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hepatocyte differentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351395/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-increases-hepatic-macrophage-content-liver-growth-and-lipid-accumulation-in-neonatal-rats
#1
Clare Pridans, Kristin A Sauter, Katharine M Irvine, Gemma M Davis, Lucas Lefevre, Anna Raper, Rocio Rojo, Ajit J Nirmal, Philippa Beard, Michael Cheeseman, David A Hume
Signaling via the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) controls the survival, differentiation and proliferation of macrophages. Mutations in CSF1, or CSF1R in mice and rats have pleiotropic effects on postnatal somatic growth. We tested the possible application of CSF1-Fc as a therapy for low birth weight (LBW) at term, using a model based upon maternal dexamethasone treatment in rats. Neonatal CSF1-Fc treatment did not alter somatic growth, and did not increase the blood monocyte count. Instead, there was a substantial increase in the size of liver in both control and LBW rats, and the treatment greatly exacerbated the lipid droplet accumulation seen in the dexamethasone LBW model...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346426/proliferation-and-survival-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-during-their-hepatic-differentiation
#2
Julieta L Maymó, Rodrigo Riedel, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Marta Magatti, Bernardo Maskin, José Luis Dueñas, Ornella Parolini, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet, Cecilia L Varone
Stem cells derived from placental tissues are an attractive source of cells for regenerative medicine. Amniotic epithelial cells isolated from human amnion (hAECs) have desirable and competitive characteristics that make them stand out between other stem cells. They have the ability to differentiate toward all three germ layers, they are not tumorigenic and they have immunosuppressive properties. Although liver transplantation is the best way to treat acute and chronic hepatic failure patients, there are several obstacles...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344642/microarray-analysis-reveals-tmub1-as-a-cell-cycle-associated-protein-in-rat-hepatocytes
#3
Hangwei Fu, Jianhua Xu, Jian Chen, Guangyao Li, Xiaobiao Zhao, Ping Chen
Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain containing protein 1 (Tmub1), formerly known as hepatocyte odd protein shuttling (HOPS) has been recognized as a ubiquitously expressed shuttling protein that moves between the nucleus and cytoplasm in hepatocytes. Tmub1 is involved in liver regeneration and functions as a bridging protein in tumor cell proliferation. To investigate the transcriptional profile and potential biological processes affected by Tmub1 expression in normal rat hepatocytes, microarray and bioinformatics experiments were used to identify 127 mRNAs differentially expressed between Tmub1‑overexpression, Tmub1‑knockdown and normal BRL‑3A cells (fold‑change ≥2...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336468/increased-expression-of-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein%C3%A2-2-alleviates-autophagic-dysfunction-in-nafld
#4
Chunwei Cheng, Xiaoling Deng, Keshu Xu
Sterol regulatory element binding protein‑2 (SREBP‑2) is an important transcription factor in lipid homeostasis. A previous study showed that SREBP‑2 also activated autophagic genes during cell‑sterol depletion. Alterations in autophagy are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether the regulation of SREBP‑2 restores dysfunctional autophagy in hepatocytes during NAFLD remains to be elucidated. In the present study, a steatosis model was established with palmitic acid (PA) treatment at the indicated times and concentrations...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329052/efficient-and-cost-effective-generation-of-hepatocyte-like-cells-through-microparticle-mediated-delivery-of-growth-factors-in-a-3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Zeinab Heidariyan, Mohammad Hossein Ghanian, Mohsen Ashjari, Zahra Farzaneh, Mostafa Najarasl, Mehran Rezaei Larijani, Abbas Piryaei, Massoud Vosough, Hossein Baharvand
Biomedical application of human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hPSC-HLCs) relies on efficient large-scale differentiation, which is commonly performed by a suspension culture of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids in bioreactors. However, this approach requires large amounts of growth factors (GFs) and the need to overcome limited diffusional transport posed by the inherent 3D structure of hPSC spheroids. Here, we have hypothesized that localized delivery of GFs by incorporation of GF-laden degradable polymeric microparticles (MPs) within the hPSC spheroids would circumvent such limitations...
January 2, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328449/bioinformatics-analysis-to-screen-key-genes-implicated-in-the-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-hepatocytes
#6
Rui Lin, Yufeng Wang, Kun Ji, Zhongyan Liu, Shuai Xiao, Dehua Zhou, Quanning Chen, Baomin Shi
Due to the lack of potential organs, hepatocellular transplantation has been considered for treating end-stage liver disease. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reverted from somatic cells and are able to differentiate into hepatocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying iPSC differentiation to hepatocytes. GSE66076 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus; this database includes data from 3 undifferentiated (T0), 3 definitive endoderm (T5), and 3 early hepatocyte (T24) samples across hepatic‑directed differentiation of iPSCs...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328431/bioinformatic-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiling-of-intracranial-aneurysm
#7
Lijuan Bo, Bo Wei, Zhanfeng Wang, Chaohui Li, Zheng Gao, Zhuang Miao
Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a severe clinical condition of primary concern and currently, there is no effective therapeutic reagent. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of IA via bioinformatic analysis. Various gene expression profiles (GSE26969) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 3 IA and 3 normal superficial temporal artery samples. Firstly, the limma package in R language was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs; P‑value <0...
December 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#8
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322414/dissecting-interleukin-6-classic-and-trans-signaling-in-inflammation-and-cancer
#9
Christoph Garbers, Stefan Rose-John
Interleukin-6 is a cytokine synthesized by many cells in the human body. IL-6 binds to a membrane bound IL-6R, which is only present on hepatocytes, some epithelial cells and some leukocytes. The complex of IL-6 and IL-6R binds to the ubiquitously expressed receptor subunit gp130, which forms a homodimer and thereby initiates intracellular signaling via the JAK/STAT and the MAPK pathways. IL-6R expressing cells can cleave the receptor protein to generate a soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R), which can still bind IL-6 and can associate with gp130 and induce signaling even on cells, which do not express IL-6R...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319795/n-acetyl-2-aminofluorene-aaf-processing-in-adult-rat-hepatocytes-in-primary-culture-occurs-by-high-affinity-low-velocity-and-low-affinity-high-velocity-aaf-metabolite-forming-systems
#10
K S Koch, T Moran, W T Shier, H L Leffert
N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene (AAF) is a procarcinogen used widely in physiological investigations of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Its metabolic pathways have been described extensively, yet little is known about its biochemical processing, growth cycle expression and pharmacological properties inside living hepatocytes - the principal cellular targets of this hepatocarcinogen. In this report, primary monolayer adult rat hepatocyte cultures and high specific-activity [ring G-3H]-N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene were used to extend previous observations of metabolic activation of AAF by highly differentiated, proliferation-competent hepatocytes in long-term cultures...
January 8, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319180/wisp1-promotes-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-via-tlr4-jnk-signaling
#11
Tae Woo Jung, Changmuk Kang, Jiwon Goh, Soo In Chae, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Tae Jin Lee, A M Abd El-Aty, Ji Hoon Jeong
Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP1) is a Cyr61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) family matricellular protein involved in adipogenesis and low-grade inflammation in obesity. However, the roles of WISP1 in hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remain elusive. Mouse primary hepatocytes and differentiated mouse skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) were treated with various concentrations of WISP1 and the functions and signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blot analysis. In vivo transfection for WISP1 knockdown was also performed to examine the effects of WISP1 on hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle insulin resistance...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313347/identification-of-metabolism-and-excretion-differences-of-procymidone-between-rats-and-humans-using-chimeric-mice-implications-for-differential-developmental-toxicity
#12
Jun Abe, Yoshitaka Tomigahara, Hirokazu Tarui, Rie Omori, Satoshi Kawamura
A metabolite of procymidone, Hydroxylated-PCM, causes rat-specific developmental toxicity due to higher exposure to it in rats than in rabbits or monkeys. When procymidone was administered to chimeric mice with rat or human hepatocytes, the plasma level of Hydroxylated-PCM was higher than that of procymidone in rat chimeric mice, and the metabolic profile of procymidone in intact rats was well reproduced in rat chimeric mice. In human chimeric mice, the plasma level of Hydroxylated-PCM was less, resulting in a much lower exposure...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302509/a-novel-homozygous-lipa-mutation-in-a-korean-child-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#13
Kwang Yeon Kim, Ju Whi Kim, Kyung Jae Lee, Eunhyang Park, Gyeong Hoon Kang, Young Hun Choi, Woo Sun Kim, Jung Min Ko, Jin Soo Moon, Jae Sung Ko
Patients with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency and glycogen storage disease (GSD) demonstrated hepatomegaly and dyslipidemia. In our case, a 6-year-old boy presented with hepatosplenomegaly. At 3 years of age, GSD had been diagnosed by liver biopsy at another hospital. He showed elevated serum liver enzymes and dyslipidemia. Liver biopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular fatty changes in hepatocytes, septal fibrosis and foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated numerous lysosomes that contained lipid material and intracytoplasmic cholesterol clefts...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301061/cellular-and-molecular-effects-of-prolonged-low-level-sodium-arsenite-exposure-on-human-hepatic-heparg-cells
#14
Kostiantyn Dreval, Volodymyr Tryndyak, Iryna Kindrat, Nathan C Twaddle, Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Thilak K Mudalige, Frederick A Beland, Daniel R Doerge, Igor P Pogribny
Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen associated with several types of cancers, including liver cancer. Inorganic arsenic has been postulated to target stem cells, causing their oncogenic transformation. This is proposed to be one of the key events in arsenic-associated carcinogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms for this process remain largely unknown. To address this question, human hepatic HepaRG cells, at progenitor and differentiated states, were continuously treated with a non-cytotoxic concentration of 1 μM sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)...
January 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298619/developing-a-cost-effective-and-scalable-production-of-human-hepatic-competent-endoderm-from-size-controlled-pluripotent-stem-cell-aggregates
#15
Zahra Farzaneh, Mostafa Najarasl, Saeed Abbasalizadeh, Massoud Vosough, Hossein Baharvand
Dynamic suspension culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in stirred bioreactors provides a valuable scalable culture platform for integrated differentiation toward different lineages for potential research and therapeutic applications. However, current protocols for scalable and integrated differentiation of hPSCs limited due to high cost of growth factors and technical challenges. Here, hPSCs aggregates primed with 6 and 12 µM of CHIR99021 (CHIR), a Wnt agonist, in combination with different concentrations of high cost Activin A (10, 25, 50, 100 ng/ml)...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296832/a-unique-microenvironment-in-the-developing-liver-supports-the-expansion-of-megakaryocyte-progenitors
#16
Nathalie Brouard, Camille Jost, Nadine Matthias, Camille Albrecht, Sébastien Egard, Poojabahen Gandhi, Catherine Strassel, Tomoko Inoue, Daisuke Sugiyama, Paul J Simmons, Christian Gachet, Francois Lanza
The fetal liver is the site of a major expansion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool and is also a privileged organ to study megakaryocyte progenitor differentiation. We identified in the mouse fetal liver at day 13.5 a discrete stromal cell population harboring a CD45-TER119-CD31-CD51+VCAM-1+PDGFRα- (V+P-) phenotype that lacked colony-forming unit fibroblast activity and harbored an hepatocyte progenitor signature. This previously undescribed V+P- population efficiently supported megakaryocyte production from mouse bone marrow HSC and human peripheral blood HSC-myeloid progenitors cultured in the presence of limited cytokine concentrations...
September 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290652/in-vivo-hepatic-differentiation-potential-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-therapeutic-effect-on-liver-fibrosis-cirrhosis
#17
Guo-Zun Zhang, Hui-Cong Sun, Li-Bo Zheng, Jin-Bo Guo, Xiao-Lan Zhang
AIM: To investigate the hepatic differentiation potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) and to evaluate their therapeutic effect on liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. METHODS: A CCl4-induced liver fibrotic/cirrhotic rat model was used to assess the effect of hUC-MSCs. Histopathology was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome and Sirius red staining. The liver biochemical profile was measured using a Beckman Coulter analyzer...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289465/investigating-the-role-of-transcription-factors-of-pancreas-development-in-pancreatic-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Ahmad Abu Turab Naqvi, Gulam Mustafa Hasan, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the seventh most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide that kills more than 300,000 people every year. Prognosis of PC is very poor with a five-year survival rate about 5%. The most common and highly observed type of PC is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). It is preceded by the progression of precursor lesions such as Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PanIN), Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm (IPMN) and Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm (MCN). PanIN is the most common among these premalignant lesions...
December 24, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287776/activin-a-causes-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-via-the-induction-of-tnf%C3%AE-%C3%AE%C2%BA%C3%AE-%C3%AE-tgf%C3%AE-in-kupffer-cells
#19
Foteini Kiagiadaki, Marilena Kampa, Argyro Voumvouraki, Elias Castanas, Elias Kouroumalis, George Notas
Background&Aims. TGFβ superfamily member Activin-A is a multifunctional hormone/cytokine expressed in multiple tissues and cells., where it regulates cellular differentiation, proliferation, inflammation and tissue architecture. High activin-A levels have been reported in alcoholic cirrhosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Our aim was to identify the cell types involved in the fibrotic processes induced by activin-A in liver and verify the liver diseases that this molecule can be found increased...
December 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279592/rapidly-increasing-liver-progenitor-cell-numbers-in-human-regenerating-liver-after-portal-vein-ligation-and-liver-partition
#20
K H Lin, H T Hsu, T H Teng, P Y Lin, C J Ko, C E Hsieh, Y L Chen
BACKGROUND: Liver regeneration is dependent on the proliferation of hepatocytes. Hepatic progenitor cells are intra-hepatic precursor cells capable of differentiating into hepatocytes or biliary cells. Although liver progenitor cell proliferation during the regenerative process has been observed in animal models of severe liver injury, it has never been observed in vivo in humans because it is unethical to take multiple biopsy specimens for the purpose of studying the proliferation of liver progenitor cells and the roles they play in liver regeneration...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
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