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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162051/in-vitro-characterization-of-cd133-lo-cancer-stem-cells-in-retinoblastoma-y79-cell-line
#1
Rohini M Nair, Murali Ms Balla, Imran Khan, Ravi Kiran Reddy Kalathur, Paturu Kondaiah, Geeta K Vemuganti
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma (Rb), the most common childhood intraocular malignant tumor, is reported to have cancer stem cells (CSCs) similar to other tumors. Our previous investigation in primary tumors identified the small sized cells with low CD133 (Prominin-1) and high CD44 (Hyaluronic acid receptor) expression to be putative Rb CSCs using flow cytometry (FSC(lo)/SSC(lo)/CD133(lo)/CD44(hi)). With this preliminary data, we have now utilized a comprehensive approach of in vitro characterization of Y79 Rb cell line following CSC enrichment using CD133 surface marker and subsequent validation to confirm the functional properties of CSCs...
November 21, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160173/gene-delivery-to-joints-by-intra-articular-injection
#2
Christopher H Evans, Steven Craig Ghivizzani, Paul D Robbins
Most forms of arthritis are incurable, difficult to treat and a major cause of disability in western countries. Better local treatment of arthritis is impaired by the pharmacokinetics of the joint that make it very difficult to deliver drugs to joints at sustained, therapeutic concentrations. This is especially true of biologic drugs, such as proteins and RNA, many of which show great promise in pre-clinical studies. Gene transfer provides a strategy for overcoming this limitation. The basic concept is to deliver cDNAs encoding therapeutic products by direct intra-articular injection, leading to sustained, endogenous synthesis of the gene products within the joint...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121077/a-functional-pipeline-framework-for-landmark-identification-on-3d-surface-extracted-from-volumetric-data
#3
Pan Zheng, Bahari Belaton, Iman Yi Liao, Zainul Ahmad Rajion
Landmarks, also known as feature points, are one of the important geometry primitives that describe the predominant characteristics of a surface. In this study we proposed a self-contained framework to generate landmarks on surfaces extracted from volumetric data. The framework is designed to be a three-fold pipeline structure. The pipeline comprises three phases which are surface construction, crest line extraction and landmark identification. With input as a volumetric data and output as landmarks, the pipeline takes in 3D raw data and produces a 0D geometry feature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118984/clinical-trial-protocol-for-tardox-a-phase-i-study-to-investigate-the-feasibility-of-targeted-release-of-lyso-thermosensitive-liposomal-doxorubicin-thermodox%C3%A2-using-focused-ultrasound-in-patients-with-liver-tumours
#4
Paul C Lyon, Lucy F Griffiths, Jenni Lee, Daniel Chung, Robert Carlisle, Feng Wu, Mark R Middleton, Fergus V Gleeson, Constantin C Coussios
Background: TARDOX is a Phase I single center study of ultrasound triggered targeted drug delivery in adult oncology patients with incurable liver tumours. This proof of concept study is designed to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of targeted drug release and enhanced delivery of doxorubicin from thermally sensitive liposomes (ThermoDox®) triggered by mild hyperthermia induced by focused ultrasound in liver tumours. A key feature of the study is the direct quantification of the doxorubicin concentration before and after ultrasound exposure from tumour biopsies, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091414/low-permeability-zone-remediation-via-oxidant-delivered-by-electrokinetics-and-activated-by-electrical-resistance-heating-proof-of-concept
#5
Ahmed I A Chowdhury, Jason I Gerhard, David Reynolds, Denis M O'Carroll
This study proposes and proves (in concept) a novel approach of combining electrokinetic (EK)-assisted delivery of an oxidant, persulfate (PS), and low temperature electrical resistivity heating (ERH), to activate PS, to achieve remediation of contaminated, low permeability soil. This unique combination is able to overcome existing challenges in remediating low permeability materials, particularly associated with delivering remediants. A further benefit of the approach is the use of the same electrodes for both EK and ERH phases...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091340/online-interventions-to-address-hiv-and-other-sexually-transmitted-and-blood-borne-infections-among-young-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-systematic-review
#6
Rod Knight, Mohammad Karamouzian, Travis Salway, Mark Gilbert, Jean Shoveller
INTRODUCTION: Globally, young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) continue to experience disproportionately high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs). As such, there are strong public health imperatives to evaluate innovative prevention, treatment and care interventions, including online interventions. This study reviewed and assessed the status of published research (e.g. effectiveness; acceptability; differential effects across subgroups) involving online interventions that address HIV/STBBIs among young gbMSM...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089466/preclinical-and-clinical-advances-in-transposon-based-gene-therapy
#7
Jaitip Tipanee, Yoke Chin Chai, Thierry VandenDriessche, Marinee K Chuah
Transposons derived from Sleeping Beauty (SB), piggyBac (PB) or Tol2 typically require cotransfection of transposon DNA with a transposase either as an expression plasmid or mRNA. Consequently, this results in genomic integration of the potentially therapeutic gene into chromosomes of the desired target cells and thus conferring stable expression. Nonviral transfection methods are typically preferred to deliver the transposon components in to the target cells. However, these methods do not match the efficacy typically attained with viral vectors and are sometimes associated with cellular toxicity evoked by the DNA itself...
October 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067332/ub-311-a-novel-ubith-%C3%A2-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-vaccine-for-mild%C3%A2-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease
#8
Chang Yi Wang, Pei-Ning Wang, Ming-Jang Chiu, Connie L Finstad, Feng Lin, Shugene Lynn, Yuan-Hung Tai, Xin De Fang, Kesheng Zhao, Chung-Ho Hung, Yiting Tseng, Wen-Jiun Peng, Jason Wang, Chih-Chieh Yu, Be-Sheng Kuo, Paul A Frohna
INTRODUCTION: A novel amyloid β (Aβ) synthetic peptide vaccine (UB-311) has been evaluated in a first-in-human trial with patients of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. We describe translational research covering vaccine design, preclinical characterization, and phase-I clinical trial with supportive outcome that advances UB-311 into an ongoing phase-II trial. METHODS: UB-311 is constructed with two synthetic Aβ1-14-targeting peptides (B-cell epitope), each linked to different helper T-cell peptide epitopes (UBITh(®)) and formulated in a Th2-biased delivery system...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053451/spatially-resolved-mr-compatible-doppler-ultrasound-proof-of-concept-for-triggering-of-diagnostic-quality-cardiovascular-mri-for-function-and-flow-quantification-at-3t
#9
Lindsey A Crowe, Gibran Manasseh, Aneta Chmielewski, Anne-Lise Hachulla, Daniel Speicher, Andreas Greiser, Hajo Muller, Thomas De Perrot, Jean-Paul Vallee, Rares Salomir
OBJECTIVES: We demonstrate the use of a Magnetic-Resonance (MR)-compatible ultrasound (US) imaging probe using spatially-resolved Doppler for diagnostic quality cardiovascular MR imaging as an initial step towards hybrid US/MR fetal imaging. METHODS: A newly developed technology for a dedicated MR-compatible phased array ultrasound-imaging probe acquired pulsed color Doppler carotid images, which were converted in near-real time to a trigger signal for cardiac cine and flow quantification MRI...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052441/investigational-glucagon-receptor-antagonists-in-phase-i-and-ii-clinical-trials-for-diabetes
#10
André J Scheen, Nicolas Paquot, Pierre J Lefèbvre
Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) being recognized as a bihormonal pancreatic disease, current therapies are mainly focusing on insulin, while targeting glucagon has been long dismissed. However, glucagon receptor (GCGr) antagonists are currently investigated in clinical trials. Area covered: Following a brief description of the rationale for antagonizing GCGr in T2D, lessons from GCGr knock-out mice and pharmacological means to antagonize GCGr, a detailed description of the main results obtained with GCGr antagonists in Phase I-II clinical trials is provided...
October 26, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049632/an-engineering-model-to-test-for-sensory-reweighting-in-non-human-primate-posture
#11
Lara A Thompson, Csilla Haburcakova, Adam D Goodworth, Richard F Lewis
Quantitative animal models are critically needed to provide proof-of-concept for the investigation of rehabilitative balance therapies (e.g., invasive vestibular prostheses) and treatment response prior to, or in conjunction with, human clinical trials. This paper describes a novel approach to modeling the non-human primate postural control system. Our observation that rhesus macaques and humans have even remotely similar postural control motivates the further application of the rhesus macaque as a model for studying the effects of vestibular dysfunction, as well as vestibular prosthesis-assisted states, on human postural control...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041495/dual-band-dechirping-lfmcw-radar-receiver-with-high-image-rejection-using-microwave-photonic-i-q-mixer
#12
Ziyi Meng, Jianqiang Li, Chunjing Yin, Yuting Fan, Feifei Yin, Yue Zhou, Yitang Dai, Kun Xu
In this paper, a photonics-based dual-band linear frequency-modulated continuous wave (LFMCW) radar receiver is proposed. The system core is a microwave photonic in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) mixer, whose inherent large bandwidth, high I/Q balance and favorable uniformity enable the receiver to operate over an extremely wide frequency range. An integrated dual-band waveform offers the possibility of independent detection, allowing the sharing of hardware resources and joint dechirp processing of dual bands...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041494/secure-multiple-access-for-indoor-optical-wireless-communications-with-time-slot-coding-and-chaotic-phase
#13
Tian Liang, Ke Wang, Christina Lim, Elaine Wong, Tingting Song, Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas
In this paper, we report a novel mechanism to simultaneously provide secure connections for multiple users in indoor optical wireless communication systems by employing the time-slot coding scheme together with chaotic phase sequence. The chaotic phase sequence is generated according to the logistic map and applied to each symbol to secure the transmission. Proof-of-concept experiments are carried out for multiple system capacities based on both 4-QAM and 16-QAM modulation formats, i.e. 1.25 Gb/s, 2 Gb/s and 2...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031922/catechin-loaded-plga-submicron-sized-fibers-reduce-levels-of-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-by-mwcnt-in-vitro
#14
Roxana E Ghitescu, Ana Maria Popa, Angela Schipanski, Cordula Hirsch, Gökce Yazgan, Valentin I Popa, René M Rossi, Katharina Maniura-Weber, Giuseppino Fortunato
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Therefore, effective antioxidant therapies are needed to prevent ROS overproduction. This study reports the development of poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) bicomponent fibers loaded with selected amounts of the natural polyphenolic antioxidant catechin. Thereby a novel route based on emulsion electrospinning is investigated to obtain tailored and sustained release rates for chatechin...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030603/conjugation-with-l-l-diphenylalanine-self-assemblies-enhances-in-vitro-antitumor-activity-of-phthalocyanine-photosensitizer
#15
Márcia I Souza, Tatiana Prieto, Tiago Rodrigues, Fabio F Ferreira, Francisco B Nascimento, Anderson O Ribeiro, Emerson R Silva, Francesca Giuntini, Wendel A Alves
We present the synthesis and characterization of new peptide conjugates obtained by hierarchical co-assembly of L,L-diphenylalanine (FF) and zinc phthalocyanine complexes (ZnPc) in water. Self-assembly capabilities under defined conditions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and photophysical properties were evaluated using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. AFM observations demonstrated that these ZnPcs form different highly ordered arrays on the crystalline faces of the FF microplates and that surface roughness significantly changes with the presence of differently substituted phthalocyanine units...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969588/design-considerations-and-analysis-planning-of-a-phase-2a-proof-of-concept-study-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-the-presence-of-possible-non-monotonicity
#16
Feng Liu, Stephen J Walters, Steven A Julious
BACKGROUND: It is important to quantify the dose response for a drug in phase 2a clinical trials so the optimal doses can then be selected for subsequent late phase trials. In a phase 2a clinical trial of new lead drug being developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a U-shaped dose response curve was observed. In the light of this result further research was undertaken to design an efficient phase 2a proof of concept (PoC) trial for a follow-on compound using the lessons learnt from the lead compound...
October 2, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964173/setup-for-polarized-neutron-imaging-using-in-situ-3-he-cells-at-the-oak-ridge-national-laboratory-high-flux-isotope-reactor-cg-1d-beamline
#17
I Dhiman, Ralf Ziesche, Tianhao Wang, Hassina Bilheux, Lou Santodonato, X Tong, C Y Jiang, Ingo Manke, Wolfgang Treimer, Tapan Chatterji, Nikolay Kardjilov
In the present study, we report a new setup for polarized neutron imaging at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor CG-1D beamline using an in situ (3)He polarizer and analyzer. This development is very important for extending the capabilities of the imaging instrument at ORNL providing a polarized beam with a large field-of-view, which can be further used in combination with optical devices like Wolter optics, focusing guides, or other lenses for the development of microscope arrangement. Such a setup can be of advantage for the existing and future imaging beamlines at the pulsed neutron sources...
September 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923897/controlled-human-malaria-infection-applications-advances-and-challenges
#18
Danielle I Stanisic, James S McCarthy, Michael F Good
Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or direct injection of sporozoites or parasitised erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of anti-malarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early phase proof-of-concept clinical studies thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in malaria-endemic areas...
September 18, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891786/a-framework-and-case-studies-for-evaluation-of-enzyme-ontogeny-in-children-s-health-risk-evaluation
#19
Gary Ginsberg, Suryanarayana V Vulimiri, Yu-Sheng Lin, Jayaram Kancherla, Brenda Foos, Babasaheb Sonawane
Knowledge of the ontogeny of Phase I and Phase II metabolizing enzymes may be used to inform children's vulnerability based upon likely differences in internal dose from xenobiotic exposure. This might provide a qualitative assessment of toxicokinetic (TK) variability and uncertainty pertinent to early lifestages and help scope a more quantitative physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) assessment. Although much is known regarding the ontogeny of metabolizing systems, this is not commonly utilized in scoping and problem formulation stage of human health risk evaluation...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881315/double-track-electrochemical-green-approach-for-simultaneous-dissolution-profiling-of-naproxen-sodium-and-diphenhydramine-hydrochloride
#20
Mostafa A Shehata, Esraa M Fawaz, Mohamed K Abd El-Rahman, Ezzat M Abdel-Moety
Acquisition of the dissolution profiles of more than single active ingredient in a multi-analyte pharmaceutical formulation is a mandatory manufacturing practice that is dominated by utilization of the off-line separation-based chromatographic methods. This contribution adopts a new "Double-Track" approach with the ultimate goal of advancing the in-line potentiometric sensors to their most effective applicability for simultaneous acquisition of the dissolution profiles of two active ingredients in a binary pharmaceutical formulation...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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