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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647906/exogenous-gdf11-induces-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-wasting
#1
Teresa A Zimmers, Yanling Jiang, Meijing Wang, Tiffany W Liang, Joseph E Rupert, Ernie D Au, Francesco E Marino, Marion E Couch, Leonidas G Koniaris
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a TGF-beta superfamily member, is highly homologous to myostatin and essential for embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Reports of GDF11 effects on adult tissues are conflicting, with some describing anti-aging and pro-regenerative activities on the heart and skeletal muscle while others opposite or no effects. Herein, we sought to determine the in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of excess GDF11. Mice were injected with GDF11 secreting cells, an identical model to that used to initially identify the in vivo effects of myostatin...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647733/role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-bone-regenerative-medicine-what-is-the-evidence
#2
Ahmad Oryan, Amir Kamali, Ali Moshiri, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad
Healing and regeneration of bone injuries, particularly those that are associated with large bone defects, are a complicated process. There is growing interest in the application of osteoinductive and osteogenic growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to significantly improve bone repair and regeneration. MSCs are multipotent stromal stem cells that can be harvested from many different sources and differentiated into a variety of cell types, such as preosteogenic chondroblasts and osteoblasts...
June 24, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647731/recovery-of-vocal-fold-epithelium-after-acute-phonotrauma
#3
Bernard Rousseau, Tsuyoshi Kojima, Carolyn K Novaleski, Emily E Kimball, Carla V Valenzuela, Masanobu Mizuta, James J Daniero, C Gaelyn Garrett, M Preeti Sivasankar
We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was an immediate decrease in the microprojection depth and height following raised-intensity phonation, paired with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2...
June 24, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647496/a-comprehensive-complex-systems-approach-to-the-study-and-analysis-of-mammalian-cell-cycle-control-system-in-the-presence-of-dna-damage-stress
#4
Ali Abroudi, Sandhya Samarasinghe, Don Kulasiri
Not many models of mammalian cell cycle system exist due to its complexity. Some models are too complex and hard to understand, while some others are too simple and not comprehensive enough. Moreover, some essential aspects, such as the response of G1-S and G2-M checkpoints to DNA damage as well as the growth factor signalling, have not been investigated from a systems point of view in current mammalian cell cycle models. To address these issues, we bring a holistic perspective to cell cycle by mathematically modelling it as a complex system consisting of important sub-systems that interact with each other...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647468/influence-of-rabbit-notochordal-cells-on-symptomatic-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-anti-angiogenic-capacity-on-human-endothelial-cell-proliferation-under-hypoxia
#5
Woo-Keun Kwon, Hong Joo Moon, Taek-Hyun Kwon, Youn-Kwan Park, Joo Han Kim
OBJECTIVES: Symptomatic degenerative disc disease (DDD) is associated with neovascularization and nerve ingrowth into intervertebral discs (IVDs). Notochordal cells (NCs) are key cells that may lead to regeneration of IVDs. However, their activities under conditions of hypoxia, the real environment of IVD, are not well known. We hypothesized that NCs may inhibit neovascularization by interacting with endothelial cells (ECs) under hypoxia. DESIGN: Human IVDs were isolated and cultured to produce nucleus pulposus (NP) cell conditioned medium (NPCM)...
June 21, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647454/elevated-serum-met-5-enkephalin-levels-correlate-with-improved-clinical-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#6
Michael D Ludwig, Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
Methionine enkephalin ([Met(5)]-enkephalin, Opioid growth factor (OGF)) is a small neuropeptide with growth-related as well as immunomodulatory properties. OGF is distributed widely throughout the body, is both autocrine and paracrine produced, and has a very short half-life in serum. In addition to its neurotransmitter functions, OGF inhibits cell replication of a wide variety of cells involved in the autoimmune process. In this preclinical study, mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocytic glycoprotein (MOG35-55) to establish a chronic progressive form of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and serum enkephalin levels were assessed throughout the disease as well as in response to OGF therapy in order to determine whether OGF may be a biological marker for EAE and multiple sclerosis...
June 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647387/practical-considerations-for-the-use-of-breast-mri-for-breast-cancer-evaluation-in-the-preoperative-setting
#7
Debra L Monticciolo
Preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE) breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains controversial in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient. Additional lesions are frequently discovered in these patients with CE breast MRI. As staging and treatment planning evolve to include more information on tumor biology and aggression, so should our consideration of extent of disease. Directing CE breast MRI to those patients most likely to have additional disease may be beneficial. We sought to develop practical guidance for the use of preoperative CE breast MRI in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient based on recent scientific data...
June 21, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647356/optimizing-bone-morphogenic-protein-4-mediated-human-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation-into-trophoblast-like-cells-using-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activin-nodal-signalling-inhibition
#8
Mariann Koel, Urmo Võsa, Kaarel Krjutškov, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Juha Kere, Juha Tapanainen, Shintaro Katayama, Sulev Ingerpuu, Viljar Jaks, Ulf-Hakan Stenman, Karolina Lundin, Timo Tuuri, Andres Salumets
Several studies have demonstrated that human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can be differentiated into trophoblast-like cells if exposed to bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) and/or inhibitors of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/activin/nodal signalling pathways. The goal of this study was to investigate how the inhibitors of these pathways improve the efficiency of hESC differentiation when compared with basic BMP4 treatment. RNA sequencing was used to analyse the effects of all possible inhibitor combinations on the differentiation of hESC into trophoblast-like cells over 12 days...
June 12, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647303/the-predictors-of-metabolic-syndrome-based-on-walker-health-promoting-lifestyle-in-iran-2016
#9
REVIEW
Maryam Mohammadi, Ali Ramezankhani, Shabnam Mohammadi, Shakiba Zahed, Farahnaz Khabiri, Soheila Khodakarim, Mohsen Roshani, Majid Ghayur
BACKGROUND: Understanding the metabolic syndrome has been the center of attention in recent years as a major risk factor of many diseases. Given the rising incidence of this disease and as the patient can compete against this disease with choosing healthy lifestyle, in the present study, we investigated the predictors of metabolic syndrome, based on Walker's health-promoting lifestyle in two large cities in Iran, in 2016. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used two-stage cluster sampling to select 1128 patients, among patients who referred to health centers in Isfahan and Yazd...
May 17, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647274/sonic-hedgehog-pathway-suppression-and-reactivation-accelerates-differentiation-of-rat-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-toward-insulin-producing-cells
#10
Dian Dayer, Mahmoud Hashemi Tabar, Eskandar Moghimipour, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Ata A Ghadiri, Elham Allah Bakhshi, Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Mohammad Ali Ghafari
BACKGROUND AIMS: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an intercellular signaling molecule that regulates pancreas development in mammals. Manipulation of Shh signaling pathway can be used as reliable approach to improve the generation of functional insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). METHODS: In the present study, a novel differentiation protocol was used to produce IPCs from adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ATDMSCs) based on sequential inhibition and reactivation of Shh pathway...
June 21, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647240/ammonia-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-a-subtropical-wheat-field-under-different-nitrogen-fertilization-strategies
#11
Shuai Liu, Jim J Wang, Zhou Tian, Xudong Wang, Stephen Harrison
Minimizing soil ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EFs) has significant implications in regional air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions besides nitrogen (N) nutrient loss. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments of conventional urea, polymer-coated urea, ammonia sulfate, urease inhibitor (NBPT, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide)-treated urea, and nitrification inhibitor (DCD, dicyandiamide)-treated urea on emissions of NH3 and GHGs from subtropical wheat cultivation...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647210/high-expression-levels-of-cyr61-and-vegf-are-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-osteosarcoma
#12
Yanming Liu, Feiyue Zhang, Zhaobo Zhang, Daoqing Wang, Baojuan Cui, Fanshuo Zeng, Laigang Huang, Qi Zhang, Qiangsan Sun
Cysteine Rich Angiogenic Inducer 61 (Cyr61) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) are signaling proteins involved in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Cyr61 and VEGF expressions in osteosarcoma. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the expression of both the proteins in 84 osteosarcoma samples. Correlation between Cyr61/VEGF expressions and clinicopathological parameters was determined using Rank sum test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient...
June 6, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647196/smooth-muscle-cells-of-human-veins-show-an-increased-response-to-injury-at-valve-sites
#13
Shinsuke Kikuchi, Lihua Chen, Kevin Xiong, Yukihiro Saito, Nobuyoshi Azuma, Gale Tang, Michael Sobel, Thomas N Wight, Richard D Kenagy
OBJECTIVE: Venous valves are essential but are prone to injury, thrombosis, and fibrosis. We compared the behavior and gene expression of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the valve sinus vs nonvalve sites to elucidate biologic differences associated with vein valves. METHODS: Tissue explants of fresh human saphenous veins were prepared, and the migration of SMCs from explants of valve sinus vs nonvalve sinus areas was measured. Proliferation and death of SMCs were determined by staining for Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647170/the-complexity-and-cost-of-vaccine-manufacturing-an-overview
#14
REVIEW
Stanley Plotkin, James M Robinson, Gerard Cunningham, Robyn Iqbal, Shannon Larsen
As companies, countries, and governments consider investments in vaccine production for routine immunization and outbreak response, understanding the complexity and cost drivers associated with vaccine production will help to inform business decisions. Leading multinational corporations have good understanding of the complex manufacturing processes, high technological and R&D barriers to entry, and the costs associated with vaccine production. However, decision makers in developing countries, donors and investors may not be aware of the factors that continue to limit the number of new manufacturers and have caused attrition and consolidation among existing manufacturers...
June 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647025/olumacostat-glasaretil-a-promising-topical-sebum-suppressing-agent-that-affects-all-major-pathogenic-factors-of-acne-vulgaris
#15
Bodo C Melnik
Hunt et al. show that olumacostat glasaretil, an inhibitor of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, reduces saturated and monounsaturated fatty acyl chains in sebaceous lipids. Topical olumacostat glasaretil application decreases hamster ear sebaceous gland size and shows efficacy in treating patients with acne vulgaris. Olumacostat glasaretil-mediated sebum suppression may reduce Propionibacterium acnes growth and biofilm formation, comedogenesis, and inflammation.
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646964/global-advocacy-needed-for-sepsis-in-children
#16
Sagar Dugani, Niranjan Kissoon
Sepsis in children is a complex syndrome that develops from various infections and results in 15-30% mortality in high-income countries and up to 50% or higher in low-income countries. Worldwide, this represents an annual burden of 30 million cases resulting in 8 million deaths. Not surprisingly, there is a significantly higher burden in low-income countries with children there being 18 times more likely to die before the age of 5 years compared to high-income countries. Factors such as commercial air travel, climate change, and unchecked population growth have contributed to the growing burden of infectious diseases and ensuing sepsis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646918/diurnal-cycling-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-is-associated-with-shifts-in-carbon-metabolism
#17
Christopher Staley, Abigail P Ferrieri, Malak M Tfaily, Yaya Cui, Rosalie K Chu, Ping Wang, Jared B Shaw, Charles K Ansong, Heather Brewer, Angela D Norbeck, Meng Markillie, Fernanda do Amaral, Thalita Tuleski, Tomás Pellizzaro, Beverly Agtuca, Richard Ferrieri, Susannah G Tringe, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Michael J Sadowsky
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock regulates plant metabolic functions and is an important component in plant health and productivity. Rhizosphere bacteria play critical roles in plant growth, health, and development and are shaped primarily by soil communities. Using Illumina next-generation sequencing and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we characterized bacterial communities of wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis thaliana and an acyclic line (OX34) ectopically expressing the circadian clock-associated cca1 transcription factor, relative to a soil control, to determine how cycling dynamics affected the microbial community...
June 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646913/interplay-between-craniofacial-stem-cells-and-immune-stimulus
#18
REVIEW
Ruili Yang, Tingting Yu, Yanheng Zhou
Craniofacial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), isolated from an abundant and accessible source of craniofacial tissues, possess self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential. It has been reported that craniofacial MSCs show elevated proliferation and regeneration capacities compared to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). Furthermore, the immunomodulatory property has generated an emerging multidisciplinary research field that translates MSC-based therapies to the clinic for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
June 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646903/human-adipose-tissue-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-their-extracellular-vesicles-act-differentially-on-lung-mechanics-and-inflammation-in-experimental-allergic-asthma
#19
Ligia Lins de Castro, Debora Gonçalves Xisto, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Priscilla Christina Olsen, Patricia Albuquerque Garcia Redondo, Tatiana Paula Teixeira Ferreira, Daniel Jay Weiss, Marco Aurélio Martins, Marcelo Marcos Morales, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be difficult to treat due to its complex pathophysiology. Most current drugs focus on controlling the inflammatory process, but are unable to revert the changes of tissue remodeling. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are effective at reducing inflammation and tissue remodeling; nevertheless, no study has evaluated the therapeutic effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) on established airway remodeling in experimental allergic asthma...
June 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646880/6-shogaol-a-neuroactive-compound-of-ginger-jahe-gajah-induced-neuritogenic-activity-via-ngf-responsive-pathways-in-pc-12-cells
#20
Syntyche Ling Sing Seow, Sok Lai Hong, Guan Serm Lee, Sri Nurestri Abd Malek, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
BACKGROUND: Ginger is a popular spice and food preservative. The rhizomes of the common ginger have been used as traditional medicine to treat various ailments. 6-Shogaol, a pungent compound isolated from the rhizomes of jahe gajah (Zingiber officinale var officinale) has shown numerous pharmacological activities, including neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of 6-shogaol to mimic the neuritogenic activity of nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells...
June 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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