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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933464/can-body-composition-be-used-to-optimize-the-dose-of-platinum-chemotherapy-in-lung-cancer-a-feasibility-study
#1
Vincent Crosby, Catherine D'Souza, Carina Bristow, Amy Proffitt, Asmah Hussain, Vanessa Potter, Ivo Hennig, Richard O'Connor, Vickie Baracos, Andrew Wilcock
PURPOSE: Current methods of dosing platinum-based chemotherapy are suboptimal. Potentially, taking lean body mass into account may help. To inform the design of a future study, we first examined the feasibility and acceptability of such an approach using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and explored aspects suggestive of over- and under-dosing. METHODS: Patients with lung cancer offered platinum-based chemotherapy over 1 year were identified and, if eligible, invited to take part in a prospective feasibility study...
December 8, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933408/twelve-weeks-progressive-resistance-training-combined-with-protein-supplementation-beyond-habitual-intakes-increases-upper-leg-lean-tissue-mass-muscle-strength-and-extended-gait-speed-in-healthy-older-women
#2
Peter Francis, William Mc Cormack, Clodagh Toomey, Catherine Norton, Jean Saunders, Emmet Kerin, Mark Lyons, Philip Jakeman
The age-related decline in functional capability is preceded by a reduction in muscle quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and protein supplementation beyond habitual intakes on upper leg lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle quality and functional capability in healthy 50-70 years women. In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 57 healthy older women (age 61.1 ± 5.1 years, 1.61 ± 0.65 m, 65.3 ± 15.3 kg) consumed 0.33 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) for 12 weeks...
December 8, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933189/insulin-resistance-of-protein-anabolism-accompanies-that-of-glucose-metabolism-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-offspring-of-persons-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Sergio A Burgos, Vikram Chandurkar, Michael A Tsoukas, Stéphanie Chevalier, José A Morais, Marie Lamarche, Errol B Marliss
OBJECTIVE: To test whether protein anabolic resistance is an early defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven lean, normoglycemic T2D offspring (T2D-O) and eight matched participants without family history (controls; C) underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m(2)/min), euglycemic (5.5 mmol/L) and isoaminoacidemic clamp. Whole-body glucose and protein kinetics were measured with d-[3-(3)H]glucose and l-[l-(13)C]leucine, respectively...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932557/quantitative-parameters-in-psma-targeted-pet-imaging-with-18f-dcfpyl-variability-in-normal-organ-uptake
#4
Xin Li, Steven P Rowe, Jeffrey P Leal, Michael A Gorin, Mohamad E Allaf, Ashley E Ross, Kenneth J Pienta, Martin A Lodge, Martin G Pomper
PURPOSE: (18)F-DCFPyL is a small-molecule inhibitor of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) that has shown promise for evaluation of primary and metastatic prostate cancer (PC) using positron emission tomography (PET). Measuring the variability in normal organ uptake of (18)F-DCFPyL is necessary to understand its biodistribution, aid image interpretation, judge the reliability of scan quantification, and to provide a basis for therapeutic monitoring. METHODS: 65 consecutive (18)F-DCFPyL PET/CT scans from 64 patients with a history of PC were analyzed...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932368/longitudinal-associations-between-body-composition-sarcopenic-obesity-and-outcomes-of-frailty-disability-institutionalisation-and-mortality-in-community-dwelling-older-men-the-concord-health-and-ageing-in-men-project
#5
Vasant Hirani, Vasi Naganathan, Fiona Blyth, David G Le Couteur, Markus J Seibel, Louise M Waite, David J Handelsman, Robert G Cumming
BACKGROUND: to explore the longitudinal associations between body composition measures, sarcopenic obesity and outcomes of frailty, activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) disability, institutionalisation and mortality. METHODS: men aged ≥ 70 years (2005-07) from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project were assessed at baseline (n = 1,705), 2 (n = 1,366) and 5 years (n = 954). The main outcome measures were frailty (adapted Fried criteria), ADL, including personal care and mobility and IADL disability (ability to perform tasks for independent living), institutionalisation and mortality...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932054/changes-in-physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-risk-of-falling-the-women-s-health-initiative-observational-study
#6
Jennifer W Bea, Cynthia A Thomson, Robert B Wallace, Chunyuan Wu, Rebecca A Seguin, Scott B Going, Andrea LaCroix, Charles Eaton, Judith K Ockene, Michael J LaMonte, Rebecca Jackson, W Jerry Mysiw, Jean Wactawski-Wende
Falling significantly affects quality of life, morbidity, and mortality among older adults. We sought to evaluate the prospective association between sedentary time, physical activity, and falling among post-menopausal women aged 50-79 y recruited to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998 from 40 clinical centers across the United States. Baseline (B) and change in each of the following were evaluated at year 3 (Y3) and year 6 (Y6; baseline n=93,676; Y3 n=76,598; Y6 n=75,428): recreational physical activity (MET-h/wk), sitting, sleeping (min/d), and lean body mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (subset N=6,475)...
December 5, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932053/green-and-lean-is-neighborhood-park-and-playground-availability-associated-with-youth-obesity-variations-by-gender-socioeconomic-status-and-race-ethnicity
#7
S Morgan Hughey, Andrew T Kaczynski, Stephanie Child, Justin B Moore, Dwayne Porter, James Hibbert
Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3(rd)-5(th) grade youth (n=13,469) in a southeastern US county to determine body mass index (BMI) percentiles...
December 5, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931035/diabetic-phenotype-in-the-small-intestine-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#8
Henning Hvid, Stina Rikke Jensen, Brent M Witgen, Christian Fledelius, Jesper Damgaard, Charles Pyke, Thomas Bovbjerg Rasmussen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In contrast to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rodent models of diabetes, there are no thorough characterizations of the intestinal phenotype and the underlying changes in the global gene-expression of genetic models of diabetes, such as the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. The aim of the present study was to characterize the intestine in the ZDF rat. METHODS: The intestine of ZDF rats and lean controls was examined macroscopically and histologically, and ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) was performed in samples of jejunal mucosa...
December 9, 2016: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925048/resting-energy-expenditure-in-critically-ill-patients-evaluation-methods-and-clinical-applications
#9
Ana Cláudia Soncini Sanches, Cassiana Regina de Góes, Marina Nogueira Berbel Bufarah, André Luiz Balbi, Daniela Ponce
Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE) of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis...
October 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922938/skeletal-muscle-mass-is-associated-with-higher-dietary-protein-intake-and-lower-body-fat-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Thaís R Silva, Poli M Spritzer
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between skeletal muscle mass and dietary protein intake, habitual physical activity, body composition, and metabolic variables. METHODS: One hundred three healthy postmenopausal women from southern Brazil (age 55.2 ± 4.9 y, body mass index 27.2 ± 4.6 kg/m) were enrolled. Bone mineral density, %body fat, %trunk fat mass, and appendicular lean mass were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, and habitual physical activity by pedometer...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922463/the-dangers-of-estimating-v%C3%AB-o2max-using-linear-nonexercise-prediction-models
#11
Alan M Nevill, Carlton B Cooke
PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy and goodness-of-fit of two competing models (linear versus allometric) when estimating V˙O2max (ml.kg.min) using non-exercise prediction models. METHODS: The two competing models were fitted to the V˙O2max (ml.kg.min) data taken from two previously published studies. Study 1 (the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, ADNFS), recruited 1732 randomly selected healthy participants, aged 16 years and over, from thirty English parliamentary constituencies...
December 1, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922240/associations-of-lean-and-fat-mass-measures-with-whole-body-bone-mineral-content-and-bone-mineral-density-in-female-adolescent-weightlifters-and-swimmers
#12
Şükran Nazan Koşar
Body composition and sport participation have been associated with bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in female adolescent weightlifters, swimmers and non-athletic counterparts. This study included a total of 25 female adolescents (mean age: 15.3±1.1 years). Body composition and bone mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In most of the studied variables weight lifters had higher values compared to swimmers and non-athletes (p < 0...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918843/cucurbita-ficifolia-cucurbitaceae-modulates-inflammatory-cytokines-and-ifn-%C3%AE-in-obese-mice
#13
Á Fortis-Barrera, R García-Macedo, J C Almanza-Perez, G Blancas-Flores, A Zamilpa-Alvarez, J L Flores-Sáenz, M Cruz, R Román-Ramos, F J Alarcón-Aguilar
This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on systemic chronic inflammation in an obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) via modulating the expression of adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin) and immune-regulatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10). Cucurbita ficifolia extract was administered daily by gavage to lean and MSG-obese mice for 30 days. At the end of treatment, cytokine mRNA expression in adipose tissue was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein levels of these cytokines were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918670/combined-plyometric-strength-training-improves-ice-hockey-players-on-ice-sprint
#14
Torstein E Dæhlin, Ole C Haugen, Simen Haugerud, Ivana Hollan, Truls Raastad, Bent R Rønnestad
: Combined plyometric and strength training have previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training has not been previously been compared to the effects of strength training only. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with strength training only. METHODS: Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions per week for 8 weeks...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918084/urinary-incontinence-in-older-women-the-role-of-body-composition-and-muscle-strength-from-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#15
Anne M Suskind, Peggy M Cawthon, Sanae Nakagawa, Leslee L Subak, Ilse Reinders, Suzanne Satterfield, Steve Cummings, Jane A Cauley, Tamara Harris, Alison J Huang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospective relationships between body composition and muscle strength with predominantly stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in older women. DESIGN: Prospective community-dwelling observational cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body Composition study). PARTICIPANTS: Women initially aged 70 to 79 recruited from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee (N = 1,475). MEASUREMENTS: Urinary incontinence was assessed using structured questionnaires...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916879/vitamin-d-and-weight-cycling-impact-on-injury-illness-and-inflammation-in-collegiate-wrestlers
#16
Jacqueline N Barcal, Joi T Thomas, Bruce W Hollis, Kathy J Austin, Brenda M Alexander, D Enette Larson-Meyer
: This study explored the link between vitamin D status and frequency of skin infections, inflammation, and injury in college wrestlers during an academic year. METHODS: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n = 19), plasma cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) (n = 18) concentrations, and body weight/composition were measured and injury/illness/skin infection data were collected in fall, winter, and spring. RESULTS: In the fall, 74% of wrestlers had vitamin D concentrations <32 ng/mL which increased to 94% in winter and spring...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916865/associations-of-vitamin-d-with-inter-and-intra-muscular-adipose-tissue-and-insulin-resistance-in-women-with-and-without-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#17
David Scott, Anju Joham, Helena Teede, Melanie Gibson-Helm, Cheryce Harrison, Samantha Cassar, Samantha Hutchison, Peter R Ebeling, Nigel Stepto, Barbora de Courten
Low vitamin D and insulin resistance are common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated with higher inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated associations between vitamin D, IMAT and insulin resistance in a cross-sectional study of 40 women with PCOS and 30 women without PCOS, and pre- and post-exercise in a 12-week intervention in 16 overweight participants (10 with PCOS and six without PCOS). A non-classical body mass index (BMI) threshold was used to differentiate lean and overweight women (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m²)...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916426/high-body-mass-index-in-infancy-may-predict-severe-obesity-in-early-childhood
#18
Allison Smego, Jessica G Woo, Jillian Klein, Christina Suh, Danesh Bansal, Sherri Bliss, Stephen R Daniels, Christopher Bolling, Nancy A Crimmins
OBJECTIVE: To characterize growth trajectories of children who develop severe obesity by age 6 years and identify clinical thresholds for detection of high-risk children before the onset of obesity. STUDY DESIGN: Two lean (body mass index [BMI] 5th to ≤75th percentile) and 2 severely obese (BMI ≥99th percentile) groups were selected from populations treated at pediatric referral and primary care clinics. A population-based cohort was used to validate the utility of identified risk thresholds...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914915/physical-activity-modifies-the-association-between-dietary-protein-and-lean-mass-of-postmenopausal-women
#19
Jessica A Martinez, Betsy C Wertheim, Cynthia A Thomson, Jennifer W Bea, Robert Wallace, Matthew Allison, Linda Snetselaar, Zhao Chen, Rami Nassir, Patricia A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of lean muscle mass and related strength is associated with lower risk for numerous chronic diseases of aging in women. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate whether the association between dietary protein and lean mass differs by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n=8,298)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913848/increased-fetal-adiposity-prior-to-diagnosis-of-gestational-diabetes-in-south-asians-more-evidence-for-the-thin-fat-baby
#20
Hema Venkataraman, Uma Ram, Sam Craik, Anuradhai Arungunasekaran, Suresh Seshadri, Ponnusamy Saravanan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM. METHODS: Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in Chennai, India. Fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were recorded at 11, 20 and 32 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Diabetologia
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