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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933179/-infectious-complications-related-to-liver-transplants
#1
Vladimír Mejzlík, Libuše Husová, Milan Kuman, Soňa Štěpánková, Jiří Ondrášek, Petr Němec
Infection is a feared complication in the process of transplantation. The study discusses sources of infection, screening of infection and risk factors for infection, time occurrence of individual infections during the peritransplantation and posttransplantation course. It describes the most frequent forms of bacterial, viral and mycotic infections. It specifies efficient prophylactic measures that considerably reduce the risk of infection following liver transplantation.Key words: bacterial infection - cytomegalovirus (CMV) - EB virus (EBV) - hepatitis B (HBV) - hepatitis C (HCV) - liver transplantation - mycotic infection prophylaxis - risk factors - viral infection...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#2
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885709/prenylation-of-viral-proteins-by-enzymes-of-the-host-virus-driven-rationale-for-therapy-with-statins-and-ft-ggt1-inhibitors
#3
REVIEW
Ekaterina S Marakasova, Birgit Eisenhaber, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Frank Eisenhaber, Ancha Baranova
Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria...
September 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871140/increased-incidence-of-cytomegalovirus-coinfection-in-hcv-infected-patients-with-late-liver-fibrosis-is-associated-with-dysregulation-of-jak-stat-pathway
#4
Marwa K Ibrahim, Ahmed Khedr, Noha G Bader El Din, Ahmed Khairy, Mostafa K El Awady
Herein, we examined the association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection and the progression of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and investigated the effect of CMV coinfection on JAK-STAT pathway. CMV DNAemia was detected by PCR in DNA from controls (n = 120), and HCV patients with early (F0-F1, n = 131) and late (F2-F4, n = 179) liver fibrosis. By quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), we examined the profile of 8 JAK-STAT transcripts in PBMCs RNA from 90 HCV patients (39 CMV positive and 51 CMV negative), 4 CMV mono-infected patients, and 15 controls...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868964/poly-%C3%AF%C2%B5-caprolactone-chitosan-nanoparticles-provide-strong-adjuvant-effect-for-hepatitis-b-antigen
#5
Sandra Jesus, Edna Soares, Gerrit Borchard, Olga Borges
AIM: This work aims to investigate the adjuvant effect of poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the plasmid DNA encoding HBsAg (pRC/CMV-HBs). METHODS: Both antigens were adsorbed onto preformed NPs. Vaccination studies were performed in C57BL/6 mice. Transfection efficiency was investigated in A549 cell line. RESULTS: HBsAg-adsorbed NPs generated strong anti-HBsAg IgG titers, mainly of IgG1 isotype, and induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by spleen cells...
September 4, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845855/-role-of-combination-nk-kirs-in-the-natural-history-of-viral-infections
#6
Claudia Colomba, Antonio Cascio, Calogero Caruso, Marcello Trizzino, Claudia Gioè, Giuliana Guadagnino, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto, Annalisa Saracino, Gioacchino Angarano, Danilo Di Bona
Immunological mechanisms involved in the genesis of the immune response against viral infections take into account the activation of both innate adaptative response. Innate immune defenses trigger a rapid local response, which is often sufficient to control viral infection, and promotes the subsequent activation of specific immune defenses. Natural killer (NK) cells that constitute a subpopulation of lymphocyte-related cells are a key factor of innate immune response and play a role in defense against viral infections by killing infected cells or by producing cytokines and interacting with adaptative immune system's cells...
July 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798861/overexpression-of-brg1-alleviates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-antioxidative-stress-effects
#7
Mian Ge, Chaojin Chen, Weifeng Yao, Shaoli Zhou, Fei Huang, Jun Cai, Ziqing Hei
AIM: To investigate whether overexpression of Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1) can alleviate lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (HIR) and its precise mechanism. METHODS: Cytomegalovirus-transgenic Brg1-overexpressing (CMV-Brg1) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice underwent HIR. Lung histology, oxidative injury markers, and antioxidant enzyme concentrations in the lung were assessed. The protein expression levels of Brg1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in the lung were analyzed by Western blotting...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780115/foreign-gene-expression-and-induction-of-antibody-response-by-recombinant-fowl-adenovirus-9-based-vectors-with-exogenous-promoters
#8
James G Ackford, Juan C Corredor, Yanlong Pei, Peter J Krell, Grégoy Bédécarrats, E Va Nagy
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are promising vectors for poultry vaccines and gene therapy. The commonly used human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in recombinant FAdV-9 viruses (recFAdV-9s) leads to foreign gene expression that elicits an antibody response. Despite its strength, studies have shown that the CMV promoter is prone to silencing by methylation hampering the in vivo application of vectors containing this promoter. Therefore, to improve our virus vector system and circumvent potential limitations of silencing, we engineered recFAdV-9s with foreign gene expression cassettes carrying the CMV enhancer/chicken β-actin (CAG) or the human elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α) promoters with or without the posttranscriptional regulatory element of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WPRE)...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749008/propofol-post-conditioning-alleviates-hepatic-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-via-brg1-mediated-nrf2-ho-1-transcriptional-activation-in-human-and-mice
#9
Mian Ge, Huixin Chen, Qianqian Zhu, Jun Cai, Chaojin Chen, Dongdong Yuan, Yi Jin, Weifeng Yao, Ziqing Hei
To explore the effects of propofol post-conditioning (PPC) on hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the potential mechanisms that might be involved in the interaction of Brahma-related gene1(BRG1) and Nuclear-related factor 2(Nrf2). Patients were randomized into PPC(n = 16) and non-PPC(NPC)( n = 21) groups. Propofol(2 mg/kg) was infused within 10 min. of the onset of liver reperfusion during liver transplantation in the PPC group. Liver function tests, as well as Brg1, Nrf2, Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase1(NQO1) expression levels were evaluated...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733264/the-impact-of-toxicities-on-first-year-outcomes-after-ex-vivo-cd34-selected-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-adults-with-hematologic-malignancies
#10
Satyajit Kosuri, Diego Adrianzen Herrera, Michael Scordo, Gunjan L Shah, Christina Cho, Sean M Devlin, Molly A Maloy, Jimmy Nieves, Taylor Borrill, Dean C Carlow, Scott T Avecilla, Richard C Meagher, Richard J O'Reilly, Esperanza B Papadopoulos, Ann A Jakubowski, Guenther Koehne, Boglarka Gyurkocza, Hugo Castro-Malaspina, Brian C Shaffer, Roni Tamari, Sergio A Giralt, Miguel-Angel Perales
Factors that impact first-year morbidity and mortality in adults undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with ex vivo CD34(+) selection have not been previously reported. We assessed all toxicities ≥ grade 3 from the start of conditioning to date of death, relapse, or last contact in 200 patients during the first year after transplantation, identifying 1885 individual toxicities among 17 organ-based toxicity groups. The most prevalent toxicities in the first year were of infectious, metabolic, hematologic, oral/gastrointestinal, hepatic, cardiac, and pulmonary etiologies...
July 18, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679983/a-case-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-splenic-infarction-and-an-esophageal-ulcer-in-an-immunocompetent-adult
#11
Yoshiaki Shimizu, Takuya Komura, Takuya Seike, Ryotaro Nakai, Hitoshi Omura, Takashi Kagaya, Hajime Ohta, Satomi Kasashima, Atsuhiro Kawashima, Masashi Unoura
BACKGROUND: Recently, morbidities due to primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have increased in young Japanese adults because of decreased anti-CMV antibodies in them. CMV infections are typically resolved naturally in immunocompetent individuals, and complications rarely occur. Here we present the case of an immunocompetent adult with CMV infection complicated by splenic infarctions and an esophageal ulcer. CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old male complaining of a prolonged fever and liver injury was admitted to hospital for a closed examination...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653972/active-hcv-replication-but-not-hcv-or-cmv-seropositive-status-is-associated-with-incident-and-prevalent-type-2-diabetes-in-persons-living-with-hiv
#12
Andrea De Luca, Patrizia Lorenzini, Antonella Castagna, Massimo Puoti, Nicola Gianotti, Francesco Castelli, Claudio Mastroianni, Franco Maggiolo, Andrea Antinori, Giovanni Guaraldi, Miriam Lichtner, Antonella dʼArminio Monforte
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections with type 2 diabetes in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: HIV-1-infected patients enrolled in ICONA, a prospective cohort study involving 42 tertiary care centers in Italy, were selected with the following characteristics: for the diabetes incidence analysis, all patients with available CMV IgG results (first available test = baseline) and without type 2 diabetes were followed until onset of type 2 diabetes, last available clinical follow-up, death or September 30, 2014, whichever occurred first; for the prevalence analysis, all ICONA patients were analyzed at their last follow-up visit...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650593/hhv-6-in-liver-transplantation-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Tuan L Phan, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Raymund R Razonable, Flor M Munoz
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) can cause primary infection or reactivate from latency in liver transplant recipients, which can result in a variety of clinical syndromes, including fever, hepatitis, encephalitis and higher rates of graft dysfunction as well as indirect effects including increased risks of mortality, CMV disease, hepatitis C progression and greater fibrosis scores. Although HHV-6 infection is currently diagnosed by quantifying viral DNA in plasma or blood, biopsy to demonstrate histopathological effects of HHV-6 remains the gold standard for diagnosis of end-organ disease...
June 26, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642806/the-efficacy-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-green-tea-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-pre-clinical-studies-and-translational-perspectives-in-clinical-practice
#14
REVIEW
Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Maria Rosaria Muzio, Vincenzo Schiavone, Arturo Cuomo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia characterized by cognitive and memory impairment. One of the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of AD, is the oxidative stress being involved in AD's development and progression. In addition, several studies proved that chronic viral infections, mainly induced by Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could be responsible for AD's neuropathology...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642136/a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-derived-cis-acting-sequence-that-enhances-expression-of-transgenes-delivered-by-plasmid-vectors-in-eukaryote-cell-culture-systems
#15
Seoung-Ae Lee, Hong Kim, So-Young Lee, Bum-Joon Kim
We tested the effectiveness of a novel 13-bp hepatitis B virus (HBV)-derived cis-acting element (CAE) (ACCTCGACAAGGC), called the DT2 CAE, in augmenting transgene expression delivered by plasmid vectors in eukaryotic cells. The addition of the DT2 CAE just upstream of the start codon of several different target proteins (luciferase, EGFP, LHB, HBsAg, and MIF) in DNA plasmid constructs enhanced their translation in a posttranscriptional manner, irrespective of cell type (cell lines or primary cells) or promoter (CMV or HBV preS1 promoters), suggesting its feasibility for enhanced protein production in eukaryotic cell systems...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641094/emerging-concepts-in-cytomegalovirus-infection-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Jose F Camargo, Krishna V Komanduri
Despite the refinements in molecular methods for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the advent of highly effective preemptive strategies, CMV remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. CMV can cause tissue-invasive disease including pneumonia, hepatitis, colitis, retinitis, and encephalitis. Mortality in HCT recipients with CMV disease can be as high as 60%. CMV infection has been associated with increased risk of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, increased risk of graft-versus-host disease, and high rates of non-relapse mortality following HCT...
June 14, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593007/case-report-acute-portal-vein-thrombosis-associated-with-acute-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-adult
#17
Fania Puccia, Vania Lombardo, Lydia Giannitrapani, Anna Licata, Giovanni Mazzola, Maurizio Soresi
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is usually asymptomatic and self-limiting in healthy individuals, but significant complications can develop in immunosuppressed patients. Venous or arterial thromboembolic phenomena are uncommon yet very serious complications of CMV infection. Most published reports describe immunosuppressed patients, but thrombotic events in CMV-infected immunocompetent individuals may also occur. We describe the case of an immunocompetent young man with acute CMV hepatitis that was complicated with portal vein thrombosis (PVT)...
June 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587424/dynamic-relationship-between-infantile-hepatitis-syndrome-and-cytomegalovirus-infection
#18
Guangmeng Wang, Dongjin Feng
We investigated the correlation between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and infantile hepatitis syndrome and the correlation between blood ammonia levels in children with CMV-induced hepatitis syndrome and liver function indicators. To analyze the relationship between the positive-negative attributes of CMV infection and the recurrence rate of infantile hepatitis syndrome, a total of 86 cases of children with hepatitis syndrome admitted to Xuzhou Children's Hospital from January 2014 to March 2015 were selected for the study group...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573685/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-infections-in-patients-undergoing-liver-transplantation-for-hilar-cholangiocarcinoma
#19
Poornima Ramanan, Nathan W Cummins, Mark P Wilhelm, Julie K Heimbach, Ross Dierkhising, Walter K Kremers, Charles B Rosen, Gregory J Gores, Raymund R Razonable
The epidemiology of infection after liver transplantation for hilar cholangiocarcinoma has not been systematically investigated. In this study of 124 patients, 255 infections occurred in 105 patients during the median follow-up of 4.2 years. The median time to first infection was 15.1 weeks (IQR 1.6-62.6). The most common sites were the abdomen, bloodstream, and musculoskeletal system. Risk factors for any post-transplant infection were pre-transplant VRE colonization (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.9, P=.002), living donor transplantation (HR 6...
August 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569786/brg1-mediated-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-activation-alleviates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Mian Ge, Weifeng Yao, Dongdong Yuan, Shaoli Zhou, Xi Chen, Yihan Zhang, Haobo Li, Zhengyuan Xia, Ziqing Hei
Cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) could be induced by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), a catalytic subunit of SWI2/SNF2-like chromatin remodeling complexes, in Nrf2/HO-1 pathway activation during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR). Our results showed that hepatic Brg1 was inhibited during early HIR while Brg1 overexpression reduced oxidative injury in CMV-Brg1 mice subjected to HIR...
June 1, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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