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Drug-induced suicide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623497/-psychiatric-emergencies
#1
F Schneider, S Weber-Papen
Psychiatric emergencies present a frequent and interdisciplinary challenge. Clinical diagnosis and management are complicated by the acuity, and the patient's compliance is often limited by the illness. Psychiatric emergencies include states of acute agitation, suicidality, delirium, stupor, and drug-induced emergencies. Sometimes interventions such as conversational contact, responding empathically to patients, or "talking down" are sufficient. If pharmacotherapy is necessary, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs are the primary agents of choice...
June 16, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608850/cellular-senescence-drives-age-dependent-hepatic-steatosis
#2
Mikolaj Ogrodnik, Satomi Miwa, Tamar Tchkonia, Dina Tiniakos, Caroline L Wilson, Albert Lahat, Christoper P Day, Alastair Burt, Allyson Palmer, Quentin M Anstee, Sushma Nagaraja Grellscheid, Jan H J Hoeijmakers, Sander Barnhoorn, Derek A Mann, Thomas G Bird, Wilbert P Vermeij, James L Kirkland, João F Passos, Thomas von Zglinicki, Diana Jurk
The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases with age. Cellular senescence refers to a state of irreversible cell-cycle arrest combined with the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. Senescent cells contribute to age-related tissue degeneration. Here we show that the accumulation of senescent cells promotes hepatic fat accumulation and steatosis. We report a close correlation between hepatic fat accumulation and markers of hepatocyte senescence. The elimination of senescent cells by suicide gene-meditated ablation of p16(Ink4a)-expressing senescent cells in INK-ATTAC mice or by treatment with a combination of the senolytic drugs dasatinib and quercetin (D+Q) reduces overall hepatic steatosis...
June 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542880/suicidal-death-of-erythrocytes-in-cancer-and-its-chemotherapy-a-potential-target-in-the-treatment-of-tumor-associated-anemia
#3
REVIEW
Elisabeth Lang, Rosi Bissinger, Syed M Qadri, Florian Lang
In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling. Eryptotic erythrocytes are rapidly cleared from circulating blood and may adhere to the vascular wall. Stimulation of eryptosis thus impairs microcirculation and leads to anemia as soon as the loss of erythrocytes cannot be fully compensated by enhanced erythropoiesis. Signaling stimulating eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity, ceramide, caspases, calpain, p38-kinase, protein-kinase C, Janus-activated kinase 3, casein-kinase 1α, and cyclin-dependent kinase 4...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542233/is-survival-improved-by-the-use-of-niv-and-peg-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-a-post-mortem-study-of-80-als-patients
#4
Christian Burkhardt, Christoph Neuwirth, Andreas Sommacal, Peter M Andersen, Markus Weber
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients. METHODS: Eighty deceased ALS patients underwent a complete post mortem analysis for causes of death between 2003 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526869/blocking-of-carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1-potently-reduces-stress-induced-depression-in-rat-highlighting-a-pivotal-role-of-lipid-metabolism
#5
Anne Skøttrup Mørkholt, Ove Wiborg, Jette G K Nieland, Søren Nielsen, John Dirk Nieland
Major depressive disorder is a complex and common mental disease, for which the pathology has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge about the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulated lipid metabolism and inflammation. Mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a) is a key molecule involved in lipid metabolism and mutations in CPT1a causing reduced function is hypothesized to have a protective role in the development of depression. Moreover, CPT1a is found to be upregulated in suicide patients with history of depression...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420875/down-regulation-of-cholinergic-signaling-in-the-habenula-induces-anhedonia-like-behavior
#6
Seungrie Han, Soo Hyun Yang, Jin Yong Kim, Seojung Mo, Esther Yang, Ki Myung Song, Byung-Joo Ham, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki, Hyun Woo Lee, Hyun Kim
Dysfunction of cholinergic signaling in the brain has long been believed to be associated with depressive disorders. However, the functional impact of habenular cholinergic signaling on the specified depressive behaviors is not well understood. Here, we demonstrated that the expression levels of cholinergic signaling genes (CHAT, VACHT, CHT, CHRNA3, CHRNB3 and CHRNB4) were down-regulated in a chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model of depression, in which rats display depression-like behaviors such as anhedonia and mood despair...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255357/stat3-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-regulated-lentiviral-tk-gcv-suicide-gene-therapy-for-cisplatin-resistant-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#7
Wei-Ying Kuo, Luen Hwu, Chun-Yi Wu, Jhih-Shian Lee, Chi-Wei Chang, Ren-Shyan Liu
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents approximately 20% of all breast cancers and appears resistance to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, demonstrating a particularly poor prognosis and a significantly worse clinical outcome than other types of cancer. Suicide gene therapy has been used for the in vivo treatment of various solid tumors in recent clinical trials. In tumor microenvironment, STAT3/NF-κB pathways are constitutively activated in stromal cells as well as in cancer stem cells (CSCs)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171770/forecasting-state-level-premature-deaths-from-alcohol-drugs-and-suicides-using-google-trends-data
#8
Jason Parker, Courtney Cuthbertson, Scott Loveridge, Mark Skidmore, Will Dyar
BACKGROUND: Vital statistics on the number of, alcohol-induced death (AICD) drug-induced death (DICD), and suicides at the local-level are only available after a substantial lag of up to two years after the events occur. We (1) investigate how well Google Trends search data explain variation in state-level rates in the US, and (2) use this method to forecast these rates of death for 2015 as official data are not yet available. METHODS: We tested the degree to which Google Trends data on 27 terms can be fit to CDC data using L1-regularization on AICD, DICD, and suicide...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158158/prevention-of-post-herpetic-neuralgia-from-dream-to-reality-a-ten-step-model
#9
Mohamed Younis Makharita
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful, blistering skin eruption in a dermatomal distribution caused by reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of acute herpes zoster (AHZ).Severe prodrome, greater acute pain and dermatomal injury, and the density of the eruption are the risk factors and predictors for developing PHN. PHN has a substantial effect on the quality of life; many patients develop severe physical, occupational, social, and psychosocial disabilities as a result of the unceasing pain...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153088/specific-and-efficient-regression-of-cancers-harboring-kras-mutation-by-targeted-rna-replacement
#10
Sung Jin Kim, Ju Hyun Kim, Bitna Yang, Jin-Sook Jeong, Seong-Wook Lee
Mutations in the KRAS gene, which persistently activate RAS function, are most frequently found in many types of human cancers. Here, we proposed and verified a new approach against cancers harboring the KRAS mutation with high cancer selectivity and efficient anti-cancer effects based on targeted RNA replacement. To this end, trans-splicing ribozymes from Tetrahymena group I intron were developed, which can specifically target and reprogram the mutant KRAS G12V transcript to induce therapeutic gene activity in cells...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143714/chloroethylating-nitrosoureas-in-cancer-therapy-dna-damage-repair-and-cell-death-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Teodora Nikolova, Wynand P Roos, Oliver H Krämer, Herwig M Strik, Bernd Kaina
Chloroethylating nitrosoureas (CNU), such as lomustine, nimustine, semustine, carmustine and fotemustine are used for the treatment of malignant gliomas, brain metastases of different origin, melanomas and Hodgkin disease. They alkylate the DNA bases and give rise to the formation of monoadducts and subsequently interstrand crosslinks (ICL). ICL are critical cytotoxic DNA lesions that link the DNA strands covalently and block DNA replication and transcription. As a result, S phase progression is inhibited and cells are triggered to undergo apoptosis and necrosis, which both contribute to the effectiveness of CNU-based cancer therapy...
January 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128334/protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-a-new-target-therapy-to-prevent-the-long-term-atypical-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#12
Alessandro Rimessi, Chiara Pavan, Elli Ioannidi, Federica Nigro, Claudia Morganti, Alberto Brugnoli, Francesco Longo, Chiara Gardin, Letizia Ferroni, Michele Morari, Vincenzo Vindigni, Barbara Zavan, Paolo Pinton
Antipsychotic drugs are currently used in clinical practice for a variety of mental disorders. Among them, clozapine is the most effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is most helpful in controlling aggression and the suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Although clozapine is associated with a low likelihood of extrapyramidal symptoms and other neurological side effects, it is well known for the weight gain and metabolic side effects, which expose the patient to a greater risk of cardiovascular disorders and premature death, as well as psychosocial issues, leading to non-adherence to therapy...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110169/lack-of-overlap-and-large-discrepancies-in-the-characteristics-of-the-deceased-in-two-sources-of-drug-death-a-linkage-study-of-the-cause-of-death-and-the-police-registries-in-norway-2007-2009
#13
Ellen Johanna Amundsen
BACKGROUND: Registries for drug deaths may include different persons and provide different characteristics of the deceased. The aim of this study was to establish whether a database of drug-induced deaths (Cause of Death Registry (CDR) using the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) definition and the Police registry of drug deaths) included the same persons and provided the same characteristics of the deceased and thus yielded the same information for establishing targeted prevention measures...
January 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090751/a-safety-checkpoint-to-eliminate-cancer-risk-of-the-immune-evasive-cells-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Jingjin He, Zhili Rong, Xuemei Fu, Yang Xu
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great promise in the regenerative therapy of many currently untreatable human diseases. One of the key bottlenecks is the immune rejection of hESC-derived allografts by the recipient. To overcome this challenge, we have established new approaches to induce immune protection of hESC-derived allografts through the coexpression of immune suppressive molecules CTLA4-Ig and PD-L1. However, this in turn raises a safety concern of cancer risk because these hESC-derived cells can evade immune surveillance...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974999/eszopiclone-induced-parasomnia-with-suicide-attempt-a-case-report
#15
J Gibson Pennington, Jeffrey Guina
Eszopiclone is a benzodiazepine-like hypnotic that is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia. However, eszopiclone's efficacy has been questionable in several clinical trials, and its pharmacologic profile makes its effects on sleep and behavior difficult to predict. We report a case demonstrating an instance of eszopiclone-induced parasomnia involving paranoia and a suicide attempt in a patient taking eszopiclone. We explore possible biochemical explanations examining the pharmacologic profile of eszopiclone and its potential for drug-drug interactions, especially with concomitant administration of monoaminergic medications such as antidepressants...
September 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960155/stimulation-of-suicidal-erythrocyte-death-by-ceritinib-treatment-of-human-erythrocytes
#16
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Elena Signoretto, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor ceritinib is utilized for the treatment of ALK positive non-small cell lung carcinoma. Side effects of the drug include decrease of blood hemoglobin concentration. Possible causes of anemia include stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling of eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), oxidative stress, ceramide, staurosporine sensitive protein kinase C, SB203580 sensitive p38 kinase, D4476 sensitive casein kinase 1, and zVAD sensitive caspases...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781096/abortion-substance-abuse-and-mental-health-in-early-adulthood-thirteen-year-longitudinal-evidence-from-the-united-states
#17
Donald Paul Sullins
OBJECTIVE: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss) and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. METHOD: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average) ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss)...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747715/coma-after-quetiapine-fumarate-intentional-overdose-in-a-71-year-old-man-a-case-report
#18
S Gibiino, A Trappoli, B Balzarro, A R Atti, D De Ronchi
A 71-year-old man developed coma with severe respiratory failure, hypotension, and tachycardia induced by the intentional ingestion of quetiapine fumarate extended release (XR) 20 g. At the time, he had been treated for bipolar depression with venlafaxine 75 mg/day, lamotrigine 100 mg/day, pregabalin 75 mg/day, and quetiapine XR 400 mg/day for approximately 1 year. Comorbidities were hypertension treated with metoprolol, diabetes mellitus type 2 treated with metformin, and benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with silodosin...
December 2015: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683660/filamentation-protects-candida-albicans-from-amphotericin-b-induced-programmed-cell-death-via-a-mechanism-involving-the-yeast-metacaspase-mca1
#19
David J Laprade, Melissa S Brown, Morgan L McCarthy, James J Ritch, Nicanor Austriaco
The budding yeast Candida albicans is one of the most significant fungal pathogens worldwide. It proliferates in two distinct cell types: blastopores and filaments. Only cells that are able to transform from one cell type into the other are virulent in mouse disease models. Programmed cell death is a controlled form of cell suicide that occurs when C. albicans cells are exposed to fungicidal drugs like amphotericin B and caspofungin, and to other stressful conditions. We now provide evidence that suggests that programmed cell death is cell-type specific in yeast: Filamentous C...
July 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568082/a-tapentadol-related-fatality-case-report-with-postmortem-concentrations
#20
F Lee Cantrell, Phyllis Mallett, Lenore Aldridge, Kimi Verilhac, Iain M McIntyre
Tapentadol (TAP) is an analgesic agent indicated for the management of different types of pain. It has a novel mechanism of action in that it induces analgesia via both μ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. Although deaths associated with TAP use have been reported, there is a paucity of published literature regarding TAP concentrations in biological samples obtained from TAP-associated fatalities. We report a case of TAP toxicity resulting in death with postmortem peripheral and central blood concentrations, liver, vitreous, urine, and gastric contents...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
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