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Renal fibrosis

Huseyin Bozkurt, Emel Cicek Bozkurt, Hulya Ozpinar, Densel Arac, Ismail Kaya, Hidir Ozer, Reyhan Egilmez
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative epidural adhesion is one of the most frequent causes of failed-back surgery syndrome, presenting with back and leg pain or neurological deficits. Development of preventive measures for epidural adhesion after laminectomy remains critical to improve the outcomes of lumbar surgery. We hypothesized that positive effects of the topical application of Contractubex®Gel and benzothiazole individually and in combination can aid in the prevention of epidural fibrosis in a rat laminectomy model...
June 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jue-Long Wang, Chin-Wang Chen, Mu-Rou Tsai, Shu-Fen Liu, Tsuing-Jeu Hung, Yu-Ju-Hung, Wen-Teng Chang, Ming-Der Shi, Pei-Fang Hsieh, Yu-Lin Yang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction has been indicated as an established risk factor for the development of renal fibrosis. However, whether PGC-1α is involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is unknown. In this study, we treated NRK-49F (normal rat kidney fibroblast) cells with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) for 24h to establish an in vitro fibrosis model...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Wei Zhang, Shinji Ohno, Beatrix Steer, Stephan Klee, Claudia A Staab-Weijnitz, Darcy Wagner, Mareike Lehmann, Tobias Stoeger, Melanie Königshoff, Heiko Adler
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating interstitial lung disease, characterized by damage of lung epithelial cells, excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the lung interstitium, and enhanced activation and proliferation of fibroblasts. S100a4, also termed FSP-1 (fibroblast-specific protein-1), was previously considered as a marker of fibroblasts but recent findings in renal and liver fibrosis indicated that M2 macrophages are an important cellular source of S100a4. Thus, we hypothesized that also in pulmonary fibrosis, M2 macrophages produce and secrete S100a4, and that secreted S100a4 induces the proliferation and activation of fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Alieh Gholaminejad, Hossein Abdul Tehrani, Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki
CONTEXT: The prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic value of microRNA (miRNA) expression aberrations in renal fibrosis has been studied in recent years. However, the miRNA expression profiling efforts have led to inconsistent results between the studies. OBJECTIVE(S): The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis on the renal fibrosis miRNA expression profiling studies to identify candidate diagnostic biomarkers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed comprehensive literature searches in several databases to identify miRNA expression studies of renal fibrosis in animal models and humans...
June 18, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Sonja Djudjaj, Peter Boor
Renal fibrosis is the final pathological process common to any ongoing, chronic kidney injury or maladaptive repair. It is considered as the underlying pathological process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which affects more than 10% of world population and for which treatment options are limited. Renal fibrosis is defined by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which disrupts and replaces the functional parenchyma that leads to organ failure. Kidney's histological structure can be divided into three main compartments, all of which can be affected by fibrosis, specifically termed glomerulosclerosis in glomeruli, interstitial fibrosis in tubulointerstitium and arteriosclerosis and perivascular fibrosis in vasculature...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
José I Fortea, Carolina Fernández-Mena, Marta Puerto, Cristina Ripoll, Jorge Almagro, Juan Bañares, José M Bellón, Rafael Bañares, Javier Vaquero
Despite being a cardinal experimental model, the induction of cirrhosis in rats by repeated exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has low reproducibility. Here, we compared two models of cirrhosis induced by orogastric administration of CCl4 once (CCl4-1xWk) or twice a week (CCl4-2xWk) for 12 weeks in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Control rats received water instead of CCl4. Both CCl4 protocols similarly attenuated body weight gain (p < 0.01 vs. Control). Although both CCl4 protocols increased hepatic fibrosis, portal hypertension and splenomegaly, the magnitude of these alterations was higher and more consistent in CCl4-2xWk rats...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seung Seok Han, Mi-Yeon Yu, Kyung Don Yoo, Jung Pyo Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Yon Su Kim, Seung Hee Yang
Krüppel‑like factor 15 (KLF15), also known as kidney‑enriched transcription factor, is known to participate in podocyte differentiation. However, the role of KLF15 in chronic podocyte injury remains incompletely understood, particularly in proteinuric disease models. In the present study, the 5/6 nephrectomy mouse model was used to induce chronic podocyte injury. Human primary podocytes were isolated by flow cytometry and cultured to emulate the injury process in an in vitro system. Biopsied kidney tissue samples were obtained from patients with primary membranous nephropathy or diabetic nephropathy in order to analyze the relationship between glomerular KLF15 expression and subsequent outcomes...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Becker Meng-Po Law, Ray Wilkinson, Xiangju Wang, Katrina Kildey, Mae Lindner, Kenneth Beagley, Helen Healy, Andrew J Kassianos
Background: γδ T cells are effector lymphocytes recognized as key players during chronic inflammatory processes. Mouse studies suggest a pathological role for γδ T cells in models of kidney disease. Here we evaluated γδ T cells in human native kidneys with tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Methods: γδ T cells were extracted from human kidney tissue and enumerated and phenotyped by multicolour flow cytometry...
April 20, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Jennifer L Riggs, Carolyn E Pace, Heather H Ward, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc, Lynnette Rios, Adleaeda Barrera, Nancy L Kanagy
Kidney injury and sleep apnea (SA) are independent risk factors for hypertension. Exposing rats to intermittent hypoxia (IH) to simulate SA increases blood pressure while adenine feeding causes persistent kidney damage to model chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that exposing CKD rats to IH would exacerbate the development of hypertension and renal failure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 0.2% adenine or control diet until blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was &gt; 120 mg/dL in adenine fed rats (14 {plus minus} 4 days)...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Laurence Black, Jeremie M Lever, Amie M Traylor, Bo Chen, Zhengqin Yang, Stephanie Esman, Yanlin Jiang, Gary Cutter, Ravindra Boddu, James George, Anupam Agarwal
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition with significant morbidity and mortality that affects 15% of adults in the United States. One cause of CKD is acute kidney injury (AKI), which commonly occurs secondary to sepsis, ischemic events, and drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (UIRI) without contralateral nephrectomy (CLN) and repeated low dose cisplatin (RLDC) models of AKI to CKD demonstrate responses characteristic of the transition; however, previous studies have not effectively compared the pathogenesis...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Katrin Schwarze, Andreas Kribben, Oliver Ritter, Gerhard A Müller, Daniel Patschan
BACKGROUND: AKI (Acute Kidney Injury) occurs frequently in hospitals worldwide, the therapeutic options are limited. Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects more and more people around the globe, the disease worsens the prognosis of AKI even further. In recent years, cell-based therapies have increasingly been applied in experimental AKI. Aim of the study was to utilize two established autophagy inducers for pharmacological preconditioning of so-called proangiogenic cells (PACs) in PAC treatment of diabetic AKI...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Dieter Haffner
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 is a phosphaturic hormone primarily secreted by osteocytes to maintain phosphate and mineral homeostasis. In patients with and without chronic kidney disease, enhanced circulating FGF23 levels associate with pathologic cardiac remodeling, i.e., left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and myocardial fibrosis and increased cardiovascular mortality. Experimental studies demonstrate that FGF23 promotes hypertrophic growth of cardiac myocytes via FGF receptor 4-dependent activation of phospholipase Cγ/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell signaling independent of its co-receptor klotho...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yu Wang, Bo-Shi Wang, Xu Hui, Jun Qiao, Wei-Zhen Li, Nan Sun
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) signaling pathway-mediated Th17 cells polarization in renal damage in essential hypertension. METHODS: Four-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into control (SHR-C) group and intervention (SHR-I) group and subjected to intraperitoneal injections of PBS and ICOS monoclonal antibody for 2 weeks, respectively. Blood pressure of the rats was monitored using noninvasive tail artery blood pressure measuring instrument...
May 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Wenqing Tan, Wei Wang, Xuan Zheng, Jiying Chen, Xiangning Yuan, Fangfang Zhang, Shuting Wang, Lijian Tao
To investigate the effect of fluorofenidone on renal interstitial fibrosis in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and to observe the effect of fluorofenidone on the expressions of collagen type I (Col I), collagen type III (Col III), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in the renal tissues of UUO rats.
 Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a sham-operated group, a UUO group, and a flurofenidone group (n=5)...
May 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Chao Zhang, George W Booz, Qing Yu, Xiaochen He, Shaoxun Wang, Fan Fan
20-HETE is a cytochrome P450-derived metabolite of arachidonic acid that has both pro- and anti-hypertensive actions that result from modulation of vascular and kidney function. In the vasculature, 20-HETE sensitizes vascular smooth muscle cells to constrictor stimuli and increases myogenic tone. By promoting smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, as well as by acting on the vascular endothelium to cause endothelial dysfunction, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) expression, and inflammation, 20-HETE contributes to adverse vascular remodeling and increased blood pressure...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ming Wu, Ruoyu Li, Yanjuan Hou, Shan Song, Weixia Han, Nan Chen, Yunxia Du, Yunzhuo Ren, Yonghong Shi
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is associated with inflammation, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and oxidative stress in diabetic kidney disease, yet the potential role of TXNIP in nondiabetic renal injury is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TXNIP on renal injury by creating a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model in TXNIP knockout (TKO) mice. We performed sham or UUO surgery in 8-week-old TXNIP KO male mice and age and sex-matched wild-type (WT) mice. Animals were killed at 3, 5, 7, or 14 days after surgery, and renal tissues were obtained for RNA, protein, and other analysis...
June 8, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Josivan Gomes Lima, Lucia Helena C Nobrega, Natalia Nobrega Lima, Marcel Catão Ferreira Dos Santos, Pedro Henrique Dantas Silva, Maria de Fatima P Baracho, Debora Nobrega Lima, Julliane Tamara Araújo de Melo Campos, Leonardo Capistrano Ferreira, Francisco Paulo Freire Neto, Carolina de O Mendes-Aguiar, Selma Maria B Jeronimo
INTRODUCTION: Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that affects the development of adipocytes and leads to an inability to store fat in adipocytes. This study aimed to evaluate the life expectancy and the causes of death of patients with BSCL. METHOD: We analyzed death certificates, and medical records of BSCL patients who died between 1997 and 2017. If the death certificate was incomplete or unavailable, we reviewed the medical records, and if they were not available too, we collected information from the patient's relatives to understand how the death happened...
2018: PloS One
Er-Liang Kong, Jin-Min Zhang, Ni An, Yong Tao, Wei-Feng Yu, Fei-Xiang Wu
Postoperative acute renal failure in patients with obstructive jaundice is still a serious clinically complication, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a central role in renal disease progression. Several lines of evidence shows that angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 (ACE2), a main effector of RAAS acts as a local regulator for renal protection. This study aims to investigate the role of ACE2 and the effect of spironolactone treatment in obstructive jaundice(OJ) rats with renal injury...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
G Peschel, L Moleda, L Baier, M Selgrad, S Schmid, M N Scherer, M Müller, K Weigand
BACKGROUND: Patients after liver transplantation (LT) with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often suffer from renal or hepatic impairment. Treating patients after LT with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) might result in decreasing renal function due to interaction of DAA and immunosuppressive therapy. In this single-center study we analyzed clinical parameters of 18 HCV-infected patients treated with DAA therapy after LT. METHODS: The primary end points were change of renal function (glomerular filtration rate) and sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12)...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Taiichiro Shirai, Akira Onishi, Daisuke Waki, Jun Saegusa, Akio Morinobu
RATIONALE: TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. In contrast to that in multicentric Castleman disease, interleukin-6 targeting strategies seem ineffective in some TAFRO syndrome cases; however, the optimal treatment remains unclear. Here, we report 2 cases of TAFRO syndrome, where 1 with cardiomyopathy, successfully treated with tacrolimus. This is the first case report of successful treatment with tacrolimus in TAFRO syndrome...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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