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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232481/tracking-of-areal-bone-mineral-density-from-age-eight-to-young-adulthood-and-factors-associated-with-deviation-from-tracking-a-17-yr-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Yi Yang, Feitong Wu, Tania Winzenberg, Graeme Jones
We have previously shown that bone mineral density (BMD) tracks strongly from age 8 to 16. This study aimed to describe whether this strong tracking continued to age 25 and describe factors associated with deviation from tracking. Ninety-nine participants were followed from age 8 to 25 and 197 participants from age 16 to 25. Outcomes measured were BMD at the spine, hip and total body (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)). Other factors measured were anthropometrics, inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use, history of being breastfed, sports participation, fitness (by physical work capacity (PWC170 )), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) (by DXA)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231963/body-composition-in-long-term-survivors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-diagnosed-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-focus-on-sarcopenic-obesity
#2
Christopher J C Marriott, Lesley F Beaumont, Troy H Farncombe, Amy N Cranston, Uma H Athale, Valerie N Yakemchuk, Colin E Webber, Ronald D Barr
BACKGROUND: The late effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include disordered body composition, especially obesity. Less attention has been focused on the loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and the combined morbidity of sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of body composition was undertaken via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 75 long-term survivors of ALL (more than 10 years after the diagnosis). Measures were obtained of the fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (equivalent to the lean body mass [LBM]), and whole-body bone mineral content...
December 12, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230967/the-obesity-factor-how-cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-estimated-more-accurately-in-people-with-obesity
#3
Karsten Königstein, Christopher Klenk, Anja Rossmeissl, Sandra Baumann, Denis Infanger, Benjamin Hafner, Timo Hinrichs, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is clinically used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The relation to total body mass (TBM) leads to an underestimation of CRF in people with obesity and to inappropriate prognostic and therapeutic decisions. This study aimed to determine body composition-derived bias in the estimation of CRF in people with obesity. METHODS: Two hundred eleven participants (58.8% women; mean BMI 35.7 kg/m2 [± 6.94; 20.7-58...
December 12, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227348/quantitative-pet-ct-in-clinical-practice-assessing-the-agreement-of-pet-tumor-indices-using-different-clinical-reading-platforms
#4
Joyce C Mhlanga, Alin Chirindel, Martin A Lodge, Richard L Wahl, Rathan M Subramaniam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether various fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT-derived parameters used in oncology vary significantly depending on the interpretation software systems used in clinical practice for multiple human solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 120 fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT studies carried out in patients with pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and head and neck cancers were evaluated retrospectively on two different vendor software platforms including Mirada and MIMVista...
December 8, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226115/body-composition-in-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis-correlation-with-disease-severity-and-duration
#5
Dawesh P Yadav, Saurabh Kedia, Kumble Seetharama Madhusudhan, Sawan Bopanna, Sandeep Goyal, Saransh Jain, Naval K Vikram, Raju Sharma, Govind K Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
Background: Results on body composition in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have been heterogeneous and are lacking from Asia. Present study assessed body composition in CD/UC and correlated it with disease severity/duration. Methods: Patients of CD/UC following between Dec 2014 and Dec 2015 who consented for bioimpedance analysis for body fat measurement were included. Lean mass and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were calculated with standard formulae...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225209/dapagliflozin-reduces-fat-mass-without-affecting-muscle-mass-in-type-2-diabetes
#6
Seigo Sugiyama, Hideaki Jinnouchi, Noboru Kurinami, Kunio Hieshima, Akira Yoshida, Katsunori Jinnouchi, Hiroyuki Nishimura, Tomoko Suzuki, Fumio Miyamoto, Keizo Kajiwara, Tomio Jinnouchi
AIM: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) therapy has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control and reduce body weight and fat mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, our aim was to investigate the effects of SGLT2i dapagliflozin-treatment on body muscle mass and muscle fat content in patients with T2DM. METHODS: We prospectively recruited uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] >7%) Japanese T2DM patients who had a body mass index (BMI) <35 kg/m2...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224976/body-composition-and-clinical-symptoms-in-patients-with-hip-or-knee-osteoarthritis-results-from-the-khoala-cohort
#7
Clémence Jeanmaire, Bernard Mazières, Evelyne Verrouil, Lorraine Bernard, Francis Guillemin, Anne-Christine Rat
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associations between body composition, notably low lean mass, and clinical symptoms [pain, physical function, quality of life (QoL)] in patients with symptomatic hip and/or knee OA. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from the 3-year follow-up visit of the Knee and Hip OsteoArthritis Long-term assessment (KHOALA) cohort. Skeletal muscle and fat mass were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fat mass index (FMI) was defined as total fat mass/height2...
October 18, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224109/testosterone-therapy-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-men-with-testosterone-deficiency-hypogonadism
#8
Farid Saad
Since the early 1990s, it has been recognized that testosterone (T) levels are lower in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with nondiabetic men (controls). Hypogonadism has been reported in approximately 50% of men with T2DM with robust correlations with measures of obesity, such as waist circumference and body mass index (BMI). In longitudinal studies, hypogonadism has been identified as a predictor of incident T2DM. Experimental withdrawal of T led to acute decreased insulin sensitivity, which can be reversed by normalization of T concentrations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#9
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224088/sex-differences-in-body-composition
#10
Miriam A Bredella
Body composition differs between men and women. Men have more lean mass, and women have more fat mass than men. Men are more likely to accumulate adipose tissue around the trunk and abdomen, whereas women usually accumulate adipose tissue around the hips and thighs. Less is known about sex differences in ectopic fat depots. Advances in imaging allow the noninvasive assessment of abdominal and femorogluteal fat compartments, intramyocellular lipids, intrahepatic lipids, pericardial adipose tissue, and neck adipose tissue including brown adipose tissue and tongue adipose tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223678/protein-sparing-therapies-in-acute-illness-and-obesity-a-review-of-george-blackburn-s-contributions-to-nutrition-science
#11
REVIEW
Dylan D Thomas, Nawfal W Istfan, Bruce R Bistrian, Caroline M Apovian
Protein sparing therapies were developed to mitigate the harms associated with protein-calorie malnutrition and nitrogen losses induced by either acute illness or hypocaloric diets in patients with obesity. We review the development of protein sparing therapies in illness and obesity with a focus on the pioneering contributions of George Blackburn, MD, PhD. He recognized that protein-calorie malnutrition is a common and serious clinical condition and developed new approaches to its treatment in hospitalized patients...
December 7, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223620/impact-of-obesity-on-modality-longevity-residual-kidney-function-peritonitis-and-survival-among-incident-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#12
Yoshitsugu Obi, Elani Streja, Rajnish Mehrotra, Matthew B Rivara, Connie M Rhee, Melissa Soohoo, Daniel L Gillen, Wei-Ling Lau, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of severe obesity, often considered a contraindication to peritoneal dialysis (PD), has increased over time. However, mortality has decreased more rapidly in the PD population than the hemodialysis (HD) population in the United States. The association between obesity and clinical outcomes among patients with end-stage kidney disease remains unclear in the current era. STUDY DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 15,573 incident PD patients from a large US dialysis organization (2007-2011)...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221901/role-of-heel-lifting-in-standing-balance-recovery-a-simulation-study
#13
Kuangyou B Cheng, Hiroko Tanabe, Wen-Chien Chen, Hung-Ta Chiu
Although lifting the heels has frequently been observed during balance recovery, the function of this movement has generally been overlooked. The present study aimed to investigate the functional role of heel lifting during regaining balance from a perturbed state. Computer simulation was employed to objectively examine the effect of allowing/constraining heel lifting on balance performance. The human model consisted of 3 rigid body segments connected by frictionless joints. Movements were driven by joint torques depending on current joint angle, angular velocity, and activation level...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221645/primary-care-led-weight-management-for-remission-of-type-2-diabetes-direct-an-open-label-cluster-randomised-trial
#14
Michael Ej Lean, Wilma S Leslie, Alison C Barnes, Naomi Brosnahan, George Thom, Louise McCombie, Carl Peters, Sviatlana Zhyzhneuskaya, Ahmad Al-Mrabeh, Kieren G Hollingsworth, Angela M Rodrigues, Lucia Rehackova, Ashley J Adamson, Falko F Sniehotta, John C Mathers, Hazel M Ross, Yvonne McIlvenna, Renae Stefanetti, Michael Trenell, Paul Welsh, Sharon Kean, Ian Ford, Alex McConnachie, Naveed Sattar, Roy Taylor
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disorder that requires lifelong treatment. We aimed to assess whether intensive weight management within routine primary care would achieve remission of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did this open-label, cluster-randomised trial (DiRECT) at 49 primary care practices in Scotland and the Tyneside region of England. Practices were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated list, to provide either a weight management programme (intervention) or best-practice care by guidelines (control), with stratification for study site (Tyneside or Scotland) and practice list size (>5700 or ≤5700)...
December 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219895/effect-of-8-week-of-hospital-based-resistance-training-program-on-tcd4-cell-count-and-anthropometric-characteristic-of-hiv-patients-in-tehran-iran-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Morteza Ghayomzadeh, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Sajjad Rezaei, Conrad P Earnest, Sima Akbarnejad, Leila Taj, Minoo Mohraz, James Wilfred Navalta, Peyman Ghasemi, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
We examined the effects of an 8 w circuit resistance training (RES) program using elastic bands and body weight on TCD4+ cell counts and anthropometry in HIV patients. Patients (N=21) receiving antiretroviral therapy were randomly assigned to resistance training (RES; n=14) or control group (CON; n=7) groups. RES (3/w) consisted of training with elastic bands and bodyweight training focusing on major muscle groups. CON received standard care. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, length of infection and respective baseline measures...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215172/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-increases-hepatic-oxidative-capacity-but-not-physical-activity-or-energy-expenditure-in-hepatic-pgc-1%C3%AE-deficient-mice
#16
Justin A Fletcher, Melissa A Linden, Ryan D Sheldon, Grace M Meers, E Matthew Morris, Anthony Butterfield, James W Perfield, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) treatment drives metabolic improvements, including increased metabolic flux and reduced hepatic steatosis, but mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully elucidated. We tested if a targeted reduction in hepatic PGC-1α, which has been shown to occur with obesity, negatively impacted the metabolic effects of FGF21. We infused FGF21 (1 mg kg-1  day-1 ) or saline in chow-fed wild-type (WT) and liver-specific PGC-1α +/- (LPGC-1α) mice for 4 weeks. FGF21 administration lowered serum insulin and cholesterol (P ≤ 0...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215066/pharmacological-inhibition-of-rev-erb-stimulates-differentiation-inhibits-turnover-and-reduces-fibrosis-in-dystrophic-muscle
#17
Ryan D Welch, Cyrielle Billon, Aurore-Cecile Valfort, Thomas P Burris, Colin A Flaveny
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a debilitating X-linked disorder that is fatal. DMD patients lack the expression of the structural protein dystrophin caused by mutations within the DMD gene. The absence of functional dystrophin protein results in excessive damage from normal muscle use due to the compromised structural integrity of the dystrophin associated glycoprotein complex. As a result, DMD patients exhibit ongoing cycles of muscle destruction and regeneration that promote inflammation, fibrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell (SC) exhaustion and loss of skeletal and cardiac muscle function...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214923/creatine-supplementation-elicits-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-upper-than-lower-limbs-and-trunk-in-resistance-trained-men
#18
João Pedro Nunes, Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Ademar Avelar, Michele Cc Trindade, Hellen Cg Nabuco, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Rodrigo R Fernandes, Ferdinando O Carvalho, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Creatine (Cr) supplementation associated with resistance training produces greater muscular strength improvements in the upper compared with the lower body; however, no study has investigated if such region-specific results are seen with gains in muscle mass. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the effect of Cr supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean soft tissue changes in the upper and lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained young adult men...
December 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212579/time-course-of-vitamin-d-depletion-and-repletion-in-reproductive-age-female-c57bl-6-mice
#19
Anthony M Belenchia, Sarah A Johnson, Alyssa C Kieschnick, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Catherine A Peterson
The use of animal models in vitamin D deficiency (VDD) research, particularly in regard to maternal deficits, has increased dramatically, yet these studies may be confounded due to ill-conceived experimental timelines. We conducted 2 experiments to (1) characterize the time course of VDD induction and repletion and (2) explore the long-term consequences of VDD on calcium homeostasis and body composition in reproductive-age female mice. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomized to receive either a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) or VDD diet; serum was collected weekly...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211904/associations-between-genetic-variants-associated-with-body-mass-index-and-trajectories-of-body-fatness-across-the-life-course-a-longitudinal-analysis
#20
Mingyang Song, Yan Zheng, Lu Qi, Frank B Hu, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci
Background: The genetic associations with trajectories of body fatness over the life course remain unknown. Methods: We used a group-based modelling approach to identify trajectories of body fatness from age 5 years up to 65 for 7277 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 4645 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 97 variants associated with adulthood body mass index (BMI) and estimated its association with trajectories using logistic regression...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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