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Case conceptualization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812825/evaluating-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-a-gavi-hpv-vaccine-application-process-in-uganda
#1
Carol Kamya, Jessica Shearer, Gilbert Asiimwe, Emily Carnahan, Nicole Salisbury, Peter Waiswa, Jennifer Brinkerhoff, Dai Hozumi
BACKGROUND: Global health partnerships have grown rapidly in number and scope, yet there has been less emphasis on their evaluation. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is one such public-private partnership; in Gavi-eligible countries partnerships are dynamic networks of immunization actors who work together to support all stages and aspects of Gavi support. This paper describes a conceptual framework - the partnership framework - and analytic approach for evaluating the perceptions of partnerships' added value as well as the results from an application to one case in Uganda...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811030/targeted-analyte-deconvolution-and-identification-by-four-way-parallel-factor-analysis-using-three-dimensional-gas-chromatography-with-mass-spectrometry-data
#2
Nathanial E Watson, Sarah E Prebihalo, Robert E Synovec
Comprehensive three-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC(3)-TOFMS) creates an opportunity to explore a new paradigm in chemometric analysis. Using this newly described instrument and the well understood Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) model we present one option for utilization of the novel GC(3)-TOFMS data structure. We present a method which builds upon previous work in both GC(3) and targeted analysis using PARAFAC to simplify some of the implementation challenges previously discovered...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805121/canaries-in-the-coal-mine-interpersonal-violence-gang-violence-and-violent-extremism-through-a-public-health-prevention-lens
#3
David P Eisenman, Louise Flavahan
This paper asks what programmes and policies for preventing violent extremism (also called 'countering violent extremism', or CVE) can learn from the public health violence prevention field. The general answer is that addressing violent extremism within the wider domain of public health violence prevention connects the effort to a relevant field of research, evidence-based policy and programming, and a broader population reach. This answer is reached by examining conceptual alignments between the two fields at both the case-level and the theoretical level...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804583/a-communicative-model-of-mothers-lifestyles-during-pregnancy-with-low-birth-weight-based-on-social-determinants-of-health-a-path-analysis
#4
Zohreh Mahmoodi, Masoud Karimlou, Homeira Sajjadi, Masoomeh Dejman, Meroe Vameghi, Mahrokh Dolatian
OBJECTIVES: Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the major health problems worldwide. It is important to identify the factors that play a role in the incidence of this adverse pregnancy outcome. This study aimed to develop a tool to measure mothers' lifestyles during pregnancy with a view to the effects of social determinants on health and develop a correlation model of mothers' lifestyles with LBW. METHODS: This study was conducted using methodological and case-control designs in four stages by selecting 750 mothers with infants weighing less than 4000 g using multistage sampling...
July 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802189/pt-but-not-pn-stage-of-the-8th-tnm-classification-significantly-improves-prognostication-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#5
Anna Melissa Schlitter, Moritz Jesinghaus, Carsten Jäger, Björn Konukiewitz, Alexander Muckenhuber, Ihsan Ekin Demir, Marcus Bahra, Carsten Denkert, Helmut Friess, Günter Kloeppel, Güralp O Ceyhan, Wilko Weichert
The UICC TNM (tumour-node-metastasis) staging system for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been a matter of debate over decades because survival prediction based on T stages was weak and unreliable. To improve staging, the recently published 8th TNM edition (2016) introduced a conceptually completely changed strictly size-based T staging system and a refined N stage for PDAC. To investigate the clinical value of the novel TNM classification, we compared the prognostic impact of pT and pN stage between the 7th and 8th edition in two well-characterised independent German PDAC cohorts from different decades, including a total number of 523 patients...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796623/dimensionality-reduction-using-similarity-induced-embeddings
#6
Nikolaos Passalis, Anastasios Tefas
The vast majority of dimensionality reduction (DR) techniques rely on the second-order statistics to define their optimization objective. Even though this provides adequate results in most cases, it comes with several shortcomings. The methods require carefully designed regularizers and they are usually prone to outliers. In this paper, a new DR framework that can directly model the target distribution using the notion of similarity instead of distance is introduced. The proposed framework, called similarity embedding framework (SEF), can overcome the aforementioned limitations and provides a conceptually simpler way to express optimization targets similar to existing DR techniques...
August 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792502/harmonization-of-community-health-worker-programs-for-hiv-a-four-country-qualitative-study-in-southern-africa
#7
Jan-Walter De Neve, Henri Garrison-Desany, Kathryn G Andrews, Nour Sharara, Chantelle Boudreaux, Roopan Gill, Pascal Geldsetzer, Maria Vaikath, Till Bärnighausen, Thomas J Bossert
BACKGROUND: Community health worker (CHW) programs are believed to be poorly coordinated, poorly integrated into national health systems, and lacking long-term support. Duplication of services, fragmentation, and resource limitations may have impeded the potential impact of CHWs for achieving HIV goals. This study assesses mediators of a more harmonized approach to implementing large-scale CHW programs for HIV in the context of complex health systems and multiple donors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook four country case studies in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland between August 2015 and May 2016...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781846/excessive-homozygosity-identified-by-chromosomal-microarray-at-a-known-gcdh-mutation-locus-correlates-with-brain-mri-abnormalities-in-an-infant-with-glutaric-aciduria
#8
Abdul Ali Peer-Zada, Ali M Al-Asmari
Herein, we report a conceptually novel clinical case highlighting the diagnostic implications of excessive homozygosity and its correlation with brain MRI abnormalities in an infant with GA1. The case also points a need for an extra amount of caution to be exercised when evaluating patients with "negative exomes."
August 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777917/dealing-with-unexpected-events-on-the-flight-deck-a-conceptual-model-of-startle-and-surprise
#9
Annemarie Landman, Eric L Groen, M M René van Paassen, Adelbert W Bronkhorst, Max Mulder
OBJECTIVE: A conceptual model is proposed in order to explain pilot performance in surprising and startling situations. BACKGROUND: Today's debate around loss of control following in-flight events and the implementation of upset prevention and recovery training has highlighted the importance of pilots' ability to deal with unexpected events. Unexpected events, such as technical malfunctions or automation surprises, potentially induce a "startle factor" that may significantly impair performance...
August 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776687/mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation-control-by-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#10
REVIEW
Ekaterina Pchelintseva, Mustafa B A Djamgoz
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in modern medicine for which understanding the mechanisms controlling their differentiation is fundamental. Ion channels offer novel insights to this process because of their role in modulating membrane potential and intracellular milieu. Here, we evaluate the contribution of calcium-activated potassium (KCa ) channels to the three main components of MSC differentiation: initiation, proliferation and migration. First, we demonstrate the importance of the membrane potential (Vm ) and the apparent association of hyperpolarization with differentiation...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776663/case-conceptualization-research-in-cognitive-behavior-therapy-a-state-of-the-science-review
#11
Michael H Easden, Nikolaos Kazantzis
OBJECTIVE: Prominent models of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) assert that case conceptualization is crucial for tailoring interventions to adequately address the needs of the individual client. We aimed to review the research on case conceptualization in CBT. METHOD: We conducted a systematic search of PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, and CINAHL databases to February 2016. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies that met inclusion criteria were identified...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775277/environmental-influence-on-pristionchus-pacificus-mouth-form-through-different-culture-methods
#12
Michael S Werner, Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Tobias Loschko, Suryesh Namdeo, Masa Lenuzzi, Mohannad Dardiry, Tess Renahan, Devansh Raj Sharma, Ralf J Sommer
Environmental cues can impact development to elicit distinct phenotypes in the adult. The consequences of phenotypic plasticity can have profound effects on morphology, life cycle, and behavior to increase the fitness of the organism. The molecular mechanisms governing these interactions are beginning to be elucidated in a few cases, such as social insects. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of systems that are amenable to rigorous experimentation, preventing both detailed mechanistic insight and the establishment of a generalizable conceptual framework...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774318/important-progress-towards-elimination-of-onchocerciasis-in-the-west-region-of-cameroon
#13
Guy-Roger Kamga, Fanny N Dissak-Delon, Hugues C Nana-Djeunga, Benjamin D Biholong, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Jacob Souopgui, Joseph Kamgno, Annie Robert
BACKGROUND: After more than a decade of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in the West Region of Cameroon, epidemiological evaluation conducted in 2011 showed that onchocerciasis endemicity was still high in some communities. The conceptual framework for onchocerciasis elimination recommends in such case, to conduct additional phase 1A surveys at intervals of three to four years. Therefore, to assess the progress made towards the elimination of onchocerciasis in the West CDTI projects, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in May 2015 in 15 unevaluated communities where the highest baseline endemicity level were found in 1996...
August 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770215/novel-methods-in-disease-biogeography-a-case-study-with-heterosporosis
#14
Luis E Escobar, Huijie Qiao, Christine Lee, Nicholas B D Phelps
Disease biogeography is currently a promising field to complement epidemiology, and ecological niche modeling theory and methods are a key component. Therefore, applying the concepts and tools from ecological niche modeling to disease biogeography and epidemiology will provide biologically sound and analytically robust descriptive and predictive analyses of disease distributions. As a case study, we explored the ecologically important fish disease Heterosporosis, a relatively poorly understood disease caused by the intracellular microsporidian parasite Heterosporis sutherlandae...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768599/pre-onset-risk-characteristics-for-mania-among-young-people-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#15
Aswin Ratheesh, Susan M Cotton, Christopher G Davey, Ashleigh Lin, Stephen Wood, Hok Pan Yuen, Andreas Bechdolf, Patrick D McGorry, Alison Yung, Michael Berk, Barnaby Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Psychosis and mania share conceptual, genetic and clinical features, which suggest the possibility that they have common antecedents. Participants identified to be at-risk for psychosis might also be at-risk for mania. We aimed to identify the rate and predictors of transition to mania in a cohort of youth with clinical or familial risk for psychosis. METHODS: Among a cohort of 416 young people with an at-risk mental state for psychosis defined using the Ultra-High-Risk (UHR) criteria, 74...
May 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767013/narcissistic-personality-disorder-in-clinical-health-psychology-practice-case-studies-of-comorbid-psychological-distress-and-life-limiting-illness
#16
Elizabeth L Kacel, Nicole Ennis, Deidre B Pereira
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of grandiosity, fantasies of unlimited power or importance, and the need for admiration or special treatment. Individuals with NPD may experience significant psychological distress related to interpersonal conflict and functional impairment. Research suggests core features of the disorder are associated with poor prognosis in therapy, including slow progress to behavioral change, premature patient-initiated termination, and negative therapeutic alliance...
July 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762523/prediction-accuracy-and-variable-selection-for-penalized-cause-specific-hazards-models
#17
Maral Saadati, Jan Beyersmann, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Axel Benner
We consider modeling competing risks data in high dimensions using a penalized cause-specific hazards (CSHs) approach. CSHs have conceptual advantages that are useful for analyzing molecular data. First, working on hazards level can further understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that drive transition hazards. Second, CSH models can be used to extend the multistate framework for high-dimensional data. The CSH approach is implemented by fitting separate proportional hazards models for each event type (iCS)...
August 1, 2017: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761766/technical-details-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-leading-to-lowered-leak-rate-discussion-of-1070-consecutive-cases
#18
David L Warner, Kent C Sasse
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a widely utilized and effective surgical procedure for dramatic weight loss in obese patients. Leak at the sleeve staple line is the most serious complication of this procedure, occurring in 1-3% of cases. Techniques to minimize the risk of sleeve gastrectomy leaks have been published although no universally agreed upon set of techniques exists. This report describes a single-surgeon experience with an approach to sleeve leak prevention resulting in a progressive decrease in leak rate over 5 years...
2017: Minimally Invasive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761015/the-evolution-of-culture-or-the-lack-thereof-mapping-the-conceptual-space
#19
Raghavendra Gadagkar
This short essay is based on a lecture that I gave at short notice on a subject in which I am by no means an expert. The combination of lack of expertise and time for preparation, created an unexpectedly unique opportunity for thinking outside the box. I decided not to try to read up (as there was no time in any case) but instead to organize the little that I already knew about cultural evolution in a systematic schema-I attempted to create a scaffolding, on which I could hang everything I knew about cultural evolution, and hopefully, everything I might ever discover about cultural evolution in the future...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758204/freud-s-transference-clinical-technique-in-the-rat-man-case-and-theoretical-conceptualization-compared
#20
Michael Diercks
A considerable gap exists between clinical psychoanalytic concepts and psychoanalytic practice. It can be traced back to the early beginnings of psychoanalysis and to Freud's own handling of concepts that he had developed himself. Focusing on the concept of 'transference' that Freud in several steps coined so precisely from his experiences with hysteric patients and especially from his understanding of the 'Dora' case, it can be shown that he - seen from today - could not fully apply the meaning of his own concept in the later treatment of the so-called 'Rat Man'...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
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