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Advanced prostate cancer

Lori E Lowes, David Goodale, Ying Xia, Carl Postenka, Matthew M Piaseczny, Freeman Paczkowski, Alison L Allan
Metastasis is the cause of most prostate cancer (PCa) deaths and has been associated with circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of ≥5 CTCs/7.5mL of blood is a poor prognosis indicator in metastatic PCa when assessed by the CellSearch® system, the "gold standard" clinical platform. However, ~35% of metastatic PCa patients assessed by CellSearch® have undetectable CTCs. We hypothesize that this is due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent loss of necessary CTC detection markers, with important implications for PCa metastasis...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Sirong Chen, Shing Kee Cheung, Ka-Nin Wong, Kwok Kee Wong, Chi-Lai Ho
A bedridden 90-year-old man with fever and elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (49 ng/mL) was referred for differentiation between infection and tumor. F-FDG PET/CT was negative for infection, but Ga-PSMA PET/CT showed multiple lesions in prostate gland with infiltration to bladder wall and seminal vesicle, consistent with locally advanced prostate cancer. The lesion with the highest Ga-PSMA uptake was strongly avid for Ga-DOTATOC, suggesting neuroendocrine tumor differentiation. After hormonal therapy, PSA normalized, but chromogranin-A increased (from 251 to 398 ng/mL), inferring progression of neuroendocrine tumor differentiation...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Paul B Koller, Hagop M Kantarjian, Graciela M Nogueras-Gonzalez, Elias Jabbour, Srdan Verstovsek, Gautam Borthakur, Zeev Estrov, William G Wierda, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Farhad Ravandi, Susan M O'Brien, Jorge E Cortes
BACKGROUND: Some patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have a history of previous malignancies. To the authors' knowledge, outcomes for CML diagnosed in these patients have not been well described. The current study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients with CML and a history of prior malignancies. METHODS: The current study included patients who were enrolled in clinical trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as initial therapy for CML in chronic phase from July 2000 to January 2014...
October 20, 2016: Cancer
Thore Hillig, Torben Kjær Nielsen, Steen Ingemann Hansen, Ann-Britt Nygaard, György Sölétormos
It remains unclear whether total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) or complex PSA (cPSA) has the best diagnostic performance. Additionally, the utility of percentage free PSA (%fPSA) is still debated. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic performances of tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA among patients referred from GP to an Urological Specialist and to investigate prognostic factors and survival in the cohort. A total of 1261 consecutive male patients without previously known prostate cancer (PCa) were referred to the same Department of Urology during June 2005 to August 2006...
October 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
P Li, Y Huang, Y Li, L Cai, G H Ji, Y Zheng, Z Q Chen
Objective: To evaluate the value of multi-parametric MRI (Mp-MRI) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of early prostate cancer(PCa) in the peripheral zone(PZ) and low T2WI signal intensity of prostatitis. Methods: A total of 40 patients with PZ early PCa and 37 with prostatitis of hypointense T2WI signal in PZ were retrospectively analyzed, which were collected from the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from Janurary 2009 to June 2015, who underwent T2WI, DWI, and DCE-MRI examination and all patients were confirmed by pathology...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
N Sawada, M Inoue, M Iwasaki, T Yamaji, T Shimazu, S Sasazuki, S Tsugane
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although vitamin D has been experimentally reported to inhibit tumorigenesis, cell growth and prostate cancer invasion, epidemiologic data regarding prostate cancer risk are inconsistent, and some studies have suggested positive but nonsignificant associations. Further, the impact of vitamin D on prostate cancer between Western and Japanese populations may differ due to different plasma vitamin D levels. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective (JPHC) Study in 14,203 men (40-69 years) who answered a self-administered questionnaire at baseline (1990-1994) and gave blood samples, and were followed until 2005...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kalle J Kaapu, Teemu J Murtola, Kirsi Talala, Kimmo Taari, Teuvo Lj Tammela, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: Protective effects have been suggested for digoxin against prostate cancer risk. However, few studies have evaluated the possible effects on prostate cancer-specific survival. We studied the association between use of digoxin or beta-blocker sotalol and prostate cancer-specific survival as compared with users of other antiarrhythmic drugs in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Our study population consisted of 6537 prostate cancer cases from the Finnish Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer diagnosed during 1996-2009 (485 digoxin users)...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Chad R Ritch, Michael S Cookson
Docetaxel based chemotherapy showed survival benefit and emerged as the mainstay of treatment for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in 2004. However, therapeutic options have expanded rapidly since 2011. The spectrum of new agents is broad and includes drugs that target the androgen axis (enzalutamide, abiraterone), immunotherapy (sipuleucel-T), bone seeking radionuclides (radium-223), and second line chemotherapy (cabazitaxel). In addition, new agents have been developed to reduce skeletal related events (denosumab)...
October 17, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Louise Stone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Gunther Boysen, Semini Sumanasuriya, George Seed, Angelo M De Marzo, Johann de Bono
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinically heterogeneous disease and current treatment strategies are based largely on anatomical and pathological parameters. In the recent past, several DNA sequencing studies of primary and advanced PCa have revealed recurrent patterns of genomic aberrations that expose mechanisms of resistance to available therapies and potential new drug targets. Suppression of androgen receptor (AR) signalling is the cornerstone of advanced prostate cancer treatment. Genomic aberrations of the androgen receptor or alternative splicing of its mRNA are increasingly recognized as biomarkers of resistance to AR-targeted therapy such as abiraterone or enzalutamide...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Duncan C Gilbert, Trinh Duong, Howard G Kynaston, Abdulla A Alhasso, Fay H Cafferty, Stuart D Rosen, Subramanian Kanaga-Sundaram, Sanjay Dixit, Marc Laniado, Sanjeev Madaan, Gerald Collins, Alvan Pope, Andrew Welland, Matthew Nankivell, Richard Wassersug, Mahesh Kb Parmar, Ruth E Langley, Paul D Abel
OBJECTIVES: To compare quality of life (QoL) outcomes at 6 months between men with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) receiving either transdermal oestradiol (tE2) or LHRH agonists (LHRHa) for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Men with locally advanced or metastatic PCa participating in an ongoing randomised, multi-centre UK trial comparing tE2 versus LHRHa for ADT were enrolled into a QoL sub-study. tE2 was delivered via 3 or 4 transcutaneous patches containing 100mcg of oestradiol/24 hours...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Kevin T Nead, Greg Gaskin, Cariad Chester, Samuel Swisher-McClure, Joel T Dudley, Nicholas J Leeper, Nigam H Shah
We recently found an association between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and Alzheimer's disease. As Alzheimer's disease is a disease of advanced age, we hypothesize that older individuals on ADT may be at greatest risk. We conducted a retrospective multi-institutional analysis among 16,888 individuals with prostate cancer using an informatics approach. We tested the effect of ADT on Alzheimer's disease using Kaplan-Meier age stratified analyses in a propensity score matched cohort. We found a lower cumulative probability of remaining Alzheimer's disease-free between non-ADT users age ≥70 versus those age <70 years (p < 0...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Elena Castro, Joaquin Mateo, David Olmos, Johann S de Bono
Several genomic studies have identified DNA repair gene defects in prostate cancer in the last 5 years. The mechanisms by which these DNA repair defects promote carcinogenesis and tumor progression in the prostate have not been fully elucidated, but their presence in at least 20-25% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs) provides an opportunity for a therapeutic strategy that turns a tumor strength into its weakness and may lead to arguably the first molecularly stratified treatment for this disease...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Min Yuen Teo, Michael J Morris
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed on both benign and malignant prostatic tissue. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-directed therapy is conceptually promising, with a potential to additionally serve as a theranostic model in management of advanced prostate cancer. To date, various approaches have been devised and tested, including radiolabeled PSMA antibodies and inhibitor and antibody-drug conjugates. However, development and progress have faced challenges in determining the optimal combination of payload, PSMA-binding moiety, and linker technology...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Oladapo Yeku, Susan F Slovin
Immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer has continued to be an area of active research over the last several years. The enthusiasm of this approach has been based on the assumption of better tolerability and that using the body's own immune system may be more effective than either hormonal or chemotherapy. Sipuleucel-T, a dendritic cell-based vaccine, is the only approved agent in this class for the management of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Although sipuleucel-T increases overall survival without any significant changes in progression-free survival, other forms of immunotherapy such as PSA-TRICOM, ipilimumab, and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy are in advanced stages of clinical development...
September 2016: Cancer Journal
Sanjoy Kumar Sureka, Ruchir Maheshwari, Shalini Agnihotri, Nilay Mitash, Shamim Ahmad, Anil Mandhani
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: There is lack of data on natural history and progression of prostate cancer (PC) which have implications in the management of the disease. We undertook this retrospective study to analyze factors predicting progression of metastatic PC to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in Indian men. METHODS: Complete records of 223 of the 489 patients with metastatic PC were obtained from computerized data based system in a tertiary care hospital in north India between January 2000 to June 2012...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Cavit Ceylan, Senol Tonyali, Ibrahim Keles
This study aimed to determine the effect of surgical margin positivity on biochemical recurrence (BCR) in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). The medical records of all patients with locally advanced PCa that underwent RRP were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, digital rectal examination findings, prostate biopsy Gleason score, prostate volume, pre- and post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, definitive pathology Gleason score, surgical margin status, seminal vesicle invasion, perineural invasion, absence or presence of BCR, and the time to BCR were analyzed...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
David T Hoang, Kenneth A Iczkowski, Deepak Kilari, William See, Marja T Nevalainen
Despite aggressive treatment for localized cancer, prostate cancer (PC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death for American men due to a subset of patients progressing to lethal and incurable metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Organ-confined PC is treated by surgery or radiation with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), while options for locally advanced and disseminated PC include radiation combined with ADT, or systemic treatments including chemotherapy. Progression to CRPC results from failure of ADT, which targets the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis and inhibits AR-driven proliferation and survival pathways...
October 10, 2016: Oncotarget
M H Jazayeri, H Amani, A A Pourfatollah, A Avan, G A Ferns, H Pazoki-Toroudi
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to screen for prostate disease, although it has several limitations in its application as an organ-specific or cancer-specific marker. Furthermore, a highly specific/sensitive and/or label-free identification of PSA still remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate anomalies. We aimed to develop a gold nanoparticle (GNP)-conjugated anti-PSA antibody-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a novel approach to detect prostatic disease. A total of 25 nm colloidal gold particles were prepared followed by conjugation with anti-PSA pAb (GNPs-PSA pAb)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Z Heger, T Eckschlager, M Stiborová, V Adam
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) constitutes a heterogeneous group of diseases with high prevalence rates that are still increasing, particularly in western countries. Since 1980, prostate specific antigen (PSA) and other diagnostic approaches have been used for PC screening; however, some of these approaches are often deemed painful and cause invasive damage of tissue. Therefore, molecular approaches to PC diagnosis are attracting increasing attention, potentially providing patients with less stressful situations and providing better diagnoses and even prognostic information...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
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