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A G Fragkaki, N Kioukia-Fougia, P Kiousi, M Kioussi, M Tsivou
The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well-known in racing and in other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries do make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. The primary objective in the case of doping control is the detection of any trace of drug exposure, either parent drug or any of its metabolites, using the most powerful analytical methods which generally are based on chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
David Palmer, Katie Rademaker, Ingrid Martin, Joan Hessell, Rob Howitt
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a 10-residue peptide hormone that induces secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone into the blood from the pituitary gland. In males, LH acts on the testes to produce testosterone. The performance enhancing potential of testosterone makes administration of exogenous GnRH a concern in sports doping control. Detection of GnRH abuse is challenging owing to its rapid clearance from the body and degradation in urine. Following recent investigations of GnRH abuse in racing greyhounds in New Zealand, we carried out a GnRH administration study in greyhounds in an attempt to identify GnRH metabolites that might provide more facile detection of GnRH abuse; little information is available on in vivo metabolites of exogenous GnRH in any species and none in dogs...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Charlène Chéron, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde, Christine Le Scanff, Eva Jespersen, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Claudia Franz, Niels Wedderkopp
OBJECTIVES: It is not known which sports are most likely to cause overuse injuries of the extremities in children. In this study, we report on the incidence of overuse injuries of the upper and lower extremities in children who participate in various leisure-time sports and relate this to the frequency of sport sessions. DESIGN: Natural experiment including a prospective cohort study. SETTING: 10 state schools in 1 Danish municipality: Svendborg...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
Melissa J Armstrong, Gary S Gronseth, Richard Dubinsky, Sonja Potrebic, Rebecca Penfold Murray, Thomas S D Getchius, Carol Rheaume, Anna R Gagliardi
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines support decision-making at the point-of-care but the onus is often on individual users such as physicians to implement them. Research shows that the inclusion of implementation tools in or with guidelines (GItools) is associated with guideline use. However, there is little research on which GItools best support implementation by individual physicians. The purpose of this study was to investigate naturalistic access and use of GItools produced by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) to inform future tool development...
January 13, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
F Rüfer
Traumatic changes in the iridocorneal angle, e.g. in ball sports, can lead to secondary glaucoma. High intensity resistance exercise or yoga exercises - such as the headstand - can increase IOP, and deterioration in the visual field and acute narrow angle glaucoma attacks have been described in some case reports. Glaucoma therapy of professional athletes with steroids, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and beta-blockers can result in positive doping tests. In manifest glaucoma, moderate aerobic exercise is presumably of use because of the IOP lowering effect, improved retinal perfusion and reduction in oxidative stress...
January 13, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Donald J Thomas, Kathryn Coxe, Hongmei Li, Thomas L Pommering, Julie A Young, Gary A Smith, Jingzhen Yang
OBJECTIVES: We quantified the length of recovery time by week in a cohort of pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics, and examined patient and injury characteristics associated with prolonged recovery. DESIGN: A retrospective, cohort design. SETTING: Seven concussion clinics at a Midwest children's hospital. PATIENTS: Patients aged 10 to 17 years with a diagnosed sports-related concussion presenting to the clinic within 30 days of injury...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Davide Barbieri, Luciana Zaccagni, Vesna Babić, Marija Rakovac, Marjeta Mišigoj-Duraković, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess competitive sprinters' body size and composition and to determine their impact on performance. METHODS: Ninety-eight competitive male sprinters (100 m) participated in this cross sectional study. A series of measurements was directly taken and data on muscular strength and power tests were self-reported. Body composition was assessed by skinfold method and somatotype was calculated by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Giovanni Melchiorri, Valerio Viero, Tamara Triossi, Elvira Padua, Marco Bonifazi
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the applicability of a sport-specific test, the Shuttle Swim Test, in young water polo players to measure RSA. The aims were: to assess the reliability and to measure the responsiveness of the SST in young water polo athletes, and to provide age- related values of SST. METHODS: 333 elite athletes (18.3 ± 5.1 years) were involved in the study. Of these, 99 were young people under 13 (13.1 ± .5 years) who also underwent measurements for reliability and responsiveness of the SST The following six measures was used to assess anthropometric characteristics of the sample: height, weight, chest circumference, hip circumference, waist circumference, and arm span...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Rodney A Kennedy, David Drake
BACKGROUND: A countermovement jump (CMJ) is routinely used in many sporting settings to provide a functional measure of neuromuscular fatigue. However, the variables that are most sensitive to fatigue remain somewhat unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute changes in neuromuscular fatigue in rugby union players during a period of preseason training. METHODS: Nine male (age: 19.0 ± 1.5 years) academy rugby union players performed five CMJ trials on three occasions, at baseline, 24 hours and 48 hours post-baseline...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Levi W Evans, Stanley T Omaye
Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma...
January 12, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Rachel Lampert, Ian Law
The decision of whether to allow a young patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to continue to participate in sports is complex and multi-factorial. The positive physical and psychosocial impact of sports participation must be weighed against the potential adverse events associated with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Arrhythmias appear to be more prevalent in athletes and occur more frequently during physical activity or competition/practice, but there is growing evidence that device therapy is effective in athletes across a wide range of competitive sports...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Timothy E Paterick, Zachary R Paterick, Nachiket Patel, Khawaja A Ammar, Krishnaswamy Chandrasekaran, Abdul J Tajik
Physicians participate in the screening, routine medical supervision, and disqualification of student-athletes. In doing so, they should understand that eligibility/disqualification decisions inevitably have associated liability issues. It is the responsibility of physicians to take the lead role in the student-athlete medical assessment process to allow for optimum safety in sports programmes. The first duty of the physician is to protect the health and well-being of the student-athlete. However, because there is potential liability associated with the screening/disqualification process, physicians are wise to develop sound and reasonable strategies that are in strict compliance with the standard of care...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Stuart Berger
Recent experiences with lay public cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of ambulatory external defibrillators have been demonstrated to improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from an abysmal 10% or less to as high as 30%. Though rare, sudden cardiac arrest in presumably healthy young people have been highly publicised over the last 25 years and have motivated the institution of school- and community-based programmes that facilitate first-responder resuscitation, including defibrillation. These efforts often begin at a grass roots level (usually parent-inspired advocacy groups) and through collaborative activities involving the schools, local businesses, and local administrative agencies are now having a meaningful impact in selected communities...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Peter F Aziz, Elizabeth V Saarel
Untreated congenital long QT syndrome may result in potentially lethal ventricular tachycardia. In the most common type, risk of such an event has been linked to exercise. This originally resulted in very restrictive guidelines for sports participation in affected individuals. Although the complex interactions of a specific genotype, modifying cofactors, and risk are only now being explored, scientific evidence based on clinical experience now suggests that in many instances such restrictive guidelines are unwarranted...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
John Papagiannis
Sudden death from aortic dissection of an ascending aortic aneurysm is an uncommon but important finding in all series of sudden death in young, apparently healthy athletes. Individuals at risk include those having any of a variety of conditions in which structural weakness of the ascending aorta predisposes to pathological dilation under prolonged periods of increased wall stress. These conditions include Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, and the vascular form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Paul Stephens
Paediatric exercise stress testing has historically been used to assess the functional status of patients after repair of CHDs and to assess the efficacy of medical or device therapy in patients with arrhythmias. Exercise stress testing is one of very few hospital- or clinic-based tests that can assess the response of the cardiopulmonary system in an environment that simulates the body's response to vigorous play and competitive sport. Exercise stress testing is therefore a useful modality in the assessment of child and athletes at risk for sudden cardiac death...
January 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Martina E Schmidt, Joachim Wiskemann, Cornelia M Ulrich, Andreas Schneeweiss, Karen Steindorf
BACKGROUND: Exercise during and after breast cancer treatment has shown several health benefits. However, little is known about the courses, patterns, and determinants of physical activity of breast cancer patients, and the role of exercise interventions on their physical activity behavior in the long run. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was assessed in 227 breast cancer survivors before, during, and three, six, and 12 months post-intervention within two randomized resistance exercise trials performed during adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy, respectively, with similar designs...
January 13, 2017: Acta Oncologica
Fransiska M Bossuyt, Ursina Arnet, Martin W G Brinkhof, Inge Eriks-Hoogland, Veronika Lay, Rachel Müller, Mikael Sunnåker, Timo Hinrichs
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of shoulder pain and to identify factors associated with shoulder pain in a nationwide survey of individuals living with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland. METHODS: Data was collected through the 2012 community survey of the Swiss SCI Cohort Study (SwiSCI) (N = 1549; age 52.3 ± 14.8; 29% female). Sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, SCI characteristics, health conditions as well as mobility independence and sporting activities were evaluated as predictor variables...
January 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Stephanie Maria Kirschbaum, Frank Sitterlee, Carsten Perka, Michael Müller
Background Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) describes a painful, abnormal (bony) contact between the femoral neck and acetabulum, which, if left untreated, contributes to early osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. Despite its flat learning curve and long operation times, hip arthroscopy has been used increasingly often in recent years in the surgery of femoroacetabular impingement. The mini-open technique (MOT) offers a possible alternative that addresses the abnormal morphological prominence and allows minimally invasive clearance of hip motion...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Gwyn N Lewis, Patria A Hume, Verna Stavric, Scott R Brown, Denise Taylor
AIMS: Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. METHODS: The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22)...
January 13, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
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