-before-and-after-the-7-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-programs-in-calgary-canada
#10
Leah J Ricketson, Nicholas G Conradi, Otto G Vanderkooi, James D Kellner
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence has decreased in children and the predominant serotypes causing disease have changed. This study describes changes in the clinical features of IPD in children (<18 years) before and after conjugate vaccine introduction. METHODS: The Calgary Area Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research (CASPER) study collects information on all IPD cases in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736993/molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-particularly-serotype19a-st320-that-emerged-in-krasnoyarsk-russia
#11
Irina N Protasova, Tsai-Wen Wan, Natalya V Bakhareva, Wei-Chun Hung, Wataru Higuchi, Yasuhisa Iwao, Tatyana A Yelistratova, Natalya A Ilyenkova, Yelena S Sokolovskaya, Galina P Martynova, Ivan V Reva, Galina V Reva, Sergey V Sidorenko, Lee-Jene Teng, Olga V Peryanova, Alla B Salmina, Tatsuo Yamamoto
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common human pathogen, colonizes the nasopharynx and causes diseases including acute otitis media (AOM). We herein report pneumococcal serotype distributions in children before and after PCV7 vaccination and in patients with pneumococcal disease in Siberian Russia (Krasnoyarsk). Analyses included antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ST typing, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, virulence-related surface protein gene (VSG) typing with novel primers, and a structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy...
July 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713431/an-unexpected-cause-of-bradycardia-in-a-patient-with-bacterial-meningitis
#12
Petros Ioannou, Magdalini Velegraki, Stella Soundoulounaki, Achilleas Gikas, Diamantis P Kofteridis
Sinus bradycardia which is a sinus rhythm with a resting heart rate of less than 60 bpm is caused by intrinsic cardiac disorders like sick sinus syndrome or inferior myocardial infarction, metabolic and environmental causes (such as hypothyroidism and electrolyte disorders), medications (such as beta-blockers and amiodarone), infection (such as myocarditis), increased intracranial pressure, and toxic exposure, while it can sometimes be a normal phenomenon, especially during sleep, in athletes, and during pregnancy...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711510/serotyping-of-brunei-pneumococcal-clinical-strains-and-the-investigation-of-their-capability-to-adhere-and-invade-a-brain-endothelium-model
#13
Nurul Adhwa Rahman, Aishah Sharudin, Suwarni Diah, Siti Hanna Muharram
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal infections have caused morbidity and mortality globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are commensal bacteria that colonize the nasopharynx, asymptomatically. From there, pneumococci can spread in the lungs causing pneumonia and disseminate in the bloodstream causing bacteremia (sepsis) and reach the brain leading to meningitis. Endothelial cells are one of the most important components of the blood-brain barrier that separates the blood from the brain and plays the first protective role against pneumococcal entry...
July 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711388/impact-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-children
#14
Jesus Ruiz-Contreras, Juan Picazo, Juan Casado-Flores, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Teresa Hernández-Sampelayo, Enrique Otheo, Cristina Méndez, María Del Amo, César Balseiro
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal meningitis in children. METHODS: Children younger than 15years of age attending 27 hospitals in the Region of Madrid with confirmed pneumococcal meningitis were identified in a prospective surveillance study, from 2007 to 2015. Clinical data, neurological sequelae, pneumococcal vaccination status, serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and four cases of pneumococcal meningitis were identified, 63 during the period of routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunisation (May 2007-April 2010) and 41 during the period of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunisation (May 2010-April 2015)...
July 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704823/different-behavior-and-response-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-a-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-an-in-vitro-study
#15
Vahid Heidari, Zohreh Habibi, Ahmadreza Hojjati Marvasti, Zahra Ebrahim Soltani, Negin Naderian, Parvin Tanzifi, Farideh Nejat
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal shunt infection is a rare event. There is no consensus on the therapeutic management of this kind of shunt infection according to literature reviews, and it seems to be different from infection with Staphylococcus epidermidis. We studied 2 shunted patients with pneumococcal meningitis, both of whom were treated with only antibiotics. The management of these cases seems to be different from that of shunt catheter infection due to these bacteria. We conducted a laboratory study to show the different behavior of pneumococcus compared to S...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699429/the-order-of-administration-of-macrolides-and-beta-lactams-may-impact-the-outcomes-of-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-results-from-the-community-acquired-pneumonia-organization
#16
Paula Peyrani, Timothy L Wiemken, Mark L Metersky, Forest W Arnold, William A Mattingly, Charles Feldman, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Rafael Fernandez-Botran, Jose Bordon, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effect of macrolides for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in combination with beta-lactams may be due to their anti-inflammatory activity. In patients with pneumococcal meningitis, the use of steroids improves outcomes only if they are administered before beta-lactams. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in hospitalized patients with CAP when macrolides were administered before, simultaneously with, or after beta-lactams. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) International Cohort Study database...
July 12, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690025/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-caused-by-ceftriaxone-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-taiwan
#17
Hao-Yuan Lee, Tsu-Lan Wu, Lin-Hui Su, Hsin-Chieh Li, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was associated with mortality, but the risk factors associated with mortality remains controversial. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was designed. All patients with IPD from 2011 to 2013 admitted in a medical center were screened and collected for their clinical presentations and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately half of the 134 IPD isolates derived from these patients belonged to three major serotypes (19A, 6A and 3), which are included in 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), but not in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681811/increasing-incidence-of-penicillin-and-cefotaxime-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-causing-meningitis-in-india-time-for-revision-of-treatment-guidelines
#18
Valsan Philip Verghese, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Ranjith Jayaraman, Rosemol Varghese, Ayyanraj Neeravi, Yuvaraj Jayaraman, Kurien Thomas, Sanjay M Mehendale
PURPOSE: Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening infection, requiring prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. Penicillin resistance in pneumococcal infections is a concern. Here, we present the antibiotic susceptibility profile of pneumococcal meningeal isolates from January 2008 to August 2016 to elucidate treatment guidelines for pneumococcal meningitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Invasive pneumococcal isolates from all age groups, were included in this study...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668572/characteristics-of-pediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-diseases-and-the-pneumococcal-isolates-in-suzhou-china-before-introduction-of-pcv13
#19
Xiyan Zhang, Jianmei Tian, Wei Shan, Jian Xue, Yunzhen Tao, Qian Geng, Yunfang Ding, Genming Zhao, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Data on characteristics of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) is limited in China. We aimed to understand the clinical features and explore the molecular characteristics of the pneumococcal isolates in China. METHODS: Since 2010, we prospectively collected the pneumococcal isolates and the IPD patients' demographic and clinical information in Suzhou University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH). The antibiotic susceptibility, serotypes, genotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were identified by E-test, quellung reaction and/or multiplex PCR, and multi-locus sequence typing, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661966/pneumococcal-meningitis-before-and-after-universal-vaccination-with-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-7-13-impact-on-pediatric-hospitalization-in-public-and-non-public-institutions-in-uruguay
#20
María Catalina Pírez, María Inés Mota, Gustavo Giachetto, Mercedes Sánchez Varela, Jeannette Galazka, Stella Gutierrez, Adriana Varela, Teresa Picón, Gabriela Algorta
This is the first study showing the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal meningitis in Latin America; a significant (63.5%) reduction in hospitalization was observed during the first 6 years after starting vaccination. A 90% reduction of PCV7/13 serotypes was observed (p<0.0001). After vaccination, all strains were penicillin-susceptible. Mortality had a reduction of 71%.
June 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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