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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684856/cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-pursuit-of-liver-protection-against-doxorubicin-induced-injury-in-rats
#1
Heba G Ibrahim, Noha Attia, Fatma El Zahraa A Hashem, Moushira A R El Heneidy
Doxorubicin (DOX) is considered as a backbone in several chemotherapeutic regimens. Nevertheless, the reported systemic toxicity usually hampers its broad application. Interestingly, Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs) depicted promising regenerative antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials against multiple oxidative stress-induced pathologies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine either CeONPs would display hepatoprotective properties once concomitantly administered with DOX or not. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 10) in a two weeks study: Control (received saline, IP injection thrice a week), CeO (0...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684823/fecal-microbiome-from-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-is-potent-to-induce-inflammatory-responses
#2
Shaoxuan Wang, Li Yao, Yanyan Liu
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic idiopathic disease affecting the colon. Patients with UC display a number of alterations in immune-related molecules and cells, as well as dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiota. It remains unclear whether the alterations in the patients' immune systems are initiating factors of UC or a result from external insults. Also, precisely how these intestinal microorganisms affect UC development is not completely understood. To answer these questions, fecal bacteria were collected from UC patients during the active phase (UC-active), UC patients during the remission phase (UC-remission), and healthy controls...
April 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684437/sleep-dysfunction-following-neonatal-ischemic-seizures-are-differential-by-neonatal-age-of-insult-as-determined-by-qeeg-in-a-mouse-model
#3
S K Kang, S Ammanuel, S Thodupunuri, D A Adler, M V Johnston, S D Kadam
Neonatal seizures associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) pose a challenge in their acute clinical management and are often followed by long-term neurological consequences. We used a newly characterized CD-1 mouse model of neonatal ischemic seizures associated with age-dependent (P7 vs. P10) seizure severity and phenobarbital efficacy (i.e.; PB-resistant vs. PB-efficacious respectively) following unilateral carotid ligation. The long-term consequences following untreated neonatal seizures in P7 vs...
April 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684364/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-fission-preserves-photoreceptors-after-retinal-detachment
#4
Xiangjun She, Xinmin Lu, Tong Li, Junran Sun, Jian Liang, Yuanqi Zhai, Shiqi Yang, Qing Gu, Fang Wei, Hong Zhu, Fenghua Wang, Xueting Luo, Xiaodong Sun
Photoreceptor degeneration is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Separation of neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium is a prominent feature preceding photoreceptor degeneration in a variety of retinal diseases. Although ophthalmic surgeries have been well developed to restore retinal structures, post-op patients usually experience progressive photoreceptor degeneration and irreversible vision loss that is incurable at present. Previous studies point to a critical role of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in photoreceptor degeneration, but the upstream triggers remain largely unexplored...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683999/normothermic-ex-vivo-kidney-perfusion-reduces-warm-ischemic-injury-of-porcine-kidney-grafts-retrieved-after-circulatory-death-dcd
#5
Matyas Hamar, Peter Urbanellis, Moritz Johann Kaths, Dagmar Kollmann, Ivan Linares, Sujani Ganesh, Aryn Wiebe, Jun Yu Cen, Paul M Yip, Rohan John, Ana Konvalinka, Istvan Mucsi, Anand Ghanekar, Darius Bagli, David R Grant, Lisa A Robinson, Markus Selzner
BACKGROUND: Cold storage is poorly tolerated by kidney grafts retrieved after Donation after Circulatory Death (DCD). It has been determined that normothermic ex vivo kidney perfusion (NEVKP) preservation decreases injury by minimizing cold ischemic storage. The impact of NEVKP on warm ischemic injury is unknown. METHODS: We compared pig kidneys retrieved after 30minutes warm ischemia and immediate transplantation (no-preservation) with grafts that were exposed to 30min of warm ischemia plus 8hr NEVKP or plus 8hr SCS...
April 21, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682460/simple-retrograde-cerebral-perfusion-is-as-good-as-complex-antegrade-cerebral-perfusion-for-hemiarch-replacement
#6
Akiko Tanaka, Anthony L Estrera
Cerebral complication is a major concern after aortic arch surgery, which may lead to death. Thus, cerebral protection strategy plays the key role to obtain respectable results in aortic arch repair. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was introduced in 1970s to decrease the ischemic insults to the brain. However, safe duration of circulatory arrest time was limited to 30 minutes. The 1990s was the decade of evolution for cerebral protection, in which two adjuncts for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest were introduced: retrograde and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) techniques...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682387/surgical-management-of-encapsulating-peritoneal-sclerosis-a-case-report-in-kidney-transplant-patient
#7
R Shahbazov, M Talanian, J L Alejo, F Azari, A Agarwal, K L Brayman
Introduction: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a clinical syndrome of progressive fibrotic change in response to prolonged, repetitive, and typically severe insult to the peritoneal mesothelium, often occurring in the setting of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Clear guidelines for successful management remain elusive. We describe the successful surgical management of EPS in a 28-year-old male s/p deceased donor kidney transplant for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682208/development-of-a-quantitative-pharmacodynamic-assay-for-apoptosis-in-fixed-tumor-tissue-and-its-application-in-distinguishing-cytotoxic-drug-induced-dna-double-strand-breaks-from-dna-double-strand-breaks-associated-with-apoptosis
#8
Angie B Dull, Deborah Wilsker, Melinda Hollingshead, Christina Mazcko, Christina M Annunziata, Amy K LeBlanc, James H Doroshow, Robert J Kinders, Ralph E Parchment
DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by cancer therapeutic agents can lead to DNA damage repair or persistent DNA damage, which can induce apoptotic cell death; however, apoptosis also induces DSBs independent of genotoxic insult. γH2AX is an established biomarker for DSBs but cannot distinguish between these mechanisms. Activated cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) promotes apoptosis by enhancing nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and plasma membrane blebbing. Here, we describe an immunofluorescence assay that distinguishes between apoptosis and drug-induced DSBs by measuring coexpression of γH2AX and membrane blebbing-associated CC3 to indicate apoptosis, and γH2AX in the absence of CC3 blebbing to indicate drug-induced DNA damage...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681945/white-matter-damage-in-4-725-term-born-infants-is-determined-by-head-circumference-at-birth-the-missing-link
#9
Arne Jensen, Bert Holmer
Background: White matter damage (WMD) is a prime risk factor for cerebral palsy, in part occurring unexplained. Though primarily a problem of preterm infants, there is growing evidence that in large newborns cephalopelvic disproportion and prolonged labor are involved. Objective: To explore both incidence of and morphometric risk factors for WMD in term-born infants. Study Design: We related growth variables and risk factors of term-born infants to WMD (61/4,725) using odds ratios of z -score bands...
2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681435/hypothermic-preconditioning-but-not-ketamine-reduces-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induced-neuronal-injury-correlated-with-downregulation-of-cox-2-expression-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#10
Shan Jiang, Yong Wu, De-Fang Fang, Ying Chen
Hypothermic preconditioning is an effective treatment for limiting ischemic injury, but the mechanism is poorly understood. This study was aimed to explore the effect of hypothermic and ketamine preconditioning on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) induced neuronal injury in mouse hippocampal slices, and to investigate its possible mechanism. The population spike (PS) was recorded in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampal slices using extracellular recordings, Na+ /K+ ATPase activity in slices was determined by spectrophotometer and the expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was measured by Western blot...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680981/future-of-diagnosing-neoplasia-in-barrett-s-esophagus-volumetric-laser-endomicroscopy
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Aziz, Rawish Fatima
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the deadliest carcinoma faced by gastroenterologists. Any insult to esophagus that causes replacement of normal squamous epithelium with columnar intestinal epithelium is labelled as the initiating event of the metaplasia-neoplasia sequence. Barrett's esophagus is the precursor to EAC. Currently, endoscopically obtained biopsies are used to detect neoplastic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE); however, it is not cost effective and hence a better screening modality is needed...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680884/ecotoxicological-effects-of-microplastics-on-biota-a-review
#12
Sadasivam Anbumani, Poonam Kakkar
The ubiquitous presence of microplastics in the environment has drawn the attention of ecotoxicologists on its safety and toxicity. Sources of microplastics in the environment include disintegration of larger plastic items (secondary microplastics), personal care products like liquid soap, exfoliating scrubbers, and cleaning supplies etc. Indiscriminate usage of plastics and its poor waste disposal management pose serious concern on ecosystem quality at global level. The present review focused on the ecological impact of microplastics on biota at different trophic levels, its uptake, accumulation, and excretion etc...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679641/ethanol-induced-cardiomyocyte-toxicity-involves-autophagy-nfkb-transcription-factor
#13
Jessica Maiuolo, Alessia Maretta, Micaela Gliozzi, Vincenzo Musolino, Cristina Carresi, Francesca Bosco, Rocco Mollace, Federica Scarano, Ernesto Palma, Miriam Scicchitano, Saverio Nucera, Domenico Sergi, Saverio Muscoli, Santo Gratteri, Carolina Muscoli, Vincenzo Mollace
Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption causes early detrimental consequences in many tissues including the myocardium, though the molecular mechanisms leading to the alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) still remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied several biomolecular changes occurring in cardiomyoblasts after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of EtOH and the potential synergistic effect with methylmercury (MM) or doxorubicin (DOXO), which are known to produce direct myocardial dysfunction. In addition, the possible role of autophagic responses and Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NFkB) modulation in early post-alcoholic myocardial damage has been investigated...
April 18, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679162/circulating-troponin-i-level-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
REVIEW
Jacob VanHouten, Gregory Fricker, Bridget Collins, Ritwik Bhatia, Christopher Ellis, Matthew Schrag
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac troponin levels in the blood are an important biomarker of acute coronary events, but may also be elevated in the context of acute ischemic stroke without an obvious concurrent myocardial insult. The objective of this study and systematic review is to determine how high the circulating troponin I level can rise due to ischemic stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Anonymized medical records from Vanderbilt University Medical Center were reviewed identifying 151,972 unique acute ischemic stroke events, of which 1226 met criteria for inclusion in this study...
April 20, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677694/3s-systematic-systemic-and-systems-biology-and-toxicology
#15
Lena Smirnova, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Raffaella Corvi, Andre Levchenko, Suzanne C Fitzpatrick, Thomas Hartung
A biological system is more than the sum of its parts - it accomplishes many functions via synergy. Deconstructing the system down to the molecular mechanism level necessitates the complement of reconstructing functions on all levels, i.e., in our conceptualization of biology and its perturbations, our experimental models and computer modelling. Toxicology contains the somewhat arbitrary subclass "systemic toxicities"; however, there is no relevant toxic insult or general disease that is not systemic...
2018: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677156/divergent-roles-of-rpa-homologs-of-the-model-archaeon-halobacterium-salinarum-in-survival-of-dna-damage
#16
Jessica J Evans, Patrick E Gygli, Julienne McCaskill, Linda C DeVeaux
The haloarchaea are unusual in possessing genes for multiple homologs to the ubiquitous single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB or replication protein A, RPA) found in all three domains of life. Halobacterium salinarum contains five homologs: two are eukaryotic in organization, two are prokaryotic and are encoded on the minichromosomes, and one is uniquely euryarchaeal. Radiation-resistant mutants previously isolated show upregulation of one of the eukaryotic-type RPA genes. Here, we have created deletions in the five RPA operons...
April 20, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676801/prolonged-prenatal-hypoxia-selectively-disrupts-collecting-duct-patterning-and-postnatal-function-in-male-mouse-offspring
#17
Sarah L Walton, Reetu R Singh, Melissa H Little, Josephine Bowles, Joan Li, Karen M Moritz
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: In this study we investigated whether hypoxia during late pregnancy impairs kidney development in mouse offspring, and also whether this has long-lasting consequences affecting kidney function in adulthood. Hypoxia disrupted growth of the kidney, particularly the collecting duct network, in juvenile male offspring. By mid-late adulthood, these mice developed early signs of kidney disease, notably a compromised response to water deprivation. Female offspring showed no obvious signs of impaired kidney development and did not develop kidney disease, suggesting a underlying protection mechanism from the hypoxia insult...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675263/micro-ct-x-ray-imaging-exposes-structured-diffusion-barriers-within-biofilms
#18
Alona Keren-Paz, Vlad Brumfeld, Yaara Oppenheimer-Shaanan, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
In nature, bacteria predominantly exist as highly structured biofilms, which are held together by extracellular polymeric substance and protect their residents from environmental insults, such as antibiotics. The mechanisms supporting this phenotypic resistance are poorly understood. Recently, we identified a new mechanism maintaining biofilms - an active production of calcite minerals. In this work, a high-resolution and robust µCT technique is used to study the mineralized areas within intact bacterial biofilms...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674956/mir-103-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-and-suppresses-cells-apoptosis-by-targeting-prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2-in-cellular-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Hui Yang, Hongcai Wang, Yongwei Shu, Xuling Li
miR-103 has been reported to be decreased in brain of transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients, while the detailed mechanism of its effect on AD is obscure, thus this study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-103 expression on neurite outgrowth and cells apoptosis as well as its targets in cellular models of AD. Blank mimic (NC1-mimic), miR-103 mimic, blank inhibitor (NC2-mimic) and miR-103 inhibitor plasmids were transferred into PC12 cellular AD model and Cellular AD model of cerebral cortex neurons which were established by Aβ1-42 insult...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673862/chemical-profiling-of-edible-seaweed-ochrophyta-extracts-and-assessment-of-their-in-vitro-effects-on-cell-free-enzyme-systems-and-on-the-viability-of-glutamate-injured-sh-sy5y-cells
#20
Fátima Fernandes, Mariana Barbosa, David M Pereira, Isabel Sousa-Pinto, Patrícia Valentão, Isabel C Azevedo, Paula B Andrade
Neurodegenerative processes involve numerous and closely related events that ultimately culminate in neuronal cell injury. The aim of this study was (i) to assess, for the first time, the neuroprotective potential of acetone extracts of six edible species of Ochrophyta, by evaluating their cholinesterase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity in cell-free assays, as well as their capacity to attenuate glutamate-induced toxicity in neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells, and (ii) to try to relate the chemical composition of the extracts with their biological activity, evaluating also the effect of the main compounds thereof...
April 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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