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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081004/reverberant-shear-wave-fields-and-estimation-of-tissue-properties
#1
Kevin J Parker, Juvenal Ormachea, Fernando Zvietcovich, Benjamin Castaneda
The determination of shear wave speed is an important subject in the field of elastography, since elevated shear wave speeds can be directly linked to increased stiffness of tissues. MRI and ultrasound scanners are frequently used to detect shear waves and a variety of estimators are applied to calculate the underlying shear wave speed. The estimators can be relatively simple if plane wave behavior is assumed with a known direction of propagation. However, multiple reflections from organ boundaries and internal inhomogeneities and mode conversions can create a complicated field in time and space...
January 12, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075002/-why-do-we-call-the-brain-brain
#2
REVIEW
A Garcia-Molina, A Ensenat
INTRODUCTION: Every day millions of professionals use a countless number of technical words to refer to the different structures inside the skull. But few of them would know how to explain their origin. In this study we take an in-depth look into the etymological origins of some of these neuroanatomical terms. DEVELOPMENT: The study takes an etymological tour of the central nervous system. It is in no way meant to be an exhaustive, detailed review of the terms currently in use, but instead a means to familiarise the reader with the linguistic past of words like brain, hippocampus, thalamus, claustrum, fornix, corpus callosum or limbic system...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070273/describing-and-understanding-behavioral-responses-to-multiple-stressors-and-multiple-stimuli
#3
REVIEW
Robin Hale, Jeremy J Piggott, Stephen E Swearer
Understanding the effects of environmental change on natural ecosystems is a major challenge, particularly when multiple stressors interact to produce unexpected "ecological surprises" in the form of complex, nonadditive effects that can amplify or reduce their individual effects. Animals often respond behaviorally to environmental change, and multiple stressors can have both population-level and community-level effects. However, the individual, not combined, effects of stressors on animal behavior are commonly studied...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069941/uranium-iv-adsorption-by-natural-organic-matter-in-anoxic-sediments
#4
Sharon E Bone, James J Dynes, John Cliff, John R Bargar
Uranium is an important carbon-free fuel source and environmental contaminant that accumulates in the tetravalent state, U(IV), in anoxic sediments, such as ore deposits, marine basins, and contaminated aquifers. However, little is known about the speciation of U(IV) in low-temperature geochemical environments, inhibiting the development of a conceptual model of U behavior. Until recently, U(IV) was assumed to exist predominantly as the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite (UO2+x) in anoxic sediments; however, studies now show that this is not often the case...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068872/-i-thought-they-should-know%C3%A2-that-daddy-is-not-completely-gone
#5
Edith Steffen, Adrian Coyle
This study aimed to explore the experiences, responses, and conceptualizations of sense of presence experiences in bereavement in terms of family meaning-making. A case study framework was chosen, using group and individual interviews and ethnographically derived observations in a father-bereaved family in the south of England. Interview data were analyzed by applying both phenomenological and social constructionist perspectives to the same data set. It was observed that there was a division between the mother, who had derived much personal benefit from sense of presence experiences, and the children, who dismissed the experiences as incompatible with their own worldviews and how they made sense of their father's death...
January 1, 2017: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063280/principles-of-protein-structural-ensemble-determination
#6
REVIEW
Massimiliano Bonomi, Gabriella T Heller, Carlo Camilloni, Michele Vendruscolo
The biological functions of protein molecules are intimately dependent on their conformational dynamics. This aspect is particularly evident for disordered proteins, which constitute perhaps one-third of the human proteome. Therefore, structural ensembles often offer more useful representations of proteins than individual conformations. Here, we describe how the well-established principles of protein structure determination should be extended to the case of protein structural ensembles determination. These principles concern primarily how to deal with conformationally heterogeneous states, and with experimental measurements that are averaged over such states and affected by a variety of errors...
January 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059689/an-integrated-health-neighbourhood-framework-to-optimise-the-use-of-ehr-data
#7
Siaw-Teng Liaw, Simon De Lusignan
 General practice should become the hub of integrated health neighbourhoods (IHNs), which involves sharing of information to ensure that medical homes are also part of learning organisations that use electronic health record (EHR) data for care, decision making, teaching and learning, quality improvement and research. The IHN is defined as the primary and ambulatory care services in a locality that relates largely to a single hospital-based secondary care service provider and is the logical denominator and unit of comparison for the optimal use of EHR data and health information exchange (HIE) to facilitate integration and coordination of care...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059264/variations-of-spherical-aberration-and-central-coma-of-conceptual-thin-lenses
#8
Chaohsien Chen
Based on our earlier matrix algorithms [J. Mod. Opt.55, 105 (2008)JMOPEW0950-034010.1080/09500340701308740] for evaluating the variations of Seidel aberrations, new concise equations are derived to directly evaluate the variations of spherical aberration and central coma of conceptual thin lenses when the incident marginal and chief rays are arbitrarily changed. In the earlier algorithms, four cases with distinct translation factors and matrix equations are required according to the relationships of the object and pupil positions; otherwise, division-by-zero errors or insufficient numerical accuracy will be encountered...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056834/comparing-antibiotic-treatment-for-leptospirosis-using-network-meta-analysis-a-tutorial
#9
Cho Naing, Simon A Reid, Kyan Aung
BACKGROUND: Network meta-analysis consists of simultaneous analysis of both direct comparisons of interventions within randomized controlled trials and indirect comparisons across trials based on a common comparator. In this paper, we aimed to characterise the conceptual understanding and the rationale for the use of network meta-analysis in assessing drug efficacy. METHODS: We selected randomized controlled trials, assessing efficacy of antibiotics for the treatment of leptospirosis as a case study...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054443/risk-mitigation-of-emerging-zoonoses-hendra-virus-and-non-vaccinating-horse-owners
#10
J Manyweathers, H Field, D Jordan, N Longnecker, K Agho, C Smith, M Taylor
Hendra virus was identified in horses and humans in 1994, in Queensland, Australia. Flying foxes are the natural host. Horses are thought to acquire infection by direct or indirect contact with infected flying fox urine. Humans are infected from close contact with infected horses. To reduce risk of infection in horses and humans, Australian horse owners are encouraged to vaccinate horses against the virus and adopt property risk mitigation practices that focus on reducing flying fox horse contact and contamination of horses' environment with flying fox bodily fluids...
January 4, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054213/visual-outcome-and-refractive-status-in-first-3%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-preterm-infants-suffered-from-laser-treated-type-1-retinopathy-of-prematurity-rop-a-6-year-retrospective-review-in-a-tertiary-centre-in-hong-kong
#11
Julie Y C Lok, Wilson W K Yip, Abbie S W Luk, Joyce K Y Chin, Henry H W Lau, Alvin L Young
PURPOSE: To report the visual outcome and refractive status in first 3 years of age in preterm infants suffered from laser-treated Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): a 6-year review in Hong Kong DESIGN: Retrospective case series METHODOLOGY: Clinical records of all infants suffered from Type 1 ROP who had undergone laser therapy between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Basic demographic data, serial changes of refractive error, visual acuity, severity of ROP and laser were analyzed...
January 4, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052822/applying-a-conceptual-framework-to-maximize-the-participation-of-diverse-populations-in-cancer-clinical-trials
#12
A Napoles, E Cook, T Ginossar, K D Knight, M E Ford
The underrepresentation of ethnically diverse populations in cancer clinical trials results in the inequitable distribution of the risks and benefits of this research. Using a case study approach, we apply a conceptual framework of factors associated with the participation of diverse population groups in cancer clinical trials developed by Dr. Jean Ford and colleagues to increase understanding of the specific strategies, and barriers and promoters addressed by these strategies, that resulted in marked success in accrual of racially and ethnically diverse populations in cancer clinical research...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052490/population-relevant-endpoints-in-the-evaluation-of-endocrine-active-substances-eas-for-ecotoxicological-hazard-and-risk-assessment
#13
Mary S Marty, Amy Blankinship, Janice Chambers, Lisa Constantine, Werner Kloas, Anupama Kumar, Laurent Lagadic, James Meador, Daniel Pickford, Tamar Schwarz, Tim Verslycke
For ecotoxicological risk assessment, endocrine disruptors require the establishment of an endocrine mode of action (MoA) with a plausible linkage to a population-relevant adverse effect. Current ecotoxicity test methods mostly incorporate apical endpoints although some also include mechanistic endpoints, subcellular-through-organ-level, which can help establish an endocrine MoA. However, the link between these endpoints and adverse population-level effects is often unclear. The case studies of endocrine-active substances (EAS) (tributyltin, ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, trenbolone, propiconazole, and vinclozolin) evaluated for the SETAC Pellston Workshop™: Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Chemicals were used to evaluate the population relevance of toxicity endpoints in various taxa according to regulatory endocrine disruptor frameworks such as the OECD Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disruptors...
January 4, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047960/tu-b-206-02-on-the-algorithmic-approach-to-ethical-conduct
#14
G Sherouse
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047387/tu-b-206-00-do-the-right-thing
#15
Jeffrey Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046722/tu-b-206-01-navigating-the-black-white-and-gray
#16
J Limmer
PURPOSE: To reacquaint the participant with foundational aspects of educational, healthcare and research ethics as they relate to the Medical Physicist day to day role. METHODS: Presenting recognized best practice guidelines and tenants applied to hypothetical scenarios and medical physics related occupations. RESULTS: The application of recognized standards of ethical behavior result in beneficial outcomes for all involved CONCLUSION: Ethics is multi-faceted in its manifestation application; most facets are applicable to any avenue a medical physicist may pursue in their career...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032912/thematic-mapping-maps-much-territory-but-needs-stronger-evidence-based-coordinates-a-commentary
#17
Tracy D Eells
Thematic mapping (TM) is a transtheoretical, transdiagnostic, pattern-focused method of case formulation. It involves systematically gathering a broad range relevant client information, collecting representative behavioral episodes, using inductive and deductive reasoning to identify themes and subthemes that characterize a client's dysfunctional patterns, and then developing a treatment plan to address them. The TM method includes debiasing steps to minimize clinician judgment errors and addresses a client's cultural context...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031853/lithium-therapy-in-comorbid-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-cycloid-psychosis
#18
Paul Brown, Sridhar Kashiviswanath, Alison Huynh, Naveen Allha, Ken Piaggio, Saddichha Sahoo, Ankur Gupta
The treatment of post-ictal psychosis has foundered on uncertainty in diagnosis of psychotic phenotypes, and equivocal efficacy of first and second generation antipsychotics. This article presents a case history of comorbid temporal lobe epilepsy and psychosis, suggests the applicability of the continental, cycloid psychosis diagnostic conceptualization to post-ictal psychoses, and demonstrates the efficacy of lithium in their treatment. Clinical studies of comorbidity of epilepsy and psychosis offer great potential as a basis for modelling brain-mind relationships, and neuropsychiatric nosology, pathophysiology and treatment...
December 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027292/shedding-light-on-the-grey-zone-of-speciation-along-a-continuum-of-genomic-divergence
#19
Camille Roux, Christelle Fraïsse, Jonathan Romiguier, Yoann Anciaux, Nicolas Galtier, Nicolas Bierne
Speciation results from the progressive accumulation of mutations that decrease the probability of mating between parental populations or reduce the fitness of hybrids-the so-called species barriers. The speciation genomic literature, however, is mainly a collection of case studies, each with its own approach and specificities, such that a global view of the gradual process of evolution from one to two species is currently lacking. Of primary importance is the prevalence of gene flow between diverging entities, which is central in most species concepts and has been widely discussed in recent years...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025845/managing-support-for-newly-qualified-practitioners-lessons-learnt-from-one-health-care-region-in-the-uk
#20
Julie Scholes, Nicola J Petty, Tania McIntosh, Anita Green, Mirika Flegg
AIM: The study mapped the support provided for newly qualified practitioners across Kent, Surrey and Sussex. BACKGROUND: Newly qualified practitioners require support and guidance to facilitate their transition from student to their new role as qualified practitioner. Professional bodies advocate that programmes be provided but the type and intensity of that support is variable. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted with 24 people delivering support for newly qualified practitioners across professions in 13 different health care trusts...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
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