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Respiratory Medications

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031240/colonization-of-oropharynx-and-lower-respiratory-tract-in-critical-patients-risk-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#1
Ivany Machado de Carvalho Baptista, Frederico Canato Martinho, Gustavo Giacomelli Nascimento, Carlos Eduardo da Rocha Santos, Renata Falchete do Prado, Marcia Carneiro Valera
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial diversity existing in oral cavity and respiratory tract samples (from mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), endotracheal aspirate, and orotracheal tube) of patients on mechanical ventilation by using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation. Also, the study aimed to evaluate whether the microbial profile in the oral cavity is found in respiratory tract samples, at different periods of mechanical ventilation time (12h, 48h, 96h) in attempt to identification of relationship between VAP (ventilator-associated pneumonia) and bacterial species studied...
October 2, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029064/2015-2016-vaccine-effectiveness-of-live-attenuated-and-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-in-children-in-the-united-states
#2
Katherine A Poehling, Herve Caspard, Timothy R Peters, Edward A Belongia, Blaise Congeni, Manjusha Gaglani, Marie R Griffin, Stephanie A Irving, Poornima K Kavathekar, Huong Q McLean, Allison L Naleway, Kathleen Ryan, H Keipp Talbot, Christopher S Ambrose
Background: In the 2015-2016 season, quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and both trivalent and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) were available in the United States. Methods: This study, conducted according to a test-negative case-control design, enrolled children aged 2-17 years presenting to outpatient settings with fever and respiratory symptoms for <5 days at 8 sites across the United States between November 30, 2015 and April 15, 2016...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028639/implications-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-for-the-anesthetic-and-perioperative-management-a-case-report-of-spinal-fusion-genetic-confusion-and-a-patient-s-perspective
#3
Linda S Aglio, Brian T Lockhart, Jeantine E Lunshof, Christoph S Nabzdyk
We describe a patient's personal struggle with a symptom complex consisting of profound muscle weakness requiring pyridostigmine, and metabolic abnormalities suggestive of mitochondrial disease. This included a profound sensitivity to opioids, which in the past caused severe respiratory depression during a prior hospital admission. Interestingly, the patient herself is a professor of ethics in genomic sciences, and she and her medical team thus far have not been able to formally diagnose her with mitochondrial disease...
October 12, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026886/clinical-characteristics-of-acute-drug-induced-dystonia-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Hyun Woong Park, Jae Ryung Kwak, Ji Sook Lee
OBJECTIVE: Dystonia is a movement disorder in which muscles contract uncontrollably. Acute drug-induced dystonia (DID) can be diagnosed through detailed history taking and physical examination. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of DID in children, which could help emergency physicians diagnose these conditions more efficiently. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of children aged below 18 years diagnosed with drug-related dystonia after discharge from the emergency department over 10 years...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025888/effect-of-erdosteine-on-the-rate-and-duration-of-copd-exacerbations-the-restore-study
#5
Roberto W Dal Negro, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Martin Iversen, Giovanni Fontana, Clive Page, Arrigo F Cicero, Edoardo Pozzi, Peter M A Calverley
Oxidative stress contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and antioxidants can decrease exacerbation rates, although we lack data about the effect of such drugs on exacerbation duration.The RESTORE (Reducing Exacerbations and Symptoms by Treatment with ORal Erdosteine in COPD) study was a prospective randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, enrolling patients aged 40-80 years with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II/III. Patients received erdosteine 300 mg twice daily or placebo added to usual COPD therapy for 12 months...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024833/health-of-vlbw-infants-in-germany-at-five-years-of-age-what-do-parents-describe
#6
Juliane Spiegler, Guido Stichtenoth, Inke R König, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel
BACKGROUND: There are only few data on medical problems and utilization of health services of former very low birth weight (VLBW) children at preschool age. STUDY DESIGN: At five years of age parents of a cohort of VLBW children (N=862) received questionnaires, a medical interview and examination. The results were compared to the KIGGS cohort (Deutscher-Kinder-und Jugendgesundheitssurvey, N=777). RESULTS: Parents of the VLBW and KIGGS cohort reported a very good or good health in 95% in their children...
October 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023346/influenza-vaccination-rate-and-reasons-for-nonvaccination-in-children-with-cardiac-disease
#7
Gilat Livni, Alina Wainstein, Einat Birk, Gabriel Chodick, Itzhak Levy
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major cause of respiratory morbidity worldwide. It poses a risk of complications in children with cardiac disease. Influenza vaccine is considered the most effective and safe means of preventing the disease. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of influenza vaccination in children with cardiac disease and to identify the reasons for failure to vaccinate in this patient population. METHODS: The study group included 186 children and their parents who attended the cardiology institute of a tertiary pediatric medical center between September and October 2012...
November 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023172/basic-and-advanced-ems-providers-are-equally-effective-in-naloxone-administration-for-opioid-overdose-in-northern-new-england
#8
Nazey Gulec, Joseph Lahey, James C Suozzi, Matthew Sholl, Charles D MacLean, Daniel L Wolfson
OBJECTIVE: Overdose mortality from illicit and prescription opioids has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, especially in rural areas. Naloxone is a safe and effective agent that has been shown to successfully reverse the effects of opioid overdose in the prehospital setting. The National EMS Scope of Practice Model currently only recommends advanced life support (ALS) providers to administer naloxone; however, some individual states have expanded this scope of practice to include intranasal (IN) administration of naloxone by basic life support (BLS) providers, including the Northern New England states...
October 12, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022532/hiv-positive-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-audit
#9
P Mkoko, R I Raine
BACKGROUND: The indications for and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) admission of HIV-positive patients in resource-poor settings such as sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify indications for ICU admission and determine factors associated with high ICU and hospital mortality in HIV-positive patients. METHODS: We reviewed case records of HIV-positive patients admitted to the medical and surgical ICUs at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021946/predictors-of-pneumococcal-carriage-and-the-effect-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-in-the-western-australian-aboriginal-population
#10
Deirdre A Collins, Anke Hoskins, Thomas Snelling, Kalpani Senasinghe, Jacinta Bowman, Natalie A Stemberger, Amanda J Leach, Deborah Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal people in 2001. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in July 2011, covering six additional pneumococcal serotypes; however, IPD rates remained high in Aboriginal people in WA. Upper respiratory tract pneumococcal carriage can precede IPD, and PCVs alter serotype distribution. METHODS: To assess the impact of PCV13 introduction, identify emerging serotypes, and assess risk factors for carriage, nasopharyngeal swabs and information on demographic characteristics, health, medication and living conditions from Aboriginal children and adults across WA from August 2008 to November 2014 were collected...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021189/presence-of-atopy-increases-the-risk-of-asthma-relapse
#11
Laurel Teoh, Ian M Mackay, Peter P Van Asperen, Jason P Acworth, Mark Hurwitz, John W Upham, Weng Hou Siew, Claire Y T Wang, Theo P Sloots, Teresa Neeman, Anne B Chang
OBJECTIVES: To describe the point prevalence of respiratory viruses/atypical bacteria using PCR and evaluate the impact of respiratory viruses/atypical bacteria and atopy on acute severity and clinical recovery in children with hospitalised and non-hospitalised asthma exacerbations. DESIGN: This was a prospective study performed during 2009-2011. SETTING: The study was performed in the emergency departments of two hospitals. PATIENTS: 244 children aged 2-16 years presenting with acute asthma to the emergency departments were recruited...
October 11, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019678/total-synthesis-and-biological-mode-of-action-of-wap-8294a2-a-menaquinone-targeting-antibiotic
#12
Hiroaki Itoh, Kotaro Tokumoto, Takuya Kaji, Atmika Paudel, Suresh Panthee, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Masayuki Inoue
WAP-8294A2 (lotilibcin, 1) is a potent antibiotic with superior in vivo efficacy to vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Despite the great medical importance, its molecular mode of action remains unknown. Here we report the total synthesis of complex macrocyclic peptide 1 comprised of 12 amino acids with a β-hydroxy fatty-acid chain, and its deoxy analogue 2. A full solid-phase synthesis of 1 and 2 enabled their rapid assembly and the first detailed investigation of their functions...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018832/pharyngeal-myiasis-caused-by-sheep-botfly-oestrus-ovis-diptera-oestridae-larva-tabriz-east-azarbaijan-province-iran-a-case-report
#13
Teimour Hazratian, Ali Tagizadeh, Mohammad Chaichi, Madineh Abbasi
Myiasis is caused by the larvae of flies infesting animal or human tissues and organs. This report aims to present a case of pharyngeal myiasis caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae). A 55-yr old drug addict living in the Shahindeje village of Western Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran was referred to the Emam Reza Hospital in Tabriz, having a medical history of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and hospitalized due to respiratory distress, 20 days ago. He was intubated with a mechanical ventilator (MV) because of his respiratory distress condition...
March 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017648/-neurological-prognostic-value-of-gray-white-matter-ratio-in-patients-after-respiratory-and-cardiac-arrest
#14
Hengjun Liu, Peng Xu, Fei He, Yao Liu, Jun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of gray-white-matter ratio (GWR) on neurological outcome in patients with coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) post-respiratory and cardiac arrest (CA). METHODS: Respiratory and CA patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and coma after CPR admitted to Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University from February 2013 to June 2016 were enrolled. All patients were subjected to target temperature management (TTM) after CPR, and received cranial CT within 5 days after ROSC...
October 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017478/effectiveness-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-interstitial-lung-disease-of-different-etiology-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#15
Roberto Tonelli, Elisabetta Cocconcelli, Barbara Lanini, Isabella Romagnoli, Fabio Florini, Ivana Castaniere, Dario Andrisani, Stefania Cerri, Fabrizio Luppi, Riccardo Fantini, Alessandro Marchioni, Bianca Beghè, Francesco Gigliotti, Enrico M Clini
BACKGROUND: Recent evidences show that Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) is effective in patients with Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD). It is still unclear whether disease severity and/or etiology might impact on the reported benefits. We designed this prospective study 1) to confirm the efficacy of rehabilitation in a population of patients with ILDs and 2) to investigate whether baseline exercise capacity, disease severity or ILD etiology might affect outcomes. METHODS: Forty-one patients (IPF 63%, age 66...
October 10, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017451/multiplex-pcr-point-of-care-testing-versus-routine-laboratory-based-testing-in-the-treatment-of-adults-with-respiratory-tract-infections-a-quasi-randomised-study-assessing-impact-on-length-of-stay-and-antimicrobial-use
#16
Denise Andrews, Yumela Chetty, Ben S Cooper, Manjinder Virk, Stephen K Glass, Andrew Letters, Philip A Kelly, Malur Sudhanva, Dakshika Jeyaratnam
BACKGROUND: Laboratory-based respiratory pathogen (RP) results are often available too late to influence clinical decisions such as hospitalisation or antibiotic treatment due to time delay in transport of specimens and testing schedules. Ward-based i.e. point of care (POC) testing providing rapid results may alter the clinical management pathway. METHODS: FilmArray® RP polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were placed in three in-patient and out-patient medical areas...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016516/barriers-to-effective-teamwork-relating-to-pediatric-resuscitations-perceptions-of-pediatric-emergency-medicine-staff
#17
Joshua M Sherman, Todd P Chang, Nurit Ziv, Alan L Nager
BACKGROUND: In the pediatric emergency department (PED), resuscitations require medical teams form ad hoc, rarely communicating beforehand. Literature has shown that the medical community has deficiencies in communication and teamwork. However, we as medical providers do not know or understand the perceived barriers of our colleagues. Physicians may perceive a barrier that is different from nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, or technicians. Perhaps we do not know in which area of teamwork and communication we are deficient...
October 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016432/is-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-relevant-to-pulmonary-complications-and-mortality-in-multiply-injured-children
#18
Waleed Al-Mahdi, Mazen M Ibrahim, David A Spiegel, Alexandre Arkader, Michael Nance, Keith Baldwin
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a well-recognized phenomenon in adult trauma populations. The "initial hit" of the traumatic event is often coupled with a systemic immune response characterized by changes in vital signs and laboratory indicators. A "second hit" from surgery during this time frame often results in acute lung injury, along with deterioration of the patient's clinical condition. We hypothesized that children and adolescents would experience SIRS physiology, but would not experience adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or "second hit" related death to the extent seen in the adult populations...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016283/identification-of-risk-factors-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-by-using-classification-tree-method
#19
Dixin Tan, Bin Wang, Xuhui Li, Xiaonan Cai, Dandan Zhang, Mengyu Li, Cong Tang, Yaqiong Yan, Songlin Yu, Qian Chu, Yihua Xu
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a major public health problem. We tried to apply the classification tree model in building and evaluating a risk prediction model for MDR-TB. In this case-control study, 74 newly diagnosed MDR-TB patients served as the case group, and 95 patients without TB from the same medical institution served as the control group. The classification tree model was built using Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detectormethod and evaluated by income diagram, index map, risk statistic, and the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994337/aerosol-therapy-through-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-pediatric-patients
#20
Awni M Al-Subu, Scott Hagen, Marlowe Eldridge, Juan Borriosi
High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used in pediatric patients suffering from respiratory failure. In some disease processes, patients may also benefit from aerosol therapy. Therefore, the use of HFNC to deliver aerosolized medications is a convenient and attractive option. Areas covered: This review aims to appraise available evidence concerning the efficiency of aerosol nebulized therapy delivery using HFNC in pediatric patients. Expert commentary: Delivery of aerosol particles is a very complex process and depends on the use of oxygen vs...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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