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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908481/tissue-aging-the-integration-of-collective-and-variant-responses-of-cells-to-entropic-forces-over-time
#1
REVIEW
Michael E Todhunter, Rosalyn W Sayaman, Masaru Miyano, Mark A LaBarge
Aging is driven by unavoidable entropic forces, physicochemical in nature, that damage the raw materials that constitute biological systems. Single cells experience and respond to stochastic physicochemical insults that occur either to the cells themselves or to their microenvironment, in a dynamic and reciprocal manner, leading to increased age-related cell-to-cell variation. We will discuss the biological mechanisms that integrate cell-to-cell variation across tissues resulting in stereotypical phenotypes of age...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908221/maternal-separation-stress-reduced-prenatal-ethanol-induced-increase-in-exploratory-behaviour-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activity
#2
Patricia C Swart, Vivienne A Russell, Jacqueline J Dimatelis
In an attempt to better represent the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the associated psychological deficits, prenatal-ethanol exposure was followed by maternal separation in a rat model in order to account for the effects of early-life adversities in addition to in utero alcohol exposure. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) are converging points for many signalling cascades and have been implicated in models of FASD and models of early-life stress...
June 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906509/photothrombotically-induced-unilateral-selective-hippocampal-ischemia-in-rat
#3
Sayed Masoud Hosseini, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Nima Naderi, Mohammad Sayyah, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii
INTRODUCTION: The vulnerability of hippocampal formation to ischemic insult has been documented in both humans and animal models. Ischemic injury induction through photothrombosis is an invasive and reproducible model of ischemic stroke which provides the ability to induce ischemia selectively in any desired area. In this study, we describe a method to induce selective unilateral hippocampal ischemia in rat through modified photothrombotic model. METHODS: Male wistar rats (n = 66) were subjected to stereotaxic surgery to insert a guide cannula just above the ascending part of hippocampal fissure...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903766/cytoprotective-and-pro-angiogenic-functions-of-thrombomodulin-are-preserved-in-the-c-loop-of-the-fifth-epidermal-growth-factor-like-domain
#4
Xiangmin Wang, Bin Pan, Goichi Honda, Xintao Wang, Yuko Hashimoto, Hiroshi Ohkawara, Kailin Xu, Lingyu Zeng, Takayuki Ikezoe
We previously found that the fifth epidermal growth factor-like domain of thrombomodulin (TME5) exerts cytoprotective and pro-angiogenic functions via G-protein coupled receptor 15 (GPR15). TME5 is comprised of three S-S bonds that divide it into three loops: A (TME5A), B (TME5B), and C (TME5C). Here, we identified the minimum structure of TME5 that produces favorable effects in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). We found that TME5C, composed of 19 amino acids, but not TME5A or TME5B, stimulated the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs)...
June 14, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902550/fgf-binding-proteins-fgfbps-modulators-of-fgf-signaling-in-the-developing-adult-and-stressed-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Thomas Taetzsch, Vanessa L Brayman, Gregorio Valdez
Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family are involved in a variety of cellular processes. In the nervous system, they affect the differentiation and migration of neurons, the formation and maturation of synapses, and the repair of neuronal circuits following insults. Because of the varied yet critical functions of FGF ligands, their availability and activity must be tightly regulated for the nervous system, as well as other tissues, to properly develop and function in adulthood. In this regard, FGF binding proteins (FGFBPs) have emerged as strong candidates for modulating the actions of secreted FGFs in neural and non-neural tissues...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902531/homoeriodictyol-protects-human-endothelial-cells-against-oxidative-insults-through-activation-of-nrf2-and-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#6
Tao Shen, Hai-Zhen Li, Ai-Ling Li, Yan-Ru Li, Xiao-Ning Wang, Dong-Mei Ren
Excess intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a significant causative factor of many diseases, exemplified by vascular diseases. Mitochondria are a major source of endogenous ROS, which simultaneously induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) represents an important intracellular defense system that protects cells against oxidative insults caused by ROS. Therefore, molecules with the capacities of inducing Nrf2, and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction can inhibit cell apoptosis, and thus are potential drug candidates for the therapy of ROS-mediated vascular diseases...
June 11, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902514/principles-of-inflammasome-priming-and-inhibition-implications-for-psychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Francis J Herman, Giulio Maria Pasinetti
The production of inflammatory proteins by the innate immune system is a tightly orchestrated procedure that allows the body to efficiently respond to exogenous and endogenous threats. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that disturbances in the inflammatory response system not only provoke autoimmune disorders, but also can have deleterious effects on neuronal function and mental health. As inflammation in the brain is primarily mediated by microglia, there has been an expanding focus on the mechanisms through which these cells initiate and propagate neuroinflammation...
June 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900230/spleen-data-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-attenuate-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-spenic-damage-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#8
Kevin M Rice, Venkata Vinay Kumar Bandarupalli, Nandini D P K Manne, Eric R Blough
Sepsis is a serious life threatening medical emergency which, if not treated properly, oftentimes results in organ failure and death. Current sepsis treatment protocols are largely centered on the use of antibiotics and supportive care. Recent studies have suggested that antibiotics fail to be effective for sepsis treatment when administered during hypo-dynamic phase of sepsis that is usually characterized by the presence of a cytokine storm. As such, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic drugs that target the inflammatory cytokines that are secreted as a result of increased reactive oxygen species...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899689/deficiency-of-duffy-antigen-receptor-for-chemokines-ameliorated-cochlear-damage-from-noise-exposure
#9
Bouchra Edderkaoui, Liana Sargsyan, Alisa Hetrick, Hongzhe Li
Cochlear inflammatory response to various environmental insults, including acoustic and ototoxic overexposures, has been increasingly become a topic of interest. As the immune response is associated with both pathology and protection, targeting specific components of the immune response is expected to dissect the relationships between cellular damage and inflammation-associated protection and repair in the cochlea. Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is a member of a group of atypical chemokine receptors, and essential for chemokine-regulated leukocyte/neutrophil trafficking during inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899247/history-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-and-its-use-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#10
REVIEW
Melissa J Walker, Xiao-Ming Xu
Following an initial mechanical insult, traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a secondary wave of injury, resulting in a toxic lesion environment inhibitory to axonal regeneration. This review focuses on the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its application, in combination with other factors and cell transplantations, for repairing the injured spinal cord. As studies of recent decades strongly suggest that combinational treatment approaches hold the greatest therapeutic potential for the central nervous system (CNS) trauma, future directions of combinational therapies will also be discussed...
June 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897824/the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-end-stage-renal-disease-and-stroke-in-post-partum-women-and-their-fetuses-after-a-hypertensive-pregnancy
#11
Mark W Cunningham, Babbette D LaMarca
Women with hypertensive pregnancy complications are at greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic diseases, stroke, and end-stage renal disease later in life. Pregnancy complications not only effect the mother's long-term health, but also the health of the fetus immediately after delivery and into adulthood. The health of the fetus until adulthood can be influenced by developmental programming, in which the fetus is exposed to insults that will ultimately affect the growth of the offspring and increase the offspring's risk of developing hypertension, coronary heart disease, metabolic disease, and chronic kidney disease in adulthood...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894819/thalamic-proteome-changes-and-behavioral-impairments-in-thiamine-deficient-rats
#12
Polliana Toledo Nunes, Diana Paola Gómez-Mendoza, Cristiana Perdigão Rezende, Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo, Angela Maria Ribeiro
Thiamine deficiency (TD) has been used as an experimental model in rodents to study the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration and its association with behavioral changes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the spatial cognitive performance of pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) in adult male rats and disclose the thalamic proteome alterations caused by a severe TD episode. After the onset of the neurological signs, such as seizure and/or loss of righting reflex, the TD treatment was interrupted...
June 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894692/liver-cancer-initiation-requires-p53-inhibition-by-cd44-enhanced-growth-factor-signaling
#13
Debanjan Dhar, Laura Antonucci, Hayato Nakagawa, Ju Youn Kim, Elisabeth Glitzner, Stefano Caruso, Shabnam Shalapour, Ling Yang, Mark A Valasek, Sooyeon Lee, Kerstin Minnich, Ekihiro Seki, Jan Tuckermann, Maria Sibilia, Jessica Zucman-Rossi, Michael Karin
How fully differentiated cells that experience carcinogenic insults become proliferative cancer progenitors that acquire multiple initiating mutations is not clear. This question is of particular relevance to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which arises from differentiated hepatocytes. Here we show that one solution to this problem is provided by CD44, a hyaluronic acid receptor whose expression is rapidly induced in carcinogen-exposed hepatocytes in a STAT3-dependent manner. Once expressed, CD44 potentiates AKT activation to induce the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Mdm2, which terminates the p53 genomic surveillance response...
June 11, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894347/in-situ-cold-perfusion-of-the-liver-on-cardiopulmonary-bypass-coagulopathy-and-its-correction-a-case-report
#14
Mohammed Haque, Adriaan Van Rensburg, Stuart McCluskey, Massimiliano Meineri, Matteo Parotto
We report a case of profound coagulopathy after the dual insult of cold in-situ perfusion of the liver and cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient undergoing complex hepatobiliary and cardiovascular surgery. Management of this coagulopathy with conventional blood products was hindered by elevated venous pressures, thought to contribute to persistent bleeding and risked liver and right ventricular dysfunction, necessitating a change in strategy. Anesthesiologists should consider fluid-restrictive strategies to correct coagulopathy in combined liver and cardiac surgery...
June 11, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893682/immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-spinal-cord-ischemia-effect-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-a-porcine-model
#15
Henri Johannes Haapanen, Johanna Herajärvi, Hannu-Pekka Honkanen, Caius Mustonen, Hannu Tuominen, Ulla Puistola, Vesa Anttila, Tatu Juvonen
In experimental settings, remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has shown a positive effect regarding spinal cord protection after local ischemia. In this study, we conducted spinal cord immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the protective effect of RIPC after 24 hours of the regional ischemia. Methods: Twenty piglets were randomized into an RIPC group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). The RIPC group underwent transient left hind limb ischemia before systematic left subclavian artery and segmental artery occlusion at the level of the diaphragm...
May 29, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892177/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-hospital-predictors-of-mortality-in-icu
#16
Sujay Kulkarni, Mithun Sharma, Padaki N Rao, Rajesh Gupta, Duvvuru N Reddy
Aims: We studied in-hospital predictors of mortality of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in Indian patients. Methods: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit of our institute fulfilling the definition of ACLF based on the Asia-Pacific Association for Study of Liver Disease (APASL) consensus were included. Complete history and medical evaluation to assess the etiology of underlying liver cirrhosis and to identify the acute precipitating insult of worsening liver function was done...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890719/the-role-of-cannabinoids-in-the-setting-of-cirrhosis
#17
REVIEW
Pratima Dibba, Andrew A Li, George Cholankeril, Umair Iqbal, Chiranjeevi Gadiparthi, Muhammad Ali Khan, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Although the mortality rates of cirrhosis are underestimated, its socioeconomic burden has demonstrated a significant global impact. Cirrhosis is defined by the disruption of normal liver architecture after years of chronic insult by different etiologies. Treatment modalities are recommended primarily in decompensated cirrhosis and specifically tailored to the different manifestations of hepatic decompensation. Antifibrogenic therapies are within an active area of investigation. The endocannabinoid system has been shown to play a role in liver disease, and cirrhosis specifically, with intriguing possible therapeutic benefits...
June 9, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890144/ischemia-reperfusion-model-impairs-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-na-k-atpase-expression-and-activity-in-kidney-proximal-tubule-cells
#18
Luzia S Sampaio, Fabio A Iannotti, Luciana Veneziani, Rosa T Borelli-Tôrres, Fabrizia De Maio, Fabiana Piscitelli, Ricardo A M Reis, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Marcelo Einicker-Lamas
LLC-PK1 cells, an immortalized epithelial cell line derived from pig renal proximal tubules, express all the major players of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) such as CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor, as well as the main enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of the major endocannabinoids named 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG and anandamide, AEA. Here we investigated whether the damages caused by ischemic insult either in vitro using LLC-PK1 cells exposed to antimycin A (an inductor of ATP-depletion) or in vivo using Wistar rats in a classic renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) protocol, lead to changes in AEA and 2-AG levels, as well as altered expression of genes from the main enzymes involved in the regulation of the ECS...
June 8, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889834/pathological-presentation-of-cardiac-mitochondria-in-a-rat-model-for-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Einat Bigelman, Lena Cohen, Genya Aharon-Hananel, Ran Levy, Zach Rozenbaum, Ann Saada, Gad Keren, Michal Entin-Meer
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria hold crucial importance in organs with high energy demand especially the heart. We investigated whether chronic kidney disease (CKD), which eventually culminates in cardiorenal syndrome, could affect cardiac mitochondria and assessed the potential involvement of angiotensin II (AngII) in the process. METHODS: Male Lewis rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy allowing CKD development for eight months or for eleven weeks. Short-term CKD rats were administered with AngII receptor blocker (ARB)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888385/acute-ophthalmic-artery-occlusion-in-decompression-illness-with-underlying-anterior-cerebral-artery-a1-segment-hypoplasia
#20
Ahmad Razif Omar, Mohtar Ibrahim, Adil Hussein
A diver presented with total loss of vision in the left eye and right hemiparesis following a routine no-stop scuba dive to 20 metres' depth. A diagnosis of decompression illness (DCI) with acute ophthalmic artery air embolism and left carotid artery insult causing acute anterior circulatory ischaemia was made. He underwent seven hyperbaric treatments leading to a full recovery. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed an underlying left anterior cerebral artery A1 segment hypoplasia. Making a prompt diagnosis and early hyperbaric oxygen treatment are crucial to halt further tissue damage from ischaemia in central nervous system DCI...
June 30, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
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