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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775964/time-matters-for-intersex-bodies-between-socio-medical-time-and-somatic-time
#1
Limor Meoded Danon
This article focuses on the dynamic relationships between time and intersex bodies that exist, on the one hand, in medical policy on intersex bodies and, on the other, in intersex people's subjective experiences. Time, from a sociological perspective, is a biosocial agent that establishes diagnostic practices, regulations, and treatment policy regarding intersex bodies. The systematic construction of timeframes by biomedical professionals aims to rapidly diagnose and treat intersex patients and is deeply rooted in the "dimorphic soma-gender order" (DMSGO), the imagined unified relationship of female bodies to femininity and male bodies to masculinity...
May 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775852/biomimetic-magnetoelectric-nanocrystals-synthesized-by-polymerization-of-heme-as-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biosensing-application
#2
Jeong Eun Hyeon, Da Woon Jeong, Young Jin Ko, Seung Wook Kim, Chulhwan Park, Sung Ok Han
Regardless of the malaria disease risk, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has an interesting mechanism. During its growth within the red blood cell, toxic free heme is converted into an insoluble crystalline form called the malaria pigment, or hemozoin. In particular, natural hemozoin nanocrystals can provide multiple applications in biosensing fields for health care and diagnosis as similar to artificial metal nanoparticles. In this study, the heme was biologically synthesized and polymerized by Corynebacterium glutamicum and final polymer was applied as a biomimetic conductive biopolymer...
May 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775050/modulation-of-macrophage-phenotype-by-biodegradable-polyurethane-nanoparticles-the-possible-relation-between-macrophage-polarization-and-immune-response-of-nanoparticles
#3
Yen-Jang Huang, Kun-Che Hung, Huey-Shan Hung, Shan-Hui Hsu
Nanomaterials with surface functionalized by different chemical groups can either provoke or attenuate the immune responses of the nanomaterials, which is critical to their biomedical efficacies. In this study we demonstrate that synthetic waterborne polyurethane nanoparticles (PU NPs) can inhibit the macrophage polarization towards the M1 phenotype, but not M2 phenotype. The surface-functionalized PU NPs decrease the secretion levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) for M1 macrophages. Specifically, PU NPs with carboxyl groups on the surface exhibit a greater extent of inhibition on M1 polarization than those with amine groups...
May 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774897/development-of-highly-sensitive-fluorescent-probes-for-the-detection-of-%C3%AE-galactosidase-activity-application-to-the-real-time-monitoring-of-senescence-in-live-cells
#4
Mauro Safir Filho, Pascal Dao, Maéva Gesson, Anthony R Martin, Rachid Benhida
We report the development of four novel fluorescent probes to monitor the activity of the β-galactosidase enzyme (β-gal), in vitro and in living cells. The fluorophores are based on a 6-amino-styryl-benzothiazole push-pull core and display a strong ICT emission. The probes encompass the fluorescent motif that is connected to a β-d-galactopyranoside moiety through a self-immolative benzyl carbamate linker (βGal-1-4). The screening of four different fluorophores enabled us to access new light-up and two-band ratiometric reporters...
May 18, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774482/the-effect-of-subclinical-varicocele-on-pregnancy-rates-and-semen-parameters-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Taylor P Kohn, Samuel J Ohlander, Jake S Jacob, Tina M Griffin, Larry I Lipshultz, Alexander W Pastuszak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current guidelines recommend against surgical repair of subclinical varicoceles (SCVs) for infertility; several studies demonstrate mixed fertility results after SCV correction. To determine whether surgical correction of SCV improves semen parameters and/or reproductive outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Seven biomedical literature databases were searched through January 2018 for studies that assessed reproductive outcomes and/or change in semen parameters in men with corrected SCV compared to either (1) uncorrected SCV or (2) corrected clinical varicocele...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774332/tuning-the-molecular-weight-of-polymeric-amphiphiles-as-a-tool-to-access-micelles-with-a-wide-range-of-enzymatic-degradation-rates
#6
Gadi Slor, Nitsan Papo, Uri Hananel, Roey J Amir
Enyzme-responsive polymeric assemblies hold great potential for biomedical applications due to the over-expression of disease-associated enzymes, which can be utilized to activate such systems only in afflicted tissues. Herein we demonstrate that the overall molecular weight of polymeric amphiphiles, which have the same hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio, can be tuned to create polymeric micelles with an extreme range of degradation rates. This approach expands the available set of molecular parameters that can be adjusted to tune the degradation rate of polymeric assemblies, paving new possibilities for rational design of polymeric systems with controlled degradation rates...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774150/the-effect-of-off-hours-hospital-admission-on-mortality-and-clinical-outcomes-for-patients-with-upper-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-20-cohorts
#7
Xian Feng Xia, Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Kelvin Kam Fai Tsoi, Francis Ka Leung Chan, Joseph Jao Yiu Sung, James Yun Wong Lau
Objective: The objective of this article is to evaluate the relationship between off-hours hospital admission (weekends, public holidays or nighttime) and mortality for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). Methods: Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature were searched through December 2016 to identify eligible records for inclusion in this meta-analysis. A random-effects model was applied. Results: Twenty cohort studies were included for analysis...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774078/targeting-intracellular-mmps-efficiently-inhibits-tumor-metastasis-and-angiogenesis
#8
Yaqi Lv, Xiangmei Zhao, Lidan Zhu, Sijia Li, Qingqing Xiao, Wei He, Lifang Yin
Treatment for metastatic cancer is a great challenge throughout the world. Commonly, directed inhibition of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) secreted by cancer cells can reduce metastasis. Here, a novel nanoplatform (HPMC NPs) assembled from hyaluronic acid (HA)-paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug and marimastat (MATT)/β-casein (CN) complexes was established to cure a 4T1 metastatic cancer model via targeting CD44 and intracellular, rather than extracellular, MMPs. Methods: HPMC NPs were prepared by assembling the complexes and prodrug under ultrasonic treatment, which the interaction between them was evaluated by förster resonance energy transfer, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773774/us-and-cuban-scientists-forge-collaboration-on-arbovirus-research
#9
Jorge Pérez-Ávila, Maria G Guzmán-Tirado, Jorge Fraga-Nodarse, Gray Handley, James Meegan, Jose L Pelegrino-Martínez de la Cotera, Anthony S Fauci
After December 17, 2014, when the US and Cuban governments announced their intent to restore relations, the two countries participated in various exchange activities in an effort to encourage cooperation in public health, health research and biomedical sciences. The conference entitled Exploring Opportunities for Arbovirus Research Collaboration, hosted at Havana's Hotel Nacional, was part of these efforts and was the first major US-Cuban scientific conference in over 50 years. Its purpose was to share information about current arbovirus research and recent findings, and to explore opportunities for future joint research...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773737/improving-support-for-young-biomedical-scientists
#10
Bruce Alberts, Tony Hyman, Christopher L Pickett, Shirley Tilghman, Harold Varmus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773606/optimising-experimental-research-in-respiratory-diseases-an-ers-statement
#11
Philippe Bonniaud, Aurélie Fabre, Nelly Frossard, Christophe Guignabert, Mark Inman, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Tania Maes, Wei Shi, Martin Stampfli, Stefan Uhlig, Eric White, Martin Witzenrath, Pierre-Simon Bellaye, Bruno Crestani, Oliver Eickelberg, Heinz Fehrenbach, Andreas Guenther, Gisli Jenkins, Guy Joos, Antoine Magnan, Bernard Maitre, Ulrich A Maus, Petra Reinhold, Juanita H J Vernooy, Luca Richeldi, Martin Kolb
Experimental models are critical for the understanding of lung health and disease and are indispensable for drug development. However, the pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the models is often unclear. Further, the use of animals in biomedical research is controversial from an ethical perspective.The objective of this task force was to issue a statement with research recommendations about lung disease models by facilitating in-depth discussions between respiratory scientists, and to provide an overview of the literature on the available models...
May 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773397/self-healable-tough-supramolecular-hydrogels-crosslinked-by-poly-cyclodextrin-through-host-guest-interaction
#12
Tingting Cai, Shuangjun Huo, Tao Wang, Weixiang Sun, Zhen Tong
A new supramolecular hydrogel with superior self-healing and shape memory properties was synthesized via in-situ copolymerization of the adamantane-containing monomer N-adamantylacrylamide (Ad-AAm) and monomer acrylic acid (AAc) in the polycyclodextrin (PCD) aqueous solution, where PCD served as the polyfunctional physical cross-linker. The PCD-Ad hydrogels showed strength of 40 kPa with breaking strain of 600%, but small tensile loading-unloading hysteresis and residual deformation benefited from the reversible crosslinking structure...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773386/electroconductive-3d-polymeric-network-production-by-using-polyaniline-chitosan-based-hydrogel
#13
Celil Ulutürk, Neslihan Alemdar
Herein, polyaniline/chitosan(PANI/CTS)-based electroconductive hydrogel was produced by photocrosslinked network in which CTS was used as a main component. Firstly, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted on the CTS backbone to form CTS-g-GMA. Then, a three-dimensional polymeric network consisting of CTS-g-GMA and poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA) was obtained by using photocrosslinking technique. At last, aniline monomer solution prepared by utilizing three different aniline concentrations (0.08, 0.16 and 0,32 M) was absorbed into (CTS-g-GMA)-PEGDA crosslinked structure to form [(CTS-g-GMA)-PEGDA]-PANI electroconductive semi interpenetrating network...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773361/degradation-properties-of-chitosan-microspheres-poly-l-lactic-acid-composite-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Zhenzhao Guo, Dongying Bo, Yuan He, Xueshi Luo, Hong Li
Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a popular biodegradable polymer, but the accumulated acid production by degradation is a bottleneck for its extended utilization. In this study, chitosan microspheres (CSMs) were introduced into PLLA porous matrices to manipulate the acid microclimate from PLLA degradation. In vitro and in vivo degradation were, respectively, performed in PBS and implanted into rat's subcutaneous. The results indicated that pH of CSMs/PLLA composites remained stable of around 7.50 in vitro until six weeks...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773174/in-vivo-bio-distribution-clearance-and-toxicity-assessment-of-biogenic-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-abutilon-indicum-in-wistar-rats
#15
Rani Mata, Jayachandra Reddy Nakkala, Varshney Khub Chandra, Kumar Raja, Sudha Rani Sadras
This study reports the bio-distribution and clearance of Abutilon indicum silver and gold nanoparticles (AIAgNPs and AIAuNPs) in Wistar rats. Rats in different groups were orally administered with 5 and 10 mg/Kg BW of AIAgNPs and AIAuNPs (size 1-25 nm) for 28 days and few were maintained until 58 days of washout period. Serum biochemical parameters were not changed significantly at both doses of AIAuNPs and at lower concentration of AIAgNPs. But, with 10 mg/Kg BW of AIAgNPs rats showed elevated levels of AST, ALP and ALT on day 29, however, these levels were restored to normal after washout period...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773123/circumstances-of-child-deaths-in-mali-and-uganda-a-community-based-confidential-enquiry
#16
Merlin L Willcox, Elias Kumbakumba, Drissa Diallo, Vincent Mubangizi, Peter Kirabira, Florence Nakaggwa, Birungi Mutahunga, Chiaka Diakité, Eugene Dembélé, Mamadou Traoré, Pierre Daou, Drissa Bamba, Amadou Traoré, Diafara Berthé, Nick Wooding, Kieran Dinwoodie, Sarah Capewell, Hamish Foster, Rowena Neville, Joseph Ngonzi, Jerome Kabakyenga, David Mant, Anthony Harnden
BACKGROUND: Interventions to reduce child deaths in Africa have often underachieved, causing the Millennium Development Goal targets to be missed. We assessed whether a community enquiry into the circumstances of death could improve intervention effectiveness by identifying local avoidable factors and explaining implementation failures. METHODS: Deaths of children younger than 5 years were ascertained by community informants in two districts in Mali (762 deaths) and three districts in Uganda (442 deaths) in 2011-15...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773059/biomedical-applications-of-glycoconjugates
#17
Fei Ding, Yongmin Zhang
Glycans expressed on the forefront surface of cells participate in many key biological processes via forming various glycoconjugates. The recognition of complex glycoconjugates as mediators of important biological processes has stimulated investigation into their therapeutic potential. As the increasing accessibility of glycoconjugates, it has been widely applied in the field of drug delivery. This review particularly refers to the constitutive glycoconjugates of receptor-mediated binding of glycoprotein, glycolipids and glycopeptides for cell-selective drug delivery, in order to broaden the future therapeutic scope of drug delivery system and effective cancer therapy...
May 17, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772963/simplifying-skin-disease-diagnosis-with-topical-nanotechnology
#18
David C Yeo, Chenjie Xu
A new study published in the journal Nature Biomedical Engineering1 documents a novel diagnostic technology that exploits topically applied nanotechnology to detect skin tissue biomarkers for diagnosis. This concept is demonstrated by noninvasively imaging connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA in abnormal scar cells, whole tissue, and animal models. In this commentary, we highlight the main findings and discuss their implications. Successful implementation in the clinic could give rise to self-applied, biopsy-free diagnostic technology and significantly reduce healthcare burden...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772899/honeycomb-like-plga-b-peg-structure-creation-with-t-junction-micro-droplets
#19
Merve Gultekinoglu, Xinyue Jiang, Cem Bayram, Kezban Ulubayram, Mohan Edirisinghe
Amphiphilic block copolymers are widely used in science owing to their versatile properties. In this study, amphiphilic block copolymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) was used to create micro droplets in a T-junction microfluidic device with a well-defined geometry. In order to compare interfacial characteristics of micro droplets, dichloromethane (DCM) and chloroform were used to prepare PLGA-b-PEG solution as an oil phase. In the T-junction device water and oil phases were manipulated at variable flow rates from 50 µL/min to 300 µL/min by increments of 50 µL/min...
May 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772781/the-potential-role-of-fc-receptor-functions-in-the-development-of-a-universal-influenza-vaccine
#20
Sinthujan Jegaskanda
Despite global vaccination efforts, influenza virus continues to cause yearly epidemics and periodic pandemics throughout most of the world. Many of us consider the generation of broader, potent and long-lasting immunity against influenza viruses as critical in curtailing the global health and economic impact that influenza currently plays. To date, classical vaccinology has relied on the generation of neutralizing antibodies as the benchmark to measure vaccine effectiveness. However, recent developments in numerous related fields of biomedical research including, HIV, HSV and DENV have emphasized the importance of Fc-mediate effector functions in pathogenesis and immunity...
May 17, 2018: Vaccines
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