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Ultrasound + maternity + africa

Torvid Kiserud, Alexandra Benachi, Kurt Hecher, Rogelio González Perez, José Carvalho, Gilda Piaggio, Lawrence D Platt
Ultrasound biometry is an important clinical tool for the identification, monitoring, and management of fetal growth restriction and development of macrosomia. This is even truer in populations in which perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high, which is a reason that much effort is put onto making the technique available everywhere, including low-income societies. Until recently, however, commonly used reference ranges were based on single populations largely from industrialized countries. Thus, the World Health Organization prioritized the establishment of fetal growth charts for international use...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Manfred Accrombessi, Emmanuel Yovo, Gilles Cottrell, Gino Agbota, Agnès Gartner, Yves Martin-Prevel, Nadia Fanou-Fogny, Diane Djossinou, Jennifer Zeitlin, Nicaise Tuikue-Ndam, Florence Bodeau-Livinec, Sandrine Houzé, Nicola Jackson, Paul Ayemonna, Achille Massougbodji, Michel Cot, Nadine Fievet, Valérie Briand
PURPOSE: REtard de Croissance Intra-uterin et PALudisme (RECIPAL) is an original preconceptional cohort designed to assess the consequences of malaria during the first trimester of pregnancy, which is a poorly investigated period in Africa and during which malaria may be detrimental to the fetus. PARTICIPANTS: For this purpose, a total of 1214 women of reproductive age living in Sô-Ava and Akassato districts (south Benin) were followed up monthly from June 2014 to December 2016 until 411 of them became pregnant...
January 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Abdullah Baqui, Parvez Ahmed, Sushil Kanta Dasgupta, Nazma Begum, Mahmoodur Rahman, Nasreen Islam, Mohammad Quaiyum, Betty Kirkwood, Karen Edmond, Caitlin Shannon, Samuel Newton, Lisa Hurt, Fyezah Jehan, Imran Nisar, Atiya Hussain, Naila Nadeem, Muhammad Ilyas, Anita Zaidi, Sunil Sazawal, Saikat Deb, Arup Dutta, Usha Dhingra, Said Moh'd Ali, Davidson H Hamer, Katherine Ea Semrau, Marina Straszak-Suri, Caroline Grogan, Godfrey Bemba, Anne Cc Lee, Blair J Wylie, Alexander Manu, Sachiyo Yoshida, Rajiv Bahl
Objective: The objective of the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement (AMANHI) gestational age study is to develop and validate a programmatically feasible and simple approach to accurately assess gestational age of babies after they are born. The study will provide accurate, population-based rates of preterm birth in different settings and quantify the risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity by gestational age and birth weight in five South Asian and sub-Saharan African sites...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
Maria M Santos, Derick K Rubagumya, Imani Dominic, Amos Brighton, Soledad Colombe, Philip O'Donnell, Micaella R Zubkov, Roger Härtl
OBJECTIVE Infant hydrocephalus is estimated to affect more than 100,000 new infants each year in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), a government-funded and patient cost-shared referral center, serves over 13 million people in the Lake and Western regions of Tanzania. The goals of this study were to characterize the infant population affected by hydrocephalus who presented to BMC and were treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) to determine the rate of early complications associated with this surgical procedure and to assess its potential risk factors...
November 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Jordan E Cates, Holger W Unger, Valerie Briand, Nadine Fievet, Innocent Valea, Halidou Tinto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Sarah H Landis, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Kathryn G Dewey, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Meghna Desai, Stephanie Dellicour, Peter Ouma, Julie Gutman, Martina Oneko, Laurence Slutsker, Dianne J Terlouw, Simon Kariuki, John Ayisi, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Victor Mwapasa, Per Ashorn, Kenneth Maleta, Ivo Mueller, Danielle Stanisic, Christentze Schmiegelow, John P A Lusingu, Anna Maria van Eijk, Melissa Bauserman, Linda Adair, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Steven Meshnick, Stephen Rogerson
BACKGROUND: Four studies previously indicated that the effect of malaria infection during pregnancy on the risk of low birthweight (LBW; <2,500 g) may depend upon maternal nutritional status. We investigated this dependence further using a large, diverse study population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the interaction between maternal malaria infection and maternal anthropometric status on the risk of LBW using pooled data from 14,633 pregnancies from 13 studies (6 cohort studies and 7 randomized controlled trials) conducted in Africa and the Western Pacific from 1996-2015...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
Sikolia Z Wanyonyi, Charles Muriuki Mariara, Sudhir Vinayak, William Stones
The potential benefits of obstetric ultrasound have yet to be fully realized in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), despite the region bearing the greatest burden of poor perinatal outcomes. We reviewed the literature for challenges and opportunities of universal access to obstetric ultrasound and explored what is needed to make such access an integral component of maternity care in order to address the massive burden of perinatal morbidity and mortality in SSA. Original peer-reviewed literature was searched in various electronic databases using a 'realist' approach...
April 2017: Ultrasound International Open
Anne S Wesonga, Tamara N Fitzgerald, Ronald Kabuye, Samuel Kirunda, Monica Langer, Nasser Kakembo, Doruk Ozgediz, John Sekabira
PURPOSE: Neonatal mortality from gastroschisis in sub-Saharan Africa is high, while in high-income countries, mortality is less than 5%. The purpose of this study was to describe the maternal and neonatal characteristics of gastroschisis in Uganda, estimate the mortality and elucidate opportunities for intervention. METHODS: An ethics-approved, prospective cohort study was conducted over a one-year period. All babies presenting with gastroschisis in Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda were enrolled and followed up to 30days...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Pierre De Beaudrap, Eleanor Turyakira, Carolyn Nabasumba, Benon Tumwebaze, Patrice Piola, Yap Boum Ii, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) is a major cause of fetal growth restriction and low birth weight in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding of the impact of MiP on infant growth and infant risk of malaria or morbidity is poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of MIP on subsequent infant growth, malaria and morbidity. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2009, 82 % (832/1018) of pregnant women with live-born singletons and ultrasound determined gestational age were enrolled in a prospective cohort with active weekly screening and treatment for malaria...
February 16, 2016: Malaria Journal
Clare L Cutland, Marianne Cunnington, Morounfolu Olugbosi, Stephanie A Jones, Andrea Hugo, Karishma Maharaj, Karen Slobod, Shabir A Madhi
INTRODUCTION: Infectious causes are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in neonates and young infants. Immunization of pregnant women to protect the mother and/or her infant is gaining momentum due to the benefits of this strategy demonstrated in numerous implemented strategies (Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative) and clinical trials. Reluctance by regulators, participants and healthcare providers to include pregnant women in clinical trials is considerable, but reducing...
November 25, 2015: Vaccine
Labaran Dayyabu Aliyu, Asim Kurjak, Tuangsit Wataganara, Renato Augusto Moreira de Sá, Ritsuko Pooh, Cihat Sen, Alaa Ebrashy, Abdallah Adra, Milan Stanojevic
Today we are living in a globalized world in which information on what is happening in one part of the world is easily communicated to other parts of the world. This happens thanks to advancement in science and technology. One area where technology has made the greatest impact is heath care provision. Ultrasound technology is now playing a critical role in health care provision particularly in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. This has significantly assisted in provision of quality health care to pregnant women and their unborn infants and in reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in the developed world...
March 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Richard Busayo Olatunji, Ademola Joseph Adekanmi, Millicent Olubunmi Obajimi, Olumuyiwa Adebola Roberts, Temitope Olumuyiwa Ojo
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) poses a serious challenge to maternal and fetal health in Africa. It is associated with hemodynamic changes that may affect the internal carotid/ophthalmic artery circulation with consequent neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. Ophthalmic artery Doppler (OAD) ultrasound is an important tool that can be used to detect hemodynamic changes in PE and monitor its severity. In this study, we evaluated hemodynamic changes on OAD ultrasound in the ophthalmic arteries of pre-eclamptic women and compared these with values in healthy pregnant women...
2015: International Journal of Women's Health
Helle Brander Eriksen, Sofie Biering-Sørensen, Najaaraq Lund, Cizete Correia, Amabelia Rodrigues, Andreas Andersen, Henrik Ravn, Peter Aaby, Dorthe L Jeppesen, Christine Stabell Benn
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of gestational and perinatal exposures on thymic size in 366 normal birth weight and 426 low birth weight (LBW) neonates in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, thymic size was measured at birth by the use of ultrasound. Information on possible determinants was collected from pregnancy cards, hospital records, and interviews with the mother. We used the log-transformed thymic index and thymus/weight index as outcome measures...
October 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
Nynke R van den Broek, Rachel Jean-Baptiste, James P Neilson
BACKGROUND: Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116) with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth...
2014: PloS One
Ao Igwegbe, Gu Eleje, Bc Okpala
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy has remained a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality especially in the sub Saharan Africa. A periodic appraisal of its management is paramount. AIM: To determine the incidence and associated risk factors, for ectopic pregnancy, review available treatment modalities and suggest interventions to reduce its prevalence, morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study with retrolective data collection of all cases of ectopic pregnancy managed in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between 1(st) January, 2002 and 31(st) December, 2011 was undertaken...
April 2013: Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research
K L P Nguessan, D B Mian, D Gondo, A Koffi, C Alla
We report a case of spontaneous rupture of a subcapsular hematoma of the liver (SHL). It was discovered incidentally at the end of an emergency exploratory laparotomy performed due to unexplained hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock which occurred with severe preeclampsia. Diagnosis and therapeutic management are very difficult in sub-Saharan Africa due in part to the limitations and lack of medical equipment. The prognosis is usually marked by the death of the patient, as in our case. Through this clinical observation we wanted to show the interest in performing a liver ultrasound at any level of preeclampsia to detect liver abnormalities as soon as possible...
2012: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
L Govender, J Moodley
OBJECTIVES: To report our experience with intracardiac potassium chloride (KCl) injection as a method of feticide for severe congenital abnormalities beyond 24 weeks' gestation. METHOD: A retrospective chart review. Patient demographics and types of fetal anomalies were analysed according to the groups that accepted or declined late termination of pregnancy (LTOP, ≥24 weeks) for severe congenital abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 3 896 women referred to the Fetal Medicine Unit at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, KwaZulu-Natal, 2 209 (56...
October 25, 2012: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
O B Bankole, S O Arigbabu, O O Kanu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of neural tube defects is known to vary among regions. Very little has been reported about the incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa except for the general impression that the prevalent rates are low. OBJECTIVE: To determine the profile of patients presenting with neural tube defects in Lagos, Nigeria METHODS: We studied all patients with congenital midline back swellings presenting to one of two neurosurgical services in the state over a 5-year period to establish the incidence of spina bifida and develop demographic data...
January 2012: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine
M F Urban, C Stewart, T Ruppelt, L Geerts
OBJECTIVE: The prenatal screening programme for Down syndrome (DS) in the South African public health sector remains primarily based on advanced maternal age (AMA). We assessed the changes over time and effectiveness of this screening programme within a Cape Town health district. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the Groote Schuur Hospital Cytogenetic Laboratory and Pregnancy Counselling Clinic databases and audit of maternal delivery records at a primary health care facility...
January 2011: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Jun Zhang, Ana Pilar Betran, João Paulo Souza, Rintaro Mori, A Metin Gülmezoglu, Mario Merialdi
BACKGROUND: Definition of small for gestational age in various populations worldwide remains a challenge. References based on birthweight are deficient for preterm births, those derived from ultrasound estimates might not be applicable to all populations, and the individualised reference can be too complex to use in developing countries. Our aim was to create a generic reference for fetal weight and birthweight that overcame these deficiencies and could be readily adapted to local populations...
May 28, 2011: Lancet
Phu Quoc Lê, A Ferster, F Cotton, F Vertongen, C Vermylen, A Vanderfaeillie, L Dedeken, C Heijmans, O Ketelslegers, M F Dresse, B Gulbis
AIM: To describe the severity of sickle cell disease (SCD) in newborns in Belgium and evaluate the impact of neonatal screening (NS) on clinical outcome. METHODS: Universal NS of umbilical cord blood for hemoglobinopathy was progressively deployed in Brussels and Liège starting in 1994. No particular population was targeted. Samples were analyzed initially using the isoelectric focusing technique and since 2008 the capillary electrophoresis technique. If a hemoglobin variant was suspected, further analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography...
December 2010: Médecine Tropicale: Revue du Corps de Santé Colonial
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