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Ultrasound and africa

Hendry Robert Sawe, Cathryn Haeffele, Juma A Mfinanga, Victor G Mwafongo, Teri A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Bedside inferior vena cava (IVC) ultrasound has been proposed as a non-invasive measure of volume status. We compared ultrasound measurements of the caval index (CI) and physician gestalt to predict blood pressure response in patients requiring intravenous fluid resuscitation. METHODS: This was a prospective study of adult emergency department patients requiring fluid resuscitation. A structured data sheet was used to record serial vital signs and the treating clinician's impression of patient volume status and cause of hypotension...
2016: PloS One
George Sikalengo, Adria Ramirez, Diana Faini, Kim Mwamelo, Manuel Battegay, Levan Jugheli, Christoph Hatz, Klaus Reither, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of EPTB is challenging in resource-limited settings due to difficulties in obtaining samples, as well as the paucibacillarity of the specimens. Skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 10-35 % of EPTB cases, with vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease) representing 50 % of the cases. We present two cases of suspected Pott's disease, diagnosed through GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in urine at a rural Tanzanian hospital...
September 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Martin Brits, Jayne de Vos, Jana M Weiss, Egmont R Rohwer, Jacob de Boer
World-wide, the prevalence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is well documented for routine analysis of environmental and biological matrices. There is, however, limited information on these compounds in the African environment and insufficient information on the analytical approaches used to obtain data. This paper presents a review on BFR levels in the African environment and the various analytical methodologies specifically applied in Africa for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls and alternative-BFRs...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Anne S Wesonga, Tamara N Fitzgerald, Ronald Kabuye, Samuel Kirunda, Monica Langer, Nasser Kakembo, Doruk Ozgediz, John Sekabira
PURPOSE: Neonatal mortality from gastroschisis in sub-Saharan Africa is high, while in high-income countries, mortality is less than 5%. The purpose of this study was to describe the maternal and neonatal characteristics of gastroschisis in Uganda, estimate the mortality and elucidate opportunities for intervention. METHODS: An ethics-approved, prospective cohort study was conducted over a one-year period. All babies presenting with gastroschisis in Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda were enrolled and followed up to 30days...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Lily Gutnik, Clara Lee, Vanessa Msosa, Agnes Moses, Christopher Stanley, Suzgo Mzumara, N George Liomba, Satish Gopal
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer awareness and early detection are limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Resource limitations make screening mammography or clinical breast examination (CBE) by physicians or nurses impractical in many settings. We aimed to assess feasibility and performance of CBE by laywomen in urban health clinics in Malawi. METHODS: Four laywomen were trained to deliver breast cancer educational talks and conduct CBE. After training, screening was implemented in diverse urban health clinics...
July 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Zoé Cavalli, Florence Ader, Florent Valour, Julien Saison, Loïc Boussel, Oana Dumitrescu, Thomas Perpoint, Christian Chidiac, Thierry May, Tristan Ferry
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis (pTB) is difficult, even in developed countries, where data are lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and bacterial epidemiology of pTB in France over a 10-year period. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on pTB in two university hospitals in France, between January 2004 and December 2014. RESULTS: Among the 34 patients, 76.5% were migrants from areas of endemic tuberculosis (TB), mainly Africa...
June 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Dupe S Ademola-Popoola, Donald A Nzeh, Sadiat E Saka, Lateefat B Olokoba, Tokunbo S Obajolowo
PURPOSE: The study compared ocular biometry values using applanation and immersion techniques to determine the most applicable method for our tertiary training centre where personnel with different levels of experience and expertise in biometry take measurements used in calculation of required intraocular lens before cataract surgery. METHODS: The study was a prospective cross-sectional comparative study of different techniques of ocular biometry from diagnostic equipment (biometry probe 10 MHz Sonomed(®) A-scan (PACSCAN 300A, USA)...
September 2015: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
Hari Shankar, Demetri Blanas, Kian Bichoupan, Daouda Ndiaye, Ellie Carmody, Valerie Martel-Laferriere, Joan Culpepper-Morgan, Dougles T Dieterich, Andrea D Branch, Mulusew Bekele, Kim Nichols, Ponni V Perumalswami
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan African nations have among the highest rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide, but little is known about HBV infection in African-born persons in the United States. METHODS: From October 2011 to July 2013, community-based HBV screenings were conducted targeting persons originating from Africa in New York City. Persons were identified as currently HBV infected (HBsAg positive) or exposed (HBcAb positive). RESULTS: Overall, 955 persons were screened for HBV; the median age was 45 years (interquartile range, 35-54 years) and 75...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mariette Momberg, Jane Harries, Deborah Constant
BACKGROUND: Although abortion is legally available in South Africa, barriers to access exist. Early medical abortion is available to women with a gestational age up to 63 days and timely access is essential. This study aimed to determine women's acceptability and ability to self-assess eligibility for early medical abortion using an online gestational age calculator. Women's acceptability, views and preferences of using mobile technology for gestational age (GA) determination were explored...
2016: Reproductive Health
Darryl Wood, Benjamin Sartorius, Richard Hift
BACKGROUND: Snakebites that have cytotoxic venom can cause significant soft tissue swelling. Assessing the site and degree of swelling using ultrasound as a non-invasive technique would be an important tool for instituting appropriate treatment. METHODS: Forty-two patients who presented to a referral hospital in South Africa with cytotoxic swelling of the limbs from snakebite were assessed using ultrasound. The envenomed limb of each patient was scanned at the point of maximal swelling and compared with the unaffected limb at the same site...
July 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Cally J Tann, Margaret Nakakeeto, Cornelia Hagmann, Emily L Webb, Natasha Nyombi, Flaviah Namiiro, Kelly Harvey-Jones, Anita Muhumuza, Kathy Burgoine, Alison M Elliott, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Nicola J Robertson, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the timing and nature of brain injury and their relation to mortality in neonatal encephalopathy (NE) are unknown. We evaluated cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans from term Ugandan infants with and without NE for evidence of brain injury. METHODS: Infants were recruited from a national referral hospital in Kampala. Cases (184) had NE and controls (100) were systematically selected unaffected term infants. All had cUS scans <36 h reported blind to NE status...
August 2016: Pediatric Research
Blaise Adelin Tchaou, Kofi-Mensa Savi de Tové, Yolande Sissinto-Savi de Tové, Aurélien Tchémaha C Djomga, Abdou-Rahman Aguemon, Achille Massougbodji, Jean-Philippe Chippaux
BACKGROUND: In Africa, snakebite envenomations are frequently complicated by life-threatening hemorrhagic syndromes. The authors of the present study conducted a prospective analysis at the University Hospital of Parakou (north of Benin) for seven months (January 1 to July 31, 2014) to assess the contribution of ultrasonography to the diagnosis of internal bleedings and management of envenomation. METHODS: An ultrasound examination was performed in all patients with clinical envenomation regardless of its severity...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Verner N Orish, Onyekachi S Onyeabor, Johnson N Boampong, Richmond Afoakwah, Ekene Nwaefuna, Samuel Acquah, Adekunle O Sanyaolu, Nnaemeka C Iriemenam
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been adopted as policy by most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of IPTp-SP usage for prevention of malaria among pregnant women as well as evaluated factors associated with IPTp-SP use during pregnancy in Sekondi-Takoradi region of Ghana. METHODS: Pregnant women attending their antenatal-care with either clinical/ultrasound evidence of pregnancy were recruited...
December 2015: African Health Sciences
Pierre De Beaudrap, Eleanor Turyakira, Carolyn Nabasumba, Benon Tumwebaze, Patrice Piola, Yap Boum Ii, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is a major cause of fetal growth restriction and low birth weight in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding of the impact of MiP on infant growth and infant risk of malaria or morbidity is poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of MIP on subsequent infant growth, malaria and morbidity. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2009, 82 % (832/1018) of pregnant women with live-born singletons and ultrasound determined gestational age were enrolled in a prospective cohort with active weekly screening and treatment for malaria...
2016: Malaria Journal
David Watkins, Liesl Zuhlke, Mark Engel, Rezeen Daniels, Veronica Francis, Gasnat Shaboodien, Mabvuto Kango, Azza Abul-Fadl, Abiodun Adeoye, Sulafa Ali, Mohammed Al-Kebsi, Fidelia Bode-Thomas, Gene Bukhman, Albertino Damasceno, Dejuma Yadeta Goshu, Alaa Elghamrawy, Bernard Gitura, Abraham Haileamlak, Abraha Hailu, Christopher Hugo-Hamman, Steve Justus, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Neil Kennedy, Peter Lwabi, Yoseph Mamo, Pindile Mntla, Chris Sutton, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Charles Mondo, Agnes Mtaja, John Musuku, Joseph Mucumbitsi, Louis Murango, George Nel, Stephen Ogendo, Elijah Ogola, Dike Ojji, Taiwo Olabisi Olunuga, Mekia Mohammed Redi, Kamanzi Emmanuel Rusingiza, Mahmoud Sani, Sahar Sheta, Steven Shongwe, Joris van Dam, Habib Gamra, Jonathan Carapetis, Diana Lennon, Bongani M Mayosi
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remain major causes of heart failure, stroke and death among African women and children, despite being preventable and imminently treatable. From 21 to 22 February 2015, the Social Cluster of the Africa Union Commission (AUC) hosted a consultation with RHD experts convened by the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to develop a 'roadmap' of key actions that need to be taken by governments to eliminate ARF and eradicate RHD in Africa...
January 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Alain Patrick Menanga, Christelle Kougang Ngomseu, Ahmadou M Jingi, Brigitte Molu Mfangam, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Marie Ntep Gweth, Kathleen Ngu Blackett, Samuel Kingue
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is an increasingly important issue in human immunodeficiency viral (HIV)-infected individuals. There is dearth of information on the patterns of cardiovascular disease especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) patients. This study reports on the clinical, biological, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic characteristics of a group of HIV-infected patients presenting with symptoms of heart disease in Yaoundé, Cameroon. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Yaoundé Central Hospital and Jamot Hospital...
December 2015: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
A Daire, S Andronikou, A Boutall, S Constantatos, C Stewart, S E Candy
BACKGROUND: The Department of Radiology at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, has been performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since 2007. Fetal MRI findings have not previously been analysed to correlate them with antenatal and postnatal findings. OBJECTIVES: To determine the most common indication for fetal MRI, and to correlate antenatal MRI with antenatal ultrasound (US), postnatal imaging and postmortem findings. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of imaging carried out between January 2006 and December 2011...
November 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ibrahim Abib Diomande, Abdoulaye Toure, Konan Virgile Koffi, Gossé François Diomande, Windinmanégdé Pierre Djiguimde, Nouraly Habib, Ahgbatouhabéba Ahnoux-Zabsonre
Anophthalmia and serious microphthalmia are conditions characterized by the complete lack of the primary optic vesicle or the presence of the rudimentary eye-like structure. These are rare prenatal conditions, yet diagnoses remain a challenge in Black African areas, raising a major concerns surrounding care after birth. This paper reports a case of anophthalmia and serious microphthalmia, the diagnosis of which was not possible despite many ultrasounds undergone by the mother during pregnancy.
2015: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Jonas Erhardt, Matthias Frank
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: A 13-year-old girl presented with regular fevers, 6 months after a prolonged trip through Africa. The patient reported relapsing fevers at 48 hour intervals. Each febrile episode was followed by pronounced fatigue and a subsequent recovery back to her usual state of health. She reported having taken weekly mefloquine during and after the trip to Africa. INVESTIGATIONS: Labortory evaluation revealed a hemoltytic anemia (hemoglobin: 10...
October 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Dibuseng P Ramaema, Ines Buccimazza, Richard J Hift
BACKGROUND: Breast tuberculosis (BTB) is uncommon, but not rare. Knowledge of the ways in which it can present can prevent unnecessary invasive procedures and delay in diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and radiological findings in patients with BTB, including evaluation of current treatment methods. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 65 patients diagnosed with BTB at Addington and King Edward VIII hospitals, Durban, South Africa, between 2000 and 2013...
October 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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