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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903028/-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-with-kidney-disease
#1
Ivo Quack, Ralf Westenfeld
Patients with kidney disease have a significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Especially diabetics have an increased risk to develop renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events. Two recent studies show that the SGLT2 inhibitor Empagliflozin and the GLP1 agonist Liraglutid are able to lower the cardiovascular risk of type2 diabetics with renal insufficiency. Recent observations suggest that bradycardia and asystole are main triggers for sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic kidney disease...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872157/exendin-4-increases-oxygen-consumption-and-thermogenic-gene-expression-in-muscle-cells
#2
Jin-Seung Choung, Young-Sun Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) has many anti-diabetic actions and also increases energy expenditure in vivo. Since skeletal muscle is a major organ controlling energy metabolism, we investigated whether GLP1 can affect energy metabolism in muscle. We found that treatment of differentiated C2C12 cells with Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP1 receptor agonist, reduced oleate:palmitate-induced lipid accumulation and triglyceride content compared with cells without Ex-4 treatment. When we examined the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), not only the basal OCR but also the OCR induced by oleate:palmitate addition was significantly increased in Ex-4-treated differentiated C2C12 cells, and this was inhibited by Exendin-9, a GLP1 receptor antagonist...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780892/diabetes-negatively-affects-cortical-and-striatal-gabaergic-neurons-an-effect-that-is-partially-counteracted-by-exendin-4
#3
Martin Larsson, Grazyna Lietzau, David Nathanson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Carina Mallard, Maria E Johansson, Thomas Nyström, Cesare Patrone, Vladimer Darsalia
Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients often develop early cognitive and sensorimotor impairments. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind these problems are largely unknown. Recent studies demonstrate that dysfunctional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons are involved in age-related cognitive decline. We hypothesized that similar, but earlier dysfunction is taking place under T2D in the neocortex and striatum (two brain areas important for cognition and sensorimotor functions). We also hypothesized that the T2D-induced effects are pharmacologically reversible by anti-diabetic drugs targeting the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R)...
December 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633289/can-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp1-agonists-or-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors-ameliorate-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-people-with-or-without-diabetes
#4
Vasilios G Athyros, Niki Katsiki, Asterios Karagiannis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627094/-glucagon-antagonists-open-a-new-way-in-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Karel Vondra
UNLABELLED: Excessive hepatic glucose production resulting from dysregulated glucagon secretion associated with inappropriate fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia is common feature in type 2 diabetes (DM2T). The effects of some currently widely used anti-diabetic agents, especially concerning metformin, GLP1 agonists and inhibitors of DPP4, comprise partial supression of glucagon secretion and/or action. Complete supression of glucagon action is recently widely investigated in experiments, and also results of phase 1 and 2 of the clinical trials are available...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593966/inkt-cells-induce-fgf21-for-thermogenesis-and-are-required-for-maximal-weight-loss-in-glp1-therapy
#6
Lydia Lynch, Andrew E Hogan, Danielle Duquette, Chantel Lester, Alexander Banks, Katherine LeClair, David E Cohen, Abhisek Ghosh, Bing Lu, Michelle Corrigan, Darko Stevanovic, Eleftheria Maratos-Flier, Daniel J Drucker, Donal O'Shea, Michael Brenner
Adipose-resident invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are key players in metabolic regulation. iNKT cells are innate lipid sensors, and their activation, using their prototypic ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), induces weight loss and restores glycemic control in obesity. Here, iNKT activation induced fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and thermogenic browning of white fat. Complete metabolic analysis revealed that iNKT cell activation induced increased body temperature, V02, VC02, and fatty acid oxidation, without affecting food intake or activity...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577947/gut-microbiota-of-obese-type-2-diabetic-individuals-is-enriched-in-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-akkermansia-muciniphila-and-peptostreptococcus-anaerobius-after-weight-loss
#7
Marlene Remely, Berit Hippe, Julia Zanner, Eva Aumueller, Helmuth Brath, Alexander G Haslberger
Beside the influence of nutritional habits and reduced physical activity, metabolic syndrome is associated with alterations in the structure of gut microbiota influencing the inflammatory immune responses. Gut microbiota and microbial metabolic activities are known to affect the lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety and chronic low-grade inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to identify genera or even species affecting host metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes beside the commonly used indicator: Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio...
August 30, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447052/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-a-novel-pharmacological-target-for-treating-human-bronchial-hyperresponsiveness
#8
Paola Rogliani, Luigino Calzetta, Barbara Capuani, Francesco Facciolo, Mario Cazzola, Davide Lauro, Maria Gabriella Matera
Asthma is associated with several comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, which may lead to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Because glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 regulates glucose homeostasis, we pharmacologically investigated the influence of the GLP1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, exendin-4, on BHR induced in human isolated airways. The effect of exendin-4 was assessed in human isolated airways undergoing overnight passive sensitization and high-glucose stimulation, two conditions mimicking ex vivo the BHR typical of patients with asthma and diabetes, respectively...
December 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373139/novel-antidiabetic-drugs-and-cardiovascular-risk-primum-non-nocere
#9
R C Bonadonna, C Borghi, A Consoli, M Volpe
AIMS: Diabetes treatments aim at preventing undesirable metabolic effects of hyperglycemia and at preventing/reducing tissue damage, including cardiovascular (CV) events. For approval, novel diabetes drugs undergo early systematic investigation to assess CV safety. This review provides an updated analysis of the results of recent studies examining novel diabetes medications and CV outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: The new regulatory guidelines enforce adjudication of all CV events when testing novel diabetes drugs...
September 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368005/comparative-effectiveness-of-incretin-based-therapies-and-the-risk-of-death-and-cardiovascular-events-in-38-233-metformin-monotherapy-users
#10
John-Michael Gamble, Jamie M Thomas, Laurie K Twells, William K Midodzi, Sumit R Majumdar
There is limited comparative effectiveness evidence to guide approaches to managing diabetes in individuals failing metformin monotherapy. Our aim was to compare the incidence of all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) among new metformin monotherapy users initiating a dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), sulfonylurea (SU), thiazolidinedione, or insulin.We conducted a cohort study using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340935/glp1-ra-add-on-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-currently-on-a-bolus-containing-insulin-regimen
#11
REVIEW
Marie L Davies, David Q Pham, Scott R Drab
Adding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) to basal insulin regimens has become a guideline-recommended treatment option for uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. However, limited data exist to support the use of GLP-1 RAs with insulin regimens, including bolus insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary objectives of this review were to identify if the combination of a GLP-1 RA and an insulin regimen containing bolus insulin resulted in improvements in HbA1c , weight loss, reduction in insulin doses, and to evaluate the side effect profile of this combination in terms of nausea and hypoglycemia risk...
August 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652966/-clinical-and-economic-benefits-of-the-new-antidiabetic-drugs-in-the-czech-republic
#12
Tomáš Doležal, Klára Kruntorádová
GOAL: Description of efficiency, safety and cost-effectiveness of the therapy with new antidiabetics from the incretins group for the patients whose treatment with DPP4 inhibitors and GLP1 receptor agonists respectively, commenced based on the real data from the routine clinical practice in the Czech Republic. METHODOLOGY: Collection of clinical data before the commencement of treatment and in the following 12 months. The following data was collected for all patients: demographic data, time elapsed from diagnosis, body weight, BMI, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides...
November 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652965/-the-prorok-project-results-after-6-months-of-intervention-prospective-observation-project-focusing-on-the-relevance-of-the-difference-between-fasting-blood-glucose-levels-and-postprandial-blood-glucose-for-estimation-of-success-of-type-2-diabetes-therapy
#13
Denisa Janíčková -Žďarská, Pavlína Piťhová, Tomáš Pavlík, Milan Kvapil
INTRODUCTION: The PROROK project (Prospective observation project focusing on the relevance of the difference between fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels for the estimation of success of type 2 diabetes therapy) had a character of non-interventional, prospective, multicentric observation study lasting 6 months, whose goal was to quantify the relevance of the difference between fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels to the success of the treatment with GLP1 receptor agonists, resp...
November 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26455904/incretin-actions-and-consequences-of-incretin-based-therapies-lessons-from-complementary-animal-models
#14
REVIEW
Simone Renner, Andreas Blutke, Elisabeth Streckel, Rüdiger Wanke, Eckhard Wolf
The two incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), were discovered 45 and 30 years ago. Initially, only their insulinotropic effect on pancreatic β cells was known. Over the years, physiological and pharmacological effects of GIP and GLP1 in numerous extrapancreatic tissues were discovered which partially overlap, but may also be specific for GIP or GLP1 in certain target tissues. While the insulinotropic effect of GIP was found to be blunted in patients with type 2 diabetes, the function of GLP1 is preserved and GLP1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, which prolong the half-life of incretins, are widely used in diabetes therapy...
January 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26271795/comparison-review-of-short-acting-and-long-acting-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#15
Annachiara Uccellatore, Stefano Genovese, Ilaria Dicembrini, Edoardo Mannucci, Antonio Ceriello
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are useful tools for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. In their recent position statement, the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend GLP1-RAs as add-on to metformin when therapeutic goals are not achieved with monotherapy, particularly for patients who wish to avoid weight gain or hypoglycemia. GLP1-RAs differ substantially in their duration of action, frequency of administration and clinical profile...
September 2015: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26087314/screening-of-randomly-mutagenized-glucagon-like-peptide-1-library-by-using-an-integrated-yeast-mammalian-assay-system
#16
Tomohiro Shigemori, Kouichi Kuroda, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) is a 30-amino acid peptide hormone activating the GLP1 receptor (GLP1R), a class B G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), and is considered to be effective for treating diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Phage display is the first innovative technology in order to prepare and screen a large polypeptide library including GLP1R agonists, but this methodology is not as effective in discovering functional peptides such as activators for GPCRs. Here, we report a novel functional screening system for GPCR-acting peptides, which integrates a yeast peptide secretion system into a biological detection system with GPCR-producing mammalian cells...
September 10, 2015: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26066530/duration-of-diabetes-predicts-aortic-pulse-wave-velocity-and-vascular-events-in-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome
#17
Richard B Paisey, Jamie Smith, Catherine Carey, Timothy Barrett, Fiona Campbell, Pietro Maffei, Jan D Marshall, Christopher Paisey, Richard P Steeds, Nicola C Edwards, Susan Bunce, Tarekegn Geberhiwot
CONTEXT: Alström syndrome is characterized by increased risk of cardiovascular disease from childhood. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between risk factors for cardiovascular disease, aortic pulse wave velocity, and vascular events in Alström syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses with 5-year follow-up. SETTING: The UK NHS nationally commissioned specialist clinics for Alström syndrome. PATIENTS: Thirty-one Alström patients undertook vascular risk assessment, cardiac studies, and aortic pulse wave velocity measurement...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26026641/challenges-in-pharmacotherapeutics-education-for-diabetes-in-real-world-clinical-settings-views-from-family-medicine-and-internal-medicine-residents
#18
Pendar Farahani
PURPOSE: Pharmacotherapy for diabetes in real-world clinical settings is very complex and is posing a challenge for residents in training. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of residents in Canada regarding educational priorities for pharmacotherapy in diabetes management. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed to explore different domains of pharmacotherapy in diabetes management, including different clinic>al settings, combination pharmacotherapy with different classes of medications and patients' characteristics, including comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors...
2015: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25894261/-treatment-of-glp1-receptor-agonists-and-body-mass-control
#19
Petr Žák, Jindřich Olšovský
The prevalence of obesity continues to be increasing in all age groups in most countries of the European Union (EU). Many obese people have a history of several successful weight losses, but very few are able to maintain the weight loss over a longer period of time. Initiation of the GLP1 RA administration during weight loss maintenance would inhibit weight loss-induced increases in soluble leptin receptor plasma concentrations resulting in higher level of free leptin thereby preventing weight regain. In contrast initiation of insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes patients is frequently accompanied with weight gain...
April 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25894257/-do-diabetologists-choose-a-therapy-rationally-basic-results-of-the-prorok-project-a-prospective-observation-project-to-assess-the-relevance-of-the-difference-between-fasting-glycemia-and-postprandial-glycemia-to-estimation-of-success-of-type-2-diabetes-therapy
#20
Denisa Janíčková Žďarská, Pavlína Piťhová, Tomáš Pavlík, Milan Kvapil
INTRODUCTION: The PROROK project (A prospective observation project to assess the relevance of the difference between fasting glycemia and postprandial glycemia to estimation of success of type 2 diabetes therapy) had a character of a non-interventional, prospective, multicentric observation project conducted for a period of 6 months, whose aim was to quantify the relevance of the difference between fasting and postprandial glycemia to the success of GLP1 receptor agonist treatment, or insulin therapy with basal or premixed insulin, or a combination of basal and bolus insulin...
April 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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