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CMV hepatitis

Xiaohong Liu, Jinmei Xu, Hua Zhang, Qin Liu, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang
Edwardsiella tarda is associated with edwardsiellosis in cultured fish, resulting in heavy losses in aquaculture. So far, different types of vaccine have been attempted against E. tarda. In this study, an optimized eukaryotic expression plasmid was developed and an optimized DNA vaccine co-encoding antigenic and adjuvant peptide using a bicistronic expression system was designed. As a result, a modified plasmid harbored cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter attached with R region of long terminal repeat from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (CMV/R) and woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional response element (WPRE) component showed an increased antigenic gene expression compared with unmodified plasmid...
October 17, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Li-Hong Ran, Lei Bao
Breast milk is considered ideal food for premature infants, but it can also be the main source of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in premature infants. CMV infection may cause serious clinical symptoms, such as sepsis-like syndrome, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, jaundice, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. This article reviews the research advances in symptoms, treatment strategies, prognosis and the prevention of breast milk-acquired CMV infection in premature infants.
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Marwa K Ibrahim, Hosny Salama, Mohamad Abd El Rahman, Reham M Dawood, Noha G Bader El Din, Heba F Salem, Mohamed E A Abdelrahim, Dalia Omran, Moataza H Omran, Khaled Helmi El-Wakeel, Tawfeek H Abdelhafez, Ahmed Khedr, Mostafa K El Awady
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). At present, there is no predictive biomarker for the patients at high risk of developing HCC. In this study, we examined the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3 innate immunity genes [2'-5'oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) rs10774671, interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860, and low molecular mass polypeptide 7 (LMP-7) at codon 49] besides cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection and susceptibility to HCC in genotype 4 (GT4) chronically infected Egyptian patients...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Raffaella Greco, Lara Crucitti, Maddalena Noviello, Sara Racca, Daniele Mannina, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Veronica Valtolina, Serena Rolla, Roee Dvir, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Chiara Oltolini, Luca Vago, Paolo Scarpellini, Andrea Assanelli, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Massimo Bernardi, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Jacopo Peccatori, Chiara Bonini, Fabio Ciceri
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients...
September 30, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Chee Wah Tan, Han Kang Tee, Michelle Hui Pheng Lee, I-Ching Sam, Yoke Fun Chan
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease, and is occasionally associated with neurological complications and death in children. Reverse genetics is widely used in the field of virology for functional study of viral genes. For EV-A71, such tools are limited to clones that are transcriptionally controlled by T7/SP6 bacteriophage promoter. This is often time-consuming and expensive. Here, we describe the development of infectious plasmid DNA-based EV-A71 clones, for which EV-A71 genome expression is under transcriptional control by the CMV-intermediate early promoter and SV40 transcriptional-termination signal...
2016: PloS One
J Pascual, A Royuela, A M Fernández, I Herrero, J F Delgado, A Solé, L Guirado, T Serrano, J de la Torre-Cisneros, A Moreno, E Cordero, R Gallego, C Lumbreras, J M Aguado
Appropriate post-transplant immunosuppressive regimens that avoid acute rejection, while reducing risk of viral reactivation, have been sought, but remain a chimera. Recent evidence suggesting potential regulatory and antiviral effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) is of great interest. Although the concept of an immunosuppressive drug with antiviral properties is not new, little effort has been made to put the evidence together to assess the management of immunosuppressive therapy in the presence of a viral infection...
September 7, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
R Gonçalves, C Valente, E Ferreira, J E Serra, J Saraiva da Cunha
Cytomegalovirus is a double stranded DNA virus that can be present in nearly all organs and body fluids. The primary infection is usually asymptomatic in the immunocompetent host and it is common among adolescents and young adults. The symptomatic form appears, in the majority of cases, as a mononucleosis syndrome with full recovery without specific treatment. We report a case of a 25 years old woman who presented with hepatitis due to CMV infection and history of omalizumab administration one month earlier...
2016: IDCases
Chaoyang Chen, Haodi Jia, Fei Zhang, Yanli Qin, Li Zong, Quan Yuan, Yongxiang Wang, Ningshao Xia, Jisu Li, Yumei Wen, Shuping Tong
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a 3.2-kb circular DNA genome. It employs four promoters in conjunction with a single polyadenylation signal to generate 3.5-, 2.4-, 2.1-, and 0.7-kb co-terminal RNAs. The 3.5-kb RNA is subdivided into the precore RNA for e antigen expression and pregenomic RNA for genome replication. When introduced to a genotype A clone, several core promoter mutations markedly enhanced HBV genome replication but suppressed e antigen expression through up regulation of pregenomic RNA at the expense of precore RNA...
August 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Serap Ural, Behiye Özer, Fazıl Gelal, Derya Dirim Erdoğan, Nurbanu Sezak, Recep Balık, Tuna Demirdal, Metin Korkmaz
Toxocariasis caused by Toxocara canis or less frequently by T.catis is a common parasitic infection worldwide. Clinical spectrum in humans can vary from asymptomatic infection to serious organ disfunction depending on the load of parasite, migration target of the larva and the inflammatory response of the host. Transverse myelitis (TM) due to toxocariasis is an uncommon illness identified mainly as case reports in literature. In this report, a case of TM who was diagnosed as neurotoxocariasis by serological findings has been presented...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Munehiro Furuichi, Takeo Fujiwara, Akinari Fukuda, Mureo Kasahara, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is 1 of the most common causes of infection after solid organ transplantation with symptomatic disease occurring at an incidence of 20-40% without preventative measures. While CMV donor+/recipient- serostatus is well known to be a risk factor, there is little data about other risk factors for CMV infection in the setting of pediatric liver transplantation (LT). We hypothesized that fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) may be a risk factor for CMV infection given anecdotal reports of complications associated with FHF...
August 5, 2016: Transplantation
Koichi Nakao, Michito Namekawa, Soichi Kondo, Sayaka Ono, Imaharu Nakano
A 73-year-old woman who had hypertension developed a slight fever and general malaise with laboratory-proven hepatic dysfunction as well as frequent syncopal attacks 3 months before admission to our hospital. One month later, she developed urinary retention and distal limb numbness. Upon admission, her neurological examination showed reduced limb tendon reflexes, glove and stocking-type numbness, and diminished senses of touch, temperature, pain, and distal leg vibration and position. Serum cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM antibody and CMV IgG antibody were elevated on admission, and both decreased thereafter, confirming CMV infection...
August 31, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Erawan Borkham-Kamphorst, Bettina Therese Steffen, Eddy Van de Leur, Lidia Tihaa, Ute Haas, Marius M Woitok, Steffen K Meurer, Ralf Weiskirchen
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is primarily recognized as the site of synthesis and folding of secreted membrane-bound and certa\in organelle-targeted proteins. Optimum protein folding requires several factors, including ATP, Ca(2+) and an oxidizing environment to allow disulphide-bond formation. ER is highly sensitive to stress that perturb cellular energy levels, the redox state or Ca(2+) concentration. Such stresses reduce the protein folding capacity of the ER, resulting in the accumulation and aggregation of unfolded proteins, a condition referred to unfolded protein response (UPR)...
July 22, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anna Schurich, Laura J Pallett, Danyal Jajbhay, Jessica Wijngaarden, Itziar Otano, Upkar S Gill, Navjyot Hansi, Patrick T Kennedy, Eleni Nastouli, Richard Gilson, Christian Frezza, Sian M Henson, Mala K Maini
T cells undergo profound metabolic changes to meet the increased energy demands of maintaining an antiviral response. We postulated that differences in metabolic reprogramming would shape the efficacy of CD8 T cells mounted against persistent viral infections. We found that the poorly functional PD-1(hi) T cell response against hepatitis B virus (HBV) had upregulated the glucose transporter, Glut1, an effect recapitulated by oxygen deprivation to mimic the intrahepatic environment. Glut1(hi) HBV-specific T cells were dependent on glucose supplies, unlike the more functional cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells that could utilize oxidative phosphorylation in the absence of glucose...
August 2, 2016: Cell Reports
Timothy J Stear, David Shersher, George J Kim, Douglas R Smego
Endocarditis is a rare presentation for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. We present the case of a 49-year-old man who underwent mitral and tricuspid valve replacement for valvular CMV endocarditis. The patient's past medical history was significant for human immunodeficiency virus, intravenous drug abuse, and chronic hepatitis B. During his clinical course, he was found to have tricuspid and mitral valve vegetations. After progressive valvular destruction despite antibiotic therapy, he underwent successful mitral and tricuspid valve replacement...
August 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Takuya Komura, Hajime Ohta, Ryotaro Nakai, Jun Seishima, Masatoshi Yamato, Masaki Miyazawa, Kiichiro Kaji, Yohei Marukawa, Takashi Kagaya, Kiyoki Kitagawa, Atsuhiro Kawashima, Shuichi Kaneko, Masashi Unoura
Tocilizumab, an anti-human interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R) monoclonal antibody, is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is expected to exhibit clinical efficacy when used to treat other autoimmune diseases. However, a risk of opportunistic infection is occasionally recognized. A 54-year-old woman had received an oral corticosteroid and methotrexate to treat RA. Despite receiving these treatments, she received additional treatment with tocilizumab due to poor control of the disease activity. She presented at our hospital with a high fever and epigastralgia 19 days after receiving this treatment...
2016: Internal Medicine
Vikram Mehraj, Rosalie Ponte, Jean-Pierre Routy
UNLABELLED: Interleukin 33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1 family, is constitutively expressed in epithelial and in endothelial cells at barrier sites, acting as a danger signal and adjuvanting the immune response following tissue damage and infection. Originally implicated in allergy, IL-33 is also known to be involved in innate and adaptive immune responses by enhancing natural killer, Th1, and CD4 and CD8 T-cell functions. The nature of the antiviral immune response orchestrated by IL-33 depends on the site of infection, the duration of the disease and the cytokine milieu...
July 2016: EBioMedicine
Robert S Remis, Juan Liu, Mona R Loutfy, Wangari Tharao, Anuradha Rebbapragada, Sanja Huibner, Maya Kesler, Roberta Halpenny, Troy Grennan, Jason Brunetta, Graham Smith, Tatjana Reko, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been associated with HIV transmission risk and disease progression among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM), but the frequency and distribution of STIs in this community in Canada has not been extensively studied. METHODS: We recruited MSM living with and without HIV from a large primary care clinic in Toronto. Participants completed a detailed socio-behavioural questionnaire using ACASI and provided blood for syphilis, HIV, HBV and HCV, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology, urine for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and a self-collected anal swab for human papillomavirus (HPV) molecular diagnostics...
2016: PloS One
Jisu Li, Li Zong, Camille Sureau, Luke Barker, Jack R Wands, Shuping Tong
UNLABELLED: Cell culture (cc)-derived hepatitis B virus (HBV) can infect differentiated HepaRG cells, but efficient infection requires addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) during inoculation. Identification of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as an HBV receptor enabled ccHBV infection of NTCP reconstituted HepG2 cells, although very little hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is produced. We found infection by patient serum-derived HBV (sHBV), which required purification of viral particles through ultracentrifugation or PEG precipitation, was PEG independent and much more efficient in HepaRG cells than in HepG2/NTCP cells...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ghulam Mujtaba, Adnan Khurshid, Salmaan Sharif, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Massab Umair, Aamer Ali Shah, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection contributes to considerable long-term sequelae in neonates and children all over the world. The association between viral genotypes and severity of clinical cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is yet to be defined. The objective of this study was to find the impact of active CMV infection during pregnancy and the clinical significance of genotypes in neonates with congenital cytomegalovirus infections in Pakistan. METHODS: A total of 409 blood samples from pregnant women seeking health care services at the two antenatal hospitals of Islamabad during January to December 2012 were tested by ELISA and nested-PCR...
2016: PloS One
Natsuko Inazawa, Tsukasa Hori, Masanori Nojima, Makoto Saito, Keita Igarashi, Masaki Yamamoto, Norio Shimizu, Yuko Yoto, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi
Several studies have indicated that viral reactivations following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are frequent, but viral reactivations after autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) have not been investigated in detail. We performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to examine multiple viral reactivations simultaneously in 24 patients undergoing auto-HSCT between September 2010 and December 2012. Weekly whole blood samples were collected from pre- to 42 days post-HSCT, and tested for the following 13 viruses; herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, HHV-8, adeno virus (ADV), BK virus (BKV), JC virus (JCV), parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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