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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623164/thick-corneas-large-pupils-and-a-giant-problem
#1
Francesco Pellegrini, Giovanni Prosdocimo, Daniela Bonsanto, Rod Foroozan
An 87-year-old woman presented 1 month after uneventful cataract surgery with ipsilateral corneal edema. She was diagnosed with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and scheduled for endothelial transplantation. However, a few days later, she presented with bilateral corneal edema, dilated pupils and further reduction of visual acuity. Neuro-Ophthalmic evaluation disclosed a bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome causing complete visual loss. Temporal artery biopsy was consistent with GCA. Corneal decompensation should be considered as a rare presentation of GCA, that ophthalmologists should suspect in any case of unilateral or bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome...
June 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612195/human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-in-sri-lankan-gastric-carcinoma-patients-with-clinicopathological-association-and-survival
#2
Duminda Subasinghe, Sivasuriya Sivaganesh, Ananthi Samarsekera, Mariyan Priyanthi Kumarasinghe, Dharmabandhu Nandadeva Samarasekera, Menaka Dilani Samarwickrema Lokuhetty
BACKGROUND: HER2 protein expression indicates adverse prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma (GCa). GCa HER2 positivity ranges from 10 to 22.8%. Similar data are scarce in South Asia and unavailable in Sri Lanka. AIM: To evaluate HER2 protein expression, its clinicopathological relationship and survival in a Sri Lankan GCa cohort. METHODS: One hundred consecutive GCa patients were recruited prospectively for 2 years. Histological diagnosis was confirmed on endoscopic biopsies/gastrectomy specimens...
June 13, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606962/endothelin-1-promotes-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-across-the-artery-wall-a-mechanism-contributing-to-vascular-remodelling-and-intimal-hyperplasia-in-giant-cell-arteritis
#3
Ester Planas-Rigol, Nekane Terrades-Garcia, Marc Corbera-Bellalta, Ester Lozano, Marco A Alba, Marta Segarra, Georgina Espígol-Frigolé, Sergio Prieto-González, José Hernández-Rodríguez, Sara Preciado, Rodolfo Lavilla, Maria C Cid
BACKGROUND: Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory disease of large/medium-sized arteries, frequently involving the temporal arteries (TA). Inflammation-induced vascular remodelling leads to vaso-occlusive events. Circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) is increased in patients with GCA with ischaemic complications suggesting a role for ET-1 in vascular occlusion beyond its vasoactive function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ET-1 induces a migratory myofibroblastic phenotype in human TA-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) leading to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA...
June 12, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598812/cyclind1-and-p57-kip2-as-biomarkers-in-differentiation-metastasis-and-prognosis-of-gastric-cardia-adenocarcinoma
#4
Yi Ru, Xiao-Jie Chen, Zhi-Wei Zhao, Peng-Fei Zhang, Shuai-Hao Feng, Qiang Gao, She-Gan Gao, Xiao-Shan Feng
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the expression and significance of p57(kip2) and cyclinD1 in gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA). p57(kip2) is a negative regulator in the cell cycle. On the contrary, cyclinD1 is a positive regulator of cell cycle progression. METHODS: Thirty-two cases of GCA tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were collected for this study. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence qualitative PCR was used to determine the level of p57(kip2) and cyclinD1 in GCA and its adjacent non-cancerous tissues...
May 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594442/body-mass-index-and-risk-of-gastric-cancer-a-30-year-follow-up-study-in-the-linxian-general-population-trial-cohort
#5
Jin-Hu Fan, Jian-Bing Wang, Shao-Ming Wang, Christian C Abnet, You-Lin Qiao, Philip R Taylor
Although a number of previous studies have noted either positive or no association for body mass index (BMI) and gastric cancers risk, little evidence exists in the Chinese population. We prospectively examined the associations of BMI with risk of gastric cancers in the Linxian General Population Trial cohort, with 29,584 healthy adults enrolled in 1985 and followed through the end of 2014. Body weight and height were measured during physical examination at baseline and BMI was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared...
June 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583875/quantitative-profiling-of-19-bile-acids-in-rat-plasma-liver-bile-and-different-intestinal-section-contents-to-investigate-bile-acid-homeostasis-and-the-application-of-temporal-variation-of-endogenous-bile-acids
#6
Tingting Yang, Ting Shu, Guanlan Liu, Huifang Mei, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xin Huang, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Bile acid homeostasis is maintained by liver synthesis, bile duct secretion, microbial metabolism and intestinal reabsorption into the blood. When drug insults result in liver damage, the variances of bile acids (BAs) are related to the physiological status of the liver. Here, we established a method to simultaneously quantify 19 BAs in rat plasma, liver, bile and different intestinal section contents (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to reveal the pattern of bile acid homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in physiological situations...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577460/fabrication-of-%C3%AE-feooh-decorated-graphene-oxide-carbon-nanotubes-aerogel-and-its-application-in-adsorption-of-arsenic-species
#7
Dandan Fu, Zhuoqun He, Shanshan Su, Bin Xu, Yuling Liu, Yaping Zhao
Arsenic pollution has caused worldwide attention due to its mandatory toxicity. Chemical structures of the adsorbent and arsenic species greatly influence the arsenic adsorption efficiency. The goethite impregnated graphene oxide (GO)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) aerogel (α-FeOOH@GCA) was prepared via a facile self-assembly method of GO-CNTs induced by in-situ Fe(2+) reduction. α-FeOOH@GCA showed excellent adsorption capacities of 56.43, 24.43 and 102.11mgg(-1) for As(V), DMA and p-ASA comparing with that of 25...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565754/identification-of-potential-biomarkers-of-sepsis-using-bioinformatics-analysis
#8
Yu-Xia Yang, Li Li
Sepsis is defined as the systemic inflammatory response to infection and is one of the leading causes of mortality in critically ill patients. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sepsis. Transcription profile data (GSE12624) were downloaded that had a total of 70 samples (36 sepsis samples and 34 non-sepsis samples) from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Protein-protein interaction network analysis was conducted in order to comprehensively understand the interactions of genes in all samples...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564617/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-giant-cell-arteritis-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Maxime Samson, Marc Corbera-Bellalta, Sylvain Audia, Ester Planas-Rigol, Laurent Martin, Maria Cinta Cid, Bernard Bonnotte
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a granulomatous vasculitis affecting large arteries, especially the aorta and the extracranial branches of the external carotid artery. Its exact pathogenesis is not fully understood but major progress has been made in recent years, leading to new therapeutic targets like inhibition of the interleukin-6 pathway or the modulation of immune checkpoints. The cause of GCA has not been clearly identified but it is thought that GCA occurs on a genetic background and is triggered by unknown environmental factors that could activate and lead to the maturation of dendritic cells localized in the adventitia of normal arteries...
May 28, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552691/identification-of-bile-acids-responsible-for-inhibiting-the-bile-salt-export-pump-leading-to-bile-acid-accumulation-and-cell-toxicity-in-rat-hepatocytes
#10
Kumiko Oizumi, Shuichi Sekine, Meiko Fukagai, Takeshi Susukida, Kousei Ito
Inhibition of bile salt export pump (BSEP) causes hepatic accumulation of toxic bile acid (BA), leading to hepatocyte death. We reported a sandwich-cultured hepatocyte (SCH)-based model that can estimate potential cholestatic-compounds by assessing their ability to induce hepatotoxicity in combination with a titrated amount of human 12 BA-species. However, there is little information about the specific BA(s) responsible for hepatotoxicity, when BSEP is inhibited. This study measured the accumulation of each BA in rat SCHs in the presence of 10μM cyclosporine A (CsA), which only inhibits BSEP, and 50μM CsA, which further inhibits basolateral BA efflux transporters...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551169/contemporary-prevalence-estimates-for-giant-cell-arteritis-and-polymyalgia-rheumatica-2015
#11
Cynthia S Crowson, Eric L Matteson
OBJECTIVE: There are no estimates of the prevalence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) or polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) in a US population in the current millennium. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 2015 prevalence of GCA and PMR in a US population-based setting. METHODS: Cohorts of incident GCA in 1950-2009 and incident PMR in 1970-2014 were previously identified among residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota. Prevalence estimates were obtained from the age-, sex-, and calendar year-specific incidence rates and adjusted to the US white 2010 population aged ≥50 years...
April 7, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538036/multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies-in-giant-cell-arteritis
#12
Michael Ross, Lulu Bursztyn, Rosanne Superstein, Mark Gans
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis of medium and large arteries often with ophthalmic involvement, including ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal artery occlusion, and ocular motor cranial nerve palsies. This last complication occurs in 2%-15% of patients, but typically involves only 1 cranial nerve. We present 2 patients with biopsy-proven GCA associated with multiple cranial nerve palsies.
May 18, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536518/mri-visual-ratings-of-brain-atrophy-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-across-the-spectrum-of-cognitive-decline-are-differently-affected-by-age-and-diagnosis
#13
Hanneke F M Rhodius-Meester, Marije R Benedictus, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof, Philip Scheltens, Majon Muller, Wiesje M van der Flier
Aim: To assess the associations of age and diagnosis with visual ratings of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), parietal atrophy (PA), global cortical atrophy (GCA), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and to investigate their clinical value in a large memory clinic cohort. Methods: We included 2,934 patients (age 67 ± 9 years; 1,391 [47%] female; MMSE 24 ± 5) from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (1,347 dementia due to Alzheimer's disease [AD]; 681 mild cognitive impairment [MCI]; 906 controls with subjective cognitive decline)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529062/quantitative-targeted-bile-acid-profiling-as-new-markers-for-dili-in-a-model-of-methapyrilene-induced-liver-injury-in-rats
#14
Markus Slopianka, Anne Herrmann, Mira Pavkovic, Heidrun Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Rainer Ernst, Angela Mally, Matthias Keck, Bjoern Riefke
Recently, bile acids (BAs) were reported as promising markers for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). BAs have been suggested to correlate with hepatocellular and hepatobiliary damage; however a clear connection of BA patterns with different types of DILI remains to be established. To investigate if BAs can improve the assessment of liver injury, 20 specific BAs were quantitatively profiled via LC-MS/MS in plasma and liver tissue in a model of methapyrilene-induced liver injury in rats. Methapyrilene, a known hepatotoxin was dosed daily over 14-days at doses of 30 and 80mg/kg, followed by a recovery phase of 10days...
May 19, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523333/giant-cell-arteritis-with-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#15
Horia Tudor Stanca, Elena Suvac, Mihnea Munteanu, Dragoş Cătălin Jianu, Andrei Gheorghe Marius Motoc, Gavril Cosmin Roşca, Ovidiu Boruga
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology that mainly involves large and medium arteries, particularly the cranial branches of the aorta. GCA with consecutive arteritic-anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (A-AION) has rarely been diagnosed in Romania. Recently, we encountered an 83-year-old patient who presented with left eye visual impairment and corresponding optic disc diffusely swollen and pale. He also had typical manifestations of GCA, such as malaise, and temporal headache, and a highly elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503707/the-value-of-ultrasound-in-diagnosing-extracranial-large-vessel-vasculitis-compared-to-fdg-pet-ct-a-retrospective-study
#16
Christian Löffler, Johannes Hoffend, Urs Benck, Bernhard K Krämer, Raoul Bergner
Large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) is a group of diseases mainly comprised of giant-cell arteritis (GCA), Takayasu arteritis, and a series of rare diseases like Behçet's disease, IgG4-related disease, infectious aortitis, and other unfrequent entities. Besides clinical and laboratory features, Doppler sonography (DS) can assist in establishing the diagnosis. Its diagnostic sensitivity has been evaluated in various studies, most of them, however, in temporal arteritis (TA) respectively in LVV with involvement of the temporal artery...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502640/a-cohort-study-reveals-myocarditis-to-be-a-rare-and-life-threatening-presentation-of-large-vessel-vasculitis
#17
Katie Bechman, Deepa Gopalan, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Justin C Mason
BACKGROUND: The predominant forms of adult large vessel vasculitis (LVV) are giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TA). Cardiac involvement in LVV is a cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in TA. Cardiac failure is most commonly secondary to uncontrolled arterial hypertension or myocardial ischaemia. Pulmonary hypertension and aortic valve incompetence following ascending aortic dilatation represent other serious cardiovascular complications. However, cardiac failure as a consequence of myocarditis is rarely reported, principally in single case reports or in autopsy studies...
April 4, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500877/clinically-isolated-aortitis-pitfalls-progress-and-possibilities
#18
REVIEW
Ilkay Cinar, He Wang, James R Stone
Non-infectious aortitis may be caused by several distinct systemic rheumatologic diseases. In some patients, aortitis is identified either pathologically or radiologically in the absence of clinical evidence of a systemic vasculitis. By consensus nomenclature, such cases are referred to as clinically isolated aortitis (CIA). Some systemic disorders may initially present as CIA including giant cell arteritis (GCA), IgG4-related disease, infectious aortitis, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. CIA most commonly occurs in women of European descent over the age of 50 and, thus, mirrors the gender, age, and geographic distribution of GCA...
April 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491267/update-on-the-management-of-giant-cell-arteritis
#19
REVIEW
Janet Roberts, Alison Clifford
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large vessel vasculitis that may be associated with significant complications such as blindness, stroke, or aortic aneurysm and dissection in a subset of patients. Given the serious side effects associated with prolonged courses of glucocorticoids and frequent relapses experienced when doses are tapered, increased efforts are being dedicated to the discovery of safer and more effective therapies to control this disease. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the role of glucocorticoid-sparing agents in the medical management of GCA with a special focus on the most recent evidence regarding the role of biologic agents, including tocilizumab (TCZ), abatacept and ustekinumab, and other novel therapies...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485026/giant-cell-arteritis-beyond-temporal-artery-biopsy-and-steroids
#20
REVIEW
Jem V Ninan, Susan Lester, Catherine L Hill
Giant cell arteritis is the commonest primary vasculitis of the elderly. The acute complications of untreated Giant cell arteritis such as vision loss or occasionally stroke can be devastating. The diagnosis is however not altogether straightforward due to variable sensitivities of the temporal artery biopsy as a reference diagnostic test. In this review, we discuss the increasing role of imaging in the diagnosis of Giant cell arteritis. Glucocorticoid treatment is the backbone of therapy but it is associated with significant adverse effects...
May 9, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
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