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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047087/effects-of-hyperoxia-on-the-developing-airway-and-pulmonary-vasculature
#1
Christina M Pabelick, Michael A Thompson, Rodney D Britt
Although it is necessary and part of standard practice, supplemental oxygen (40-90% O2) or hyperoxia is a significant contributing factor to development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension, recurrent wheezing, and asthma in preterm infants. This chapter discusses hyperoxia and the role of redox signaling in the context of neonatal lung growth and disease. Here, we discuss how hyperoxia promotes dysfunction in the airway and the known redox-mediated mechanisms that are important for postnatal vascular and alveolar development...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046200/-readmission-of-children-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-the-first-2-years-of-life-a-clinical-analysis-of-121-cases
#2
Jing-Yi You, Chang Shu, Cai-Hui Gong, Sha Liu, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of readmitted children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the first 2 years of life. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 242 children with BPD who were readmitted due to recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 2 years of life. RESULTS: Among all the 242 children with BPD, 115(47.5%) had wheezing, and the children aged 1-2 years had a significantly higher incidence rate of wheezing than those aged less than 1 year (P<0...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046036/-spontaneous-pneumomediastinum-and-subcutaneous-emphysema-associated-with-bronchospasm-in-a-woman-with-no-history-of-asthma
#3
Tonatiuh Ramses Bedolla-Pulido, Martín Bedolla-Barajas
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum most relevant triggering events are cough, vomiting, nutritional problems, physical activity and use of inhaled drugs. Association of spontaneous pneumomediastinum with non-asthma-related bronchospasm is an infrequent event. CLINICAL CASE: This is the case of a 21-year-old woman without personal or family history of asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopy who during late puerperium had 39 °C fever, paroxysmal cough and chest oppression of sudden onset, as well as wheezing and subcutaneous emphysema of the neck; she had no previous nasal symptoms...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717087/pulmonary-intravascular-large-b-cell-lymphoma-ivlbcl-disguised-as-an-asthma-exacerbation-in-a-patient-with-asthma
#4
Tomohito Takeshige, Norihiro Harada, Yasuhito Sekimoto, Ryota Kanemaru, Takeo Tsutsumi, Kei Matsuno, Satomi Shiota, Azuchi Masuda, Akihiko Gotoh, Miki Asahina, Toshimasa Uekusa, Kazuhisa Takahashi
A 62-year-old man with asthma presented with a 1-month history of wheezing and exertional dyspnea. Although the wheezing symptoms disappeared after systemic corticosteroid therapy, the exertional dyspnea and hypoxemia did not improve. A diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) with pulmonary involvement was suspected because of the increased serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level, increased alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (AaDO2), decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and scintigraphic, computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571896/-short-term-relevance-of-lower-respiratory-viral-coinfection-in-inpatients-under-2-years-of-age
#5
Joana Gil, Sofia Almeida, Carolina Constant, Sara Pinto, Rosário Barreto, José Melo Cristino, Maria do Céu Machado, Teresa Bandeira
INTRODUCTION: Advances in molecular diagnosis have made it possible to detect previously unknown viral agents as causative agents of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The frequency and relevance of viral coinfections is still debatable. OBJECTIVE: compare clinical presentation and severity between single virus infection and viral coinfection in children admitted for LRTI. METHODS: A 3-year period observational study (2012-2015) included children younger than two years admitted for LRTI...
May 29, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560041/severe-acute-asthma-caused-by-chlamydophila-pneumoniae-infection
#6
Yoshinari Endo, Toshihiro Shirai, Mika Saigusa, Eisuke Mochizuki
Asthma exacerbation is associated with respiratory infections, including those by viruses and atypical bacteria. We herein report a case of severe acute asthma in an adult caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection. A 39-year-old woman without a history of asthma reported to the emergency department with progressive worsening of cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing with low oxygen saturation. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed patchy ground-glass opacity and bronchial wall thickening...
July 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528221/bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-perinatal-characteristics-predict-1-year-respiratory-outcomes-in-newborns-born-at-extremely-low-gestational-age-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Roberta L Keller, Rui Feng, Sara B DeMauro, Thomas Ferkol, William Hardie, Elizabeth E Rogers, Timothy P Stevens, Judith A Voynow, Scarlett L Bellamy, Pamela A Shaw, Paul E Moore
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of clinical predictors of persistent respiratory morbidity in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled ELGANs (<29 weeks' gestation) at ≤7 postnatal days and collected antenatal and neonatal clinical data through 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. We surveyed caregivers at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months' corrected age to identify postdischarge respiratory morbidity, defined as hospitalization, home support (oxygen, tracheostomy, ventilation), medications, or symptoms (cough/wheeze)...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480848/acute-viral-bronchiolitis-in-infants-review
#8
REVIEW
I Chkhaidze, D Zirakishvili
Bronchiolitis is a common condition in children less than 2 years of age and is a leading cause of infant hospitalization. Acute bronchiolitis is characterized by acute wheezing in infants or children and is associated with signs or symptoms of respiratory infection; the most common etiologic agent is respiratory syncytial virus. There is a lack of consensus regarding the clinical definition of acute viral bronchiolitis in children and hence the management varies across the globe. Usually it does not require investigation, treatment is merely supportive and a conservative approach seems adequate in the majority of children, especially for the youngest ones...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436580/pulmonary-function-and-outcomes-in-infants-randomized-to-a-rescue-course-of-antenatal-steroids
#9
Cindy McEvoy, Diane Schilling, Patricia Spitale, Jean O'Malley, Susan Bowling, Manuel Durand
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to obtain follow-up pulmonary function testing and assessment of clinical respiratory outcomes, at 1-2 years, in preterm infants whose mothers were randomized to a single rescue course of antenatal steroids (AS) versus placebo. METHODS: Follow-up of a randomized, double-blinded trial. In the original trial pregnant women ≥14 days after initial course of AS were randomized to rescue AS or placebo. Pulmonary function testing and a standardized respiratory questionnaire were obtained at 1-2 years of corrected age...
September 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409593/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-diagnosis-and-management
#10
Shari Gentry, Barry Gentry
The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be suspected in patients with risk factors (primarily a history of smoking) who report dyspnea at rest or with exertion, chronic cough with or without sputum production, or a history of wheezing. COPD may be suspected based on findings from the history and physical examination, but must be confirmed by spirometry to detect airflow obstruction. Findings that are most helpful to rule in COPD include a smoking history of more than 40 pack-years, a self-reported history of COPD, maximal laryngeal height, and age older than 45 years...
April 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196638/japanese-guidelines-for-adult-asthma-2017
#11
REVIEW
Masakazu Ichinose, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Hiroyuki Nagase, Masao Yamaguchi, Hiromasa Inoue, Hironori Sagara, Jun Tamaoki, Yuji Tohda, Mitsuru Munakata, Kohei Yamauchi, Ken Ohta
Adult bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, and presents clinically with variable airway narrowing (wheezes and dyspnea) and cough. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling, leading to intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased; however, the number of patients who die of asthma has decreased (1.2 per 100,000 patients in 2015). The goal of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to attain normal pulmonary function and lead a normal life, without any symptoms...
April 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187115/clinical-course-of-enterovirus-d68-in-hospitalized-children
#12
Jennifer E Schuster, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Ferdaus Hassan, Kayla B Briggs, Lindsay Hays, Jenna O Miller, Barbara Pahud, Henry T Puls, Mary Ann Queen, Marita T Thompson, Gina Weddle, Mary Anne Jackson
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been sporadically reported as a cause of respiratory tract infections. In 2014, an international outbreak of EV-D68 occurred and caused severe respiratory disease in the pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of children admitted to Children's Mercy Hospital from August 1, 2014, to September 15, 2014, with positive multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for EV/rhinovirus (RV). Specimens were subsequently tested for EV-D68, and clinical data were obtained from the medical records...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187065/clinical-course-of-enterovirus-d68-in-hospitalized-children
#13
Jennifer E Schuster, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Ferdaus Hassan, Kayla B Briggs, Lindsay Hays, Jenna O Miller, Barbara Pahud, Henry T Puls, Mary Ann Queen, Marita T Thompson, Gina Weddle, Mary Anne Jackson
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been sporadically reported as a cause of respiratory tract infections. In 2014, an international outbreak of EV-D68 occurred and caused severe respiratory disease in the pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of children admitted to Children's Mercy Hospital from August 1-September 15, 2014 with positive multiplex PCR testing for enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV). Specimens were subsequently tested for EV-D68, and clinical data were obtained from the medical records...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139368/noninvasive-ventilation-for-acute-exacerbations-of-asthma-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Elyce Green, Paras Jain, Maree Bernoth
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic disease characterised by reversible airway obstruction caused by bronchospasm, mucous and oedema. People with asthma commonly experience acute exacerbations of their disease requiring hospitalisation and subsequent utilisation of economic and healthcare resources. Noninvasive ventilation has been suggested as a treatment for acute exacerbations of asthma due to its ability to provide airway stenting, optimal oxygen delivery and decreased work of breathing...
January 27, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#15
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120603/high-dose-nebulized-budesonide-is-effective-for-mild-asthma-exacerbations-in-children-under-3-years-of-age
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
M Saito, Y Kikuchi, A Kawarai Lefor, M Hoshina
Background. High-dose inhaled steroid therapy has been shown to be effective in children and adults with asthma exacerbations. However, few reports are available regarding its efficacy for asthma exacerbations in younger children. Objective. In this study, we administered high-dose nebulized budesonide therapy for mild asthma exacerbations in children < 3 years of age and compared its efficacy and safety with systemic steroid therapy. Methods. This study included children < 3 years old with mild asthma exacerbations...
January 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994453/drop-in-lung-function-during-asthma-and-copd-exacerbations-can-it-be-assessed-without-spirometry
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Hasse Melbye, Salwan Al-Ani, Mark Spigt
BACKGROUND: When assessing patients with exacerbation of asthma or COPD, it may be useful to know the drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) compared with stable state, in particular when considering treatment with oral corticosteroids. The objective of the study was to identify indicators of drop in FEV1 during exacerbations. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study from primary care, patients diagnosed with asthma or COPD were examined at stable state and during exacerbations the following year...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809901/combined-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-emphysema-a-retrospective-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-treatment-and-prognosis
#18
Lijuan Zhang, Chunling Zhang, Fushi Dong, Qi Song, Fangzhou Chi, Lu Liu, Yupeng Wang, Chunli Che
BACKGROUND: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is increasingly acknowledged as a separate syndrome with distinct clinical, physiological and radiological characteristics. We sought to identify physiologic and radiographic indices that predict mortality in CPFE. METHODS: Data on clinical characteristics, pulmonary function, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and treatment were compared between patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) plus emphysema (CPFE group) and those with IPF alone (IPF group)...
November 3, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756492/repercussions-of-preterm-birth-on-symptoms-of-asthma-allergic-diseases-and-pulmonary-function-6-14-years-later
#19
C Gonçalves, G Wandalsen, F Lanza, A L Goulart, D Solé, A Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of allergic diseases and impaired pulmonary function may be high in children born prematurely. This study aimed to assess pulmonary function and prevalence of asthma, atopic diseases and allergic sensitisation in these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with children aged 6-14 years who were born prematurely with birth weight <2000g from January 2008 to May 2011. Exclusion criteria were: major malformations, or acute respiratory disorders...
November 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616176/incidence-of-apnea-attack-as-allergic-reaction-after-oral-food-challenge-in-patient-with-ige-mediated-wheat-allergy
#20
Masayuki Akashi
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and might cause death. Although wheezes, dyspnea or loss of consciousness are known to occur with severe allergic reactions with IgE-mediated food allergy, reports of apnea attack associated with IgE-mediated food allergy are rare. In this case, 9-year-old boy with IgE-mediated wheat allergy experienced apnea attack with strong desaturation after an immediate allergic reaction including erythema, abdominal pain, vomiting, and anaphylactic shock...
August 2016: Arerugī, [Allergy]
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