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Clinical surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912415/primary-melanoma-histologic-subtype-impact-on-survival-and-response-to-therapy
#1
Michael Lattanzi, Yesung Lee, Danny Simpson, Una Moran, Farbod Darvishian, Randie H Kim, Eva Hernando, David Polsky, Doug Hanniford, Richard Shapiro, Russell Berman, Anna C Pavlick, Melissa A Wilson, Tomas Kirchhoff, Jeffrey S Weber, Judy Zhong, Iman Osman
Background: Two primary histologic subtypes, superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) and nodular melanoma (NM), comprise the majority of all cutaneous melanomas. NM is associated with worse outcomes, which have been attributed to increased thickness at presentation, and it is widely expected that NM and SSM would exhibit similar behavior once metastasized. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that primary histologic subtype is an independent predictor of survival and may impact response to treatment in the metastatic setting...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912359/a-retrospective-study-on-mcr-1-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-in-china-from-2007-to-2016
#2
Xiangjun Liu, Yang Wang, Lanqing Cui, Yun Li, Feng Xue, Jian Liu, Liyuan Wang, Yingbo Shen, Yuan Lv
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of clinical mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of mcr-1-positive E. coli and mcr-1-negative E. coli in China. Methods: A total of 6264 clinical E. coli (n = 3854) and K. pneumoniae (n = 2410) were collected from hospitalized patients from 18 to 20 hospitals as part of the China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Trial (CARST) between January 2007 and June 2016...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912259/-cutaneous-anthrax-the-last-outbreak-diagnosed-in-chile
#3
Sebastián Arellano, Daniela Soto, Ma Beatriz Reeves, Francisco Chávez, Rodrigo Loubies, Andrés Ojeda
Anthrax is a zoonosis caused by a spore-forming bacterium, called Bacillus anthracis. Naturally it is of global distribution, with a predilection in agricultural zones with few norms of public veterinary health. Human contagion occurs through the consumption of diseased animal's meat or through a doorway into the skin or through the spores inhalation of products derived from the affected animal (wool, leather, bones). The most frequent infection in humans occurs in the skin, followed by the gastrointestinal tract and lungs...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912020/to-resect-or-not-to-resect-a-review-of-pancreatic-cyst-disease-management
#4
Jon M Harrison, Carlos Fernandez-Del Castillo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With recent advances in radiographic testing, there have been increases in the incidental identification of pancreatic cysts. Determining management, specifically, which cysts can be watched versus intervened upon has significant impact on at the patient-physician level as well as globally on resource allocation and healthcare expenditures. This review focuses on the three main guidelines (Fukuoka guidelines, European consensus, and American Gastroenterological Association recommendations) for management of pancreatic cystic disease after incidental identification...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911108/emerging-application-of-genomics-guided-therapeutics-in-personalized-lung-cancer-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Aubhishek Zaman, Trever G Bivona
In lung cancer, genomics-driven comprehensive molecular profiling has identified novel chemically and immunologically addressable vulnerabilities, resulting in an increasing application of precision medicine by targeted inactivation of tumor oncogenes and immunogenic activation of host anti-tumor surveillance as modes of treatment. However, initially profound response of these targeted therapies is followed by relapse due to therapy-resistant residual disease states. Although distinct mechanisms and frameworks for therapy resistance have been proposed, accounting for and upfront prediction of resistance trajectories has been challenging...
May 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911098/challenges-in-estimating-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-among-humans-enrolled-in-surveillance-studies
#6
Thanh-Thao Le, Maya Nadimpalli, Jianyong Wu, Christopher D Heaney, Jill R Stewart
Evaluating carriage of Staphylococcus aureus , an opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals capable of causing antibiotic-resistant infections, is epidemiologically important. However, clinical and epidemiological surveillance studies of S. aureus typically rely on characterizing one isolate per individual, which may not represent the actual population diversity in a carrier. The objective of this study was to determine if one isolate is sufficient for determining carrier status of particular strains or characteristics of S...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910800/further-advances-in-cancer-immunotherapy-going-beyond-checkpoint-blockade
#7
REVIEW
Robert W Wilkinson, Andrew J Leishman
Significant advances have been made to identify effective therapies that either restore or generate de novo a patient's immune response to cancer, so-called immunotherapy or immuno-oncology (IO) therapies. Some tumors overcome immune surveillance by promoting mechanisms to evade or suppress the immune system. This conference report highlights the clinical promise and current challenges of IO therapy, including the use of immune-checkpoint antagonist monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, this report investigates advances in preclinical modeling of cancer immunobiology and how this is helping our understanding of which patients will receive clinical benefits from current immune-checkpoint treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910728/regulation-of-pd-l1-emerging-routes-for-targeting-tumor-immune-evasion
#8
REVIEW
Yiting Wang, Huanbin Wang, Han Yao, Chushu Li, Jing-Yuan Fang, Jie Xu
Immune checkpoint blockade therapies (ICBTs) targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1/B7-H1/CD274) have exhibited momentous clinical benefits and durable responses in multiple tumor types. However, primary resistance is found in considerable number of cancer patients, and most responders eventually develop acquired resistance to ICBT. To tackle these challenges, it is essential to understand how PD-L1 is controlled by cancer cells to evade immune surveillance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910475/passive-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-salmonella-and-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-ontario-livestock-2007-2015
#9
Stefanie V Kadykalo, Maureen E C Anderson, Janet E Alsop
Clinical isolates are important to antimicrobial resistance surveillance efforts because clinically ill animals are the direct targets of antimicrobial treatments. Thus, clinical data may provide a surveillance tool for identifying emerging resistance threats. The purpose of this study was to describe resistance trends in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from clinically ill animals over time and evaluate the utility of these laboratory data as a passive surveillance tool. Susceptibility results of isolates from chickens, swine, and cattle recovered between 2007 and 2015 at a major veterinary diagnostic laboratory in Ontario, Canada were analyzed...
June 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909950/-management-of-mitral-valve-stenosis-during-pregnancy-at-the-oran-university-hospital-center-about-83-cases
#10
N F Benatta, D D Batouche, M A Djazouli, S A Zelmat, T Merzouk, L Hammou
INTRODUCTION: The management of pregnancy in patients with mitral valve stenosis disease continues to pose a challenge to the clinician. OBJECTIVE: The aim of study was to evaluate the association between mitral valve stenosis and maternal and fetal out come. MATERIEL AND METHOD: Eighty-three pregnant women with mitral valve disease, followed-up from 2009 to 2012, were prospectively evaluated medical history, NYHA class assessment, ECG and echocardiography were performed during pregnancy and after delivery...
June 14, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909599/survival-of-aggressive-variants-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-patients-under-55-years-old-a-seer-population-based-retrospective-analysis
#11
Jianhua Feng, Fei Shen, Wensong Cai, Xiaoxiong Gan, Xingyan Deng, Bo Xu
BACKGROUND: Patients younger than 55 years of age with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have excellent survival. Diffuse sclerosing variant (DSV) and tall cell variant (TCV) of PTC are associated with aggressiveness; the survival of patients <55 years of age with these variants is still unclear. We aim to investigate the clinicopathological features and survival of these variants in the age group <55 years. METHODS: All adult patients (<55 years old) with DSV, TCV and conventional PTC (CPTC) came from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (1988-2013)...
June 16, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909105/rationale-and-design-of-the-strain-surveillance-of-chemotherapy-for-improving-cardiovascular-outcomes-succour-trial
#12
Tomoko Negishi, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Kazuaki Negishi, Thomas H Marwick
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the hypothesis that global longitudinal strain (GLS) guidance of cardioprotective therapy would improve cardiac function of at-risk patients undergoing potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, compared with usual care. BACKGROUND: The conventional criteria for diagnosis of chemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) are dependent on the recognition of heart failure symptoms and/or changes in left ventricular ejection fraction...
June 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908920/a-new-metastatic-lymph-node-classification-based-survival-predicting-model-in-patients-with-small-bowel-adenocarcinoma-a-derivation-and-validation-study
#13
Shan Wu, Jin-Nan Chen, Qing-Wei Zhang, Chao-Tao Tang, Xin-Tian Zhang, Ming-Yu Tang, Xiao-Bo Li, Zhi-Zheng Ge
BACKGROUND: Current methods of lymph node (LN) staging are controversial in predicting the survival of SBA. We aimed to develop an alternative LN-classification-based nomogram to individualize SBA prognosis. METHODS: Based on the data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database of patients diagnosed with SBA between 2004 and 2014, we identified the cut-off points for the number of LNs examined and the number found to be metastatic using the K-adaptive partitioning (KAPS) algorithm...
June 13, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908788/prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-in-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-outcomes-at-a-comprehensive-cancer-centre
#14
Andrew Bang, Wayne S Kendal, Scott A Laurie, Graham Cook, Robert M MacRae
PURPOSE: The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) remains controversial in extensive stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) with the publication of 2 randomized control trials demonstrating differing outcomes in overall survival. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of PCI on survival and the development of brain metastasis while addressing the disparate use of postchemotherapy brain imaging in the aforementioned trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The medical records of 397 consecutive patients with ES-SCLC between Jan...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908178/new-generation-full-spectrum-endoscopy-versus-standard-forward-viewing-colonoscopy-a-multicenter-randomized-tandem-colonoscopy-trial-j-fuse-study
#15
Toyoki Kudo, Yutaka Saito, Hiroaki Ikematsu, Kinichi Hotta, Yoji Takeuchi, Masaaki Shimatani, Ken Kawakami, Naoto Tamai, Yuichi Mori, Yasuharu Maeda, Masayoshi Yamada, Taku Sakamoto, Takahisa Matsuda, Kenichiro Imai, Sayo Ito, Kenta Hamada, Norimasa Fukata, Takuya Inoue, Hisao Tajiri, Kenichi Yoshimura, Hideki Ishikawa, Shin-Ei Kudo
OBJECTIVES: Although colonoscopy is the criterion standard for detection of colorectal adenomas, some adenomas are missed. Full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) allows for observation with a 330° angle of view, which is expected to decrease the miss rate. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the superiority of FUSE over standard forward-viewing colonoscopy (SFVC) for detection of adenomas; we therefore compared new-generation FUSE and SFVC regarding colorectal adenoma miss rate (AMR) in this, the first reported randomized control trial using new-generation FUSE...
June 13, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908005/evaluation-of-the-who-laboratory-quality-stepwise-implementation-tool
#16
T A M Datema, K G Roper, S Cognat, M D Saad, L Oskam, V Dolmazon, M F M Engelberts, P Hessels, P R Klatser
OBJECTIVES: To introduce the Laboratory Quality Stepwise Implementation (LQSI) tool and provide data about its roll-out, usage and effectiveness in assisting laboratories with quality improvement. METHODS: The LQSI tool, a freely available stepwise guide, was developed by WHO to assist laboratories in efficiently implementing a quality management system. RESULTS: Since the tool's launch in 2014, it has been accessed by 116,431 unique users from 195 of 206 listed states...
June 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907989/high-seroprevalence-of-dengue-virus-indicates-that-dengue-virus-infections-are-frequent-in-central-and-eastern-sudan
#17
Awadalkareem Adam, Tom Schüttoff, Sven Reiche, Christian Jassoy
OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence of dengue in central and eastern Sudan and the breadth of neutralizing antibody responses. METHODS: Blood was drawn from 483 patients with fever who visited outpatient clinics in Port Sudan, Red Sea state, in three towns in Kassala state and in El Obeid, North Kordofan in December 2012 and January 2013. Sera were tested for dengue virus IgG and IgM by ELISA (Panbio) and sera without serologic evidence of acute infection (IgM negative) were used for the analysis of the seroprevalence...
June 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907864/bladder-cancer-recurrence-surveillance-by-urine-metabolomics-analysis
#18
A Loras, M Trassierra, D Sanjuan-Herráez, M C Martínez-Bisbal, J V Castell, G Quintás, J L Ruiz-Cerdá
Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) is among the most frequent malignant cancers worldwide. NMIBC is treated by transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and intravesical therapies, and has the highest recurrence rate among solid tumors. It requires a lifelong patient monitoring based on repeated cystoscopy and urinary cytology, both having drawbacks that include lack of sensitivity and specificity, invasiveness and care costs. We conducted an investigative clinical study to examine changes in the urinary metabolome of NMBIC patients before and after TURBT, as well during the subsequent surveillance period...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907560/validation-of-a-natural-language-processing-algorithm-for-detecting-infectious-disease-symptoms-in-primary-care-electronic-medical-records-in-singapore
#19
Antony Hardjojo, Arunan Gunachandran, Long Pang, Mohammed Ridzwan Bin Abdullah, Win Wah, Joash Wen Chen Chong, Ee Hui Goh, Sok Huang Teo, Gilbert Lim, Mong Li Lee, Wynne Hsu, Vernon Lee, Mark I-Cheng Chen, Franco Wong, Jonathan Siung King Phang
BACKGROUND: Free-text clinical records provide a source of information that complements traditional disease surveillance. To electronically harness these records, they need to be transformed into codified fields by natural language processing algorithms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop, train, and validate Clinical History Extractor for Syndromic Surveillance (CHESS), an natural language processing algorithm to extract clinical information from free-text primary care records...
June 11, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906596/are-we-missing-respiratory-viral-infections-in-infants-and-children-comparison-of-a-hospital-based-quality-management-system-with-standard-of-care
#20
Maren Alchikh, Tim Conrad, Christian Hoppe, Xiaolin Ma, Eeva Broberg, Pasi Penttinen, Janine Reiche, Barbara Biere, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
OBJECTIVES: Hospital-based surveillance of influenza and acute respiratory infections relies on ICD-codes and hospital laboratory reports (Standard-of-Care). It is unclear how many cases are missed with either method, i.e. remain undiagnosed/coded as influenza and other respiratory virus infections. Various influenza-like illness (ILI) definitions co-exist with little guidance on how to use them. We are comparing the diagnostic accuracy of standard surveillance methods with a prospective quality management (QM-Program) at a Berlin children's hospital with the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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