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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908345/functional-and-physiological-adaptations-following-concurrent-training-using-sets-with-and-without-concentric-failure-in-elderly-men-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Erik Menger, Juliana Lopes Teodoro, Larissa Xavier Neves da Silva, Francesco Pinto Boeno, Daniel Umpierre, Cíntia Ehlers Botton, Rodrigo Ferrari, Giovani Dos Santos Cunha, Mikel Izquierdo, Ronei Silveira Pinto
This study compared the functional and physiological adaptations induced by concurrent training (CT) performed with repetitions to concentric failure and not to failure in elderly men. Fifty-two individuals (66.2 ± 5.2 years) completed the pre- and post-measurements and were divided into three groups: repetitions to failure (RFG, n = 17); repetitions not to failure (NFG, n = 20); and repetitions not to failure with total volume equalized to that in the RFG (ENFG, n = 15). The participants' sit-to-stand ability, timed-up-and-go (TUG), muscle power output in squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ), blood lipids and glucose, as well as blood pressure levels were assessed...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907861/higher-plasma-leptin-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-left-ventricular-mass-and-left-ventricular-diastolic-stiffness-in-black-women-insights-from-the-genetic-epidemiology-network-of-arteriopathy-genoa-study
#2
Daisuke Kamimura, Takeki Suzuki, Wanmei Wang, Matthew deShazo, John E Hall, Michael D Winniford, Iftikhar J Kullo, Thomas H Mosley, Kenneth R Butler, Michael E Hall
Our previous experimental animal data suggest a beneficial effect of leptin on LV structure and function. We hypothesized that leptin levels are associated with lower LV mass and myocardial stiffness which are important risk factors for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We evaluated 1172 blacks, in which the prevalence of HFpEF is quite high, with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF > 50%) from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy Study (mean age 62...
June 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907846/greater-blood-volume-and-hb-mass-in-obese-women-quantified-by-the-carbon-monoxide-rebreathing-method-affects-interpretation-of-iron-biomarkers-and-iron-requirements
#3
Ana C Cepeda-Lopez, Michael B Zimmermann, Sophia Wussler, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Nicole Naef, Sandro Manuel Mueller, Marco Toigo, Isabelle Herter-Aeberli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency (ID) is common in overweight and obese individuals (OW/OB) but the mechanism is uncertain. Greater blood volume (BV) in OW/OB may increase hemoglobin (Hb) mass and iron requirements, and confound iron biomarkers by hemodilution. Quantification of BV/PV changes in OW/OB is challenging and a formula to estimate BV/PV based on anthropometric indices would be valuable. In normal weight (NW) and OW/OB women, we aimed at: (1) measure BV and assess whether differences in BV affect concentrations and total circulating mass of Hb and iron biomarkers; (2) develop an algorithm describing BV in OW/OB...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907750/examining-the-associations-among-fibrocystic-breast-change-total-lean-mass-and-percent-body-fat
#4
Yuan-Yuei Chen, Wen-Hui Fang, Chung-Ching Wang, Tung-Wei Kao, Yaw-Wen Chang, Hui-Fang Yang, Chen-Jung Wu, Yu-Shan Sun, Wei-Liang Chen
Fibrocystic breast change (FBC) is extremely common and occurrs in 90% of women during their lives. The association between body composition and risk of breast cancer is well established. We hypothesized that the effect might exist during the development of FBC. Our aim was to examine the relationships of total lean mass (TLM) and percent body fat (PBF) with FBC in a general female population. In total, 8477 female subjects aged 20 years or older were enrolled in the study at the Tri-Service General Hospital in Taiwan from 2011 to 2016...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906484/the-contributions-of-diet-genes-and-physical-activity-to-the-etiology-of-obesity-contrary-evidence-and-consilience
#5
REVIEW
Edward Archer, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish between causal factors and mere statistical associations engendered the proliferation of misleading and demonstrably false research programs and failed public health initiatives...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905824/milk-powder-added-to-a-school-meal-increases-cognitive-test-scores-in-ghanaian-children
#6
Reginald Lee, Lauren Singh, Danielle van Liefde, Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Kwesi Saalia, Carly Edwards, Anja Serena, Tamara Hershey, Mark J Manary
Background: The inclusion of milk in school feeding is accepted as good nutritional practice, but specific benefits remain uncertain. Objective: The objective was to determine whether consumption of 8.8 g milk protein/d given as milk powder with a multiple micronutrient-enriched porridge resulted in greater increases in linear growth and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) scores in Ghanaian schoolchildren when compared with 1 of 3 control groups...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905532/chronic-vitamin-d-insufficiency-impairs-physical-performance-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Kenneth L Seldeen, Manhui Pang, Merced M Leiker, Jonathan E Bard, Maria Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Mireya Hernandez, Zachary Sheridan, Norma Nowak, Bruce R Troen
Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-OH vitamin D < 30 ng/ml) affects 70-80% of the general population, yet the long-term impacts on physical performance and the progression of sarcopenia are poorly understood. We therefore followed 6-month-old male C57BL/6J mice ( n =6) consuming either sufficient (STD, 1000 IU) or insufficient (LOW, 125 IU) vitamin D3/kg chow for 12 months (equivalent to 20-30 human years). LOW supplemented mice exhibited a rapid decline of serum 25-OH vitamin D levels by two weeks that remained between 11-15 ng/mL for all time points thereafter...
June 14, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903274/-changes-in-body-composition-of-primary-school-students-from-tianyang-county-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-after-two-years-nutrition-intervention
#8
Ran Zhao, Hui Pan, Qian Gan, Peipei Xu, Li Li, Xiaoqi Hu, Shuang Lin, Tingting Wang, Qian Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two years'nutrition intervention with eggs and milk on the body composition of rural primary school students in Tianyang County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. METHODS: Four intervention schools and four control schools were selected randomly from Tianyang County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Both intervention schools and control schools were similar in socialeconomic level, teaching standards, and school size. A total of 672 students(380students in the intervention group and 292 students in the control group)were recruited from the 2nd to the 4th Grade in primary school...
March 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902683/anthropometric-and-body-composition-changes-in-smokers-vs-abstainers-following-an-exercise-aided-pharmacotherapy-smoking-cessation-trial-for-women
#9
Harry Prapavessis, Stefanie De Jesus, Lyndsay Fitzgeorge, Scott Rollo
INTRODUCTION: Post-cessation weight gain contributes to smoking relapse, especially for women. Furthermore, excess weight in the form of android or visceral fat is associated with metabolic health problems. For this study, a secondary analysis was conducted in 2015 to determine whether quitting status, achieved through a 14 week supervised exercise-aided nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) cessation program [Getting Physical on Cigarette Trial-2009 to 2013; Prapavessis, et al., 2016], affects anthropometric and body composition parameters in female smokers (N = 413, M age = 42...
June 7, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902185/body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-in-early-adulthood-are-associated-with-thoracolumbar-spine-shape-at-age-60-64-the-medical-research-council-national-survey-of-health-and-development
#10
Anastasia V Pavlova, Stella G Muthuri, Rachel Cooper, Fiona R Saunders, Jennifer S Gregory, Rebecca J Barr, Kathryn R Martin, Judith E Adams, Diana Kuh, Rebecca J Hardy, Richard M Aspden
This study investigated associations between measures of adiposity from age 36 and spine shape at 60-64 years. Thoracolumbar spine shape was characterised using statistical shape modelling on lateral dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry images of the spine from 1529 participants of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, acquired at age 60-64. Associations of spine shape modes with: 1) contemporaneous measures of total and central adiposity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)) and body composition (android:gynoid fat mass ratio and lean and fat mass indices, calculated as whole body (excluding the head) lean or fat mass (kg) divided by height2 (m)2); 2) changes in total and central adiposity between age 36 and 60-64 and 3) age at onset of overweight, were tested using linear regression models...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901710/a-mediterranean-style-eating-pattern-with-lean-unprocessed-red-meat-has-cardiometabolic-benefits-for-adults-who-are-overweight-or-obese-in-a-randomized-crossover-controlled-feeding-trial
#11
Lauren E O'Connor, Douglas Paddon-Jones, Amy J Wright, Wayne W Campbell
Background: A Mediterranean-style eating pattern (Mediterranean Pattern) is often described as being low in red meat. Research shows that lean, unprocessed red meat can be incorporated into healthy eating patterns to improve cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk factors. Objective: We assessed the effects of consuming different amounts of lean, unprocessed red meat in a Mediterranean Pattern on CMD risk factors. We hypothesized that consuming a Mediterranean Pattern would improve CMD risk factors and that red meat intake would not influence these improvements...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901267/liquid-sucrose-consumption-promotes-obesity-and-impairs-glucose-tolerance-without-altering-circulating-insulin-levels
#12
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, Thomas M Martin, David H Burk, Robert C Noland, Christopher R Cooley, Michael D Karlstad, William D Johnson, J Jason Collier
OBJECTIVE: Multiple factors contribute to the rising rates of obesity and to difficulties in weight reduction that exist in the worldwide population. Caloric intake via sugar-sweetened beverages may be influential. This study tested the hypothesis that liquid sucrose intake promotes obesity by increasing serum insulin levels and tissue lipid accumulation. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were given 30% sucrose in liquid form. Changes in weight gain, body composition, energy expenditure (EE), and tissue lipid content were measured...
June 14, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900159/is-sarcopenia-a-potential-risk-factor-for-distal-radius-fracture-analysis-using-propensity-score-matching
#13
Jun-Ku Lee, Byung-Ho Yoon, Chi Hoon Oh, Jung Gon Kim, Soo-Hong Han
Background: Cases of low-energy-induced distal radius fracture (DRF) are increasing. Sarcopenia is considered to be an independent risk factor for fragility fractures. We compared body appendicular lean muscle mass (ALM) and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with DRF and a comparable control population. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between skeletal muscle mass and DRF. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with fragility DRF...
May 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897420/strong-relation-between-muscle-mass-determined-by-d3-creatine-dilution-physical-performance-and-incidence-of-falls-and-mobility-limitations-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-older-men
#14
Peggy M Cawthon, Eric S Orwoll, Katherine E Peters, Kristine E Ensrud, Jane A Cauley, Deborah M Kado, Marcia L Stefanick, James M Shikany, Elsa S Strotmeyer, Nancy W Glynn, Paolo Caserotti, Mahalakshmi Shankaran, Marc Hellerstein, Steven R Cummings, William J Evans
Background: Direct assessment of skeletal muscle mass in older adults is clinically challenging. Relationships between lean mass and late-life outcomes have been inconsistent. The D3-creatine dilution method provides a direct assessment of muscle mass. Methods: Muscle mass was assessed by D3-creatine (D3Cr) dilution in 1,382 men (mean age, 84.2 yrs). Participants completed the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB); usual walking speed (6 meters); and DXA lean mass...
June 12, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896930/lower-fasted-state-but-greater-increase-in-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-response-to-elevated-plasma-amino-acids-in-obesity
#15
Lee Tran, Katon A Kras, Nyssa Hoffman, Jayachandran Ravichandran, Jared M Dickinson, Andrew D'Lugos, Chad C Carroll, Shivam H Patel, Lawrence J Mandarino, Lori Roust, Christos S Katsanos
OBJECTIVE: Obesity alters protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, but consistent evidence is lacking. This study compared muscle protein synthesis in adults with obesity and in lean controls in the fasted state and during an amino acid infusion. METHODS: Ten subjects with obesity (age: 36 ± 3 years; BMI: 34 ± 1 kg/m2 ) and ten controls (age: 35 ± 3 years; BMI: 23 ± 1 kg/m2 ) received an infusion of L-[2,3,3,4,5,5,5,6,6,6-2 H10 ]leucine (0.15 μmol/kg fat-free mass/min) to measure muscle protein synthesis after an overnight fast and during amino acid infusion...
June 12, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895850/longitudinal-measures-of-maternal-vitamin-d-and-neonatal-body-composition
#16
Nansi S Boghossian, Winston Koo, Aiyi Liu, Sunni L Mumford, Michael Y Tsai, Edwina H Yeung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D status has been associated with fetal growth and offspring's bone mass in some observational studies. We characterize the trajectory of total maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration by race and examine whether vitamin D status is associated with neonatal anthropometry and body composition as assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Three longitudinal pregnancy samples from the Memphis site of the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention trial (1992-1995) were used...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892820/protocols-for-studying-how-thyroid-hormone-receptors-trigger-adaptive-thermogenesis-in-mice
#17
Karine Gauthier
The ability of thyroid hormone T3 to stimulate energy expenditure and regulate different aspects of whole body metabolism has been recognized for over a 100 years. Indeed in 1895 Adolf Magnus Levy was already describing the influence of the thyroid on setting the basal metabolic rate. Now it has been well characterized that the level of circulating T3 is correlated with energy expenditure both in humans and in rodent models (Mullur et al., Physiol Rev 94:355-382, 2014; Silva, Thyroid 5:481-492, 1995). Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are respectively associated with low and high energy expenditure leading to high and low body mass index...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892580/relationship-between-obesity-sarcopenia-sarcopenic-obesity-and-bone-mineral-density-in-elderly-subjects-aged-80-years-and-over
#18
Vanessa Ribeiro Dos Santos, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro, Igor Conterato Gomes, Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior, Luís Alberto Gobbo
Objective: This study sought to analyze the relationship between the components and aggravations of body composition (obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity) and bone mineral density in elderly subjects aged ≥80 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was utilized to assess 128 subjects aged between 80 and 95 years. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Gait speed was assessment by walking test...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892038/effect-of-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-on-the-relationship-between-adiposity-and-bone-mass-in-girls
#19
Megan Hetherington-Rauth, Jennifer W Bea, Robert M Blew, Janet L Funk, Vinson R Lee, Tiffany C Varadi, Denise J Roe, Mark D Wheeler, Scott B Going
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity has been separately associated with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRs) and increased risk of fracture. However, both augmented and compromised bone mass have been reported among overweight/obese children. Metabolic dysfunction, often co-existing with obesity, may explain the discrepancy in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between adiposity and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived bone mass differed in young girls with and without CMR(s)...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891687/macrophage-phenotype-and-bioenergetics-are-controlled-by-oxidized-phospholipids-identified-in-lean-and-obese-adipose-tissue
#20
Vlad Serbulea, Clint M Upchurch, Michael S Schappe, Paxton Voigt, Dory E DeWeese, Bimal N Desai, Akshaya K Meher, Norbert Leitinger
Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) adapt their metabolic phenotype either to maintain lean tissue homeostasis or drive inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the factors in the adipose tissue microenvironment that control ATM phenotypic polarization and bioenergetics remain unknown. We have recently shown that oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) uniquely regulate gene expression and cellular metabolism in Mox macrophages, but the presence of the Mox phenotype in adipose tissue has not been reported...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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