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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077984/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-compared-to-other-forms-of-triggered-ventilation-for-neonatal-respiratory-support
#1
REVIEW
Thomas E Rossor, Katie A Hunt, Sandeep Shetty, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA), respiratory support is initiated upon detection of an electrical signal from the diaphragm muscle, and pressure is provided in proportion to and synchronous with electrical activity of the diaphragm (EADi)...
October 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035309/serum-magnesium-levels-in-preterm-infants-are-higher-than-adult-levels-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Jacques Rigo, Catherine Pieltain, Viola Christmann, Francesco Bonsante, Sissel J Moltu, Silvia Iacobelli, Stéphane Marret
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral in the body, impacting the synthesis of biomacromolecules, bone matrix development, energy production, as well as heart, nerve, and muscle function. Although the importance of Mg is evident, reference values for serum Mg (sMg) in pediatric patients (more specifically, in neonates) are not well established. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis (using 47 eligible studies) aims to quantify normal and tolerable ranges of sMg concentrations during the neonatal period and to highlight the factors influencing Mg levels and the importance of regulating sMg levels during pregnancy and birth...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981980/conditional-reprogramming-of-pediatric-airway-epithelial-cells-a-new-human-model-to-investigate-early-life-respiratory-disorders
#3
Seth Wolf, Geovanny F Perez, Lana Mukharesh, Nataliza Isaza, Diego Preciado, Robert J Freishtat, Dinesh Pillai, Mary C Rose, Gustavo Nino
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are quite difficult to access in newborns and infants. It is critically important to develop robust life-extended models to conduct translational studies in this age group. We propose the use of a recently described cell-culture technology (conditionally reprogrammed cells - CRC) to generate continuous primary cell cultures from nasal and bronchial AEC of young children. METHODS: We collected nasal and/or bronchial AEC from a total of 23 subjects of different ages including newborns/infants/toddlers (0-2 years; N=9), school age children (4-11 years; N=6), and a group of adolescent/adult donors (N=8)...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949952/promoting-neuroregeneration-after-perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-neurotrophic-factors-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Nienke Wagenaar, Caroline G M de Theije, Linda S de Vries, Floris Groenendaal, Manon J N L Benders, Cora H A Nijboer
Newborns suffering from perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) are at risk of neurodevelopmental problems. Current treatment options for PAIS are limited and mainly focus on supportive care, as presentation of PAIS is beyond the time window of current treatment strategies. Therefore, recent focus has shifted to interventions that stimulate regeneration of damaged brain tissue. From animal models it is known that the brain increases its neurogenic capability after ischemic injury, by promoting neural cell proliferation and differentiation...
September 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#5
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906423/empowering-parents-of-australian-infants-and-children-in-hospital-translation-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-empowerment-of-parents-in-the-intensive-care-30-aus-questionnaire
#6
Fenella J Gill, Sally Wilson, Laurene Aydon, Gavin D Leslie, Jos M Latour
OBJECTIVES: To translate, culturally adapt, and psychometrically test the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30 questionnaire in Australian pediatric critical care, neonatal, and pediatric ward settings. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive, multicenter study conducted in two phases; 1) translation and cultural adaptation and 2) validation of the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30 questionnaire. SETTINGS: Two Western Australian sites, the PICU and two pediatric wards of a children's hospital and the neonatal unit of a women's and newborn hospital...
November 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791867/evolution-of-newborns-urinary-metabolomic-profiles-according-to-age-and-growth
#7
Aurélien Scalabre, Elodie Jobard, Delphine Demède, Ségolène Gaillard, Clément Pontoizeau, Pierre Mouriquand, Bénédicte Elena-Herrmann, Pierre-Yves Mure
Improving the management of neonatal diseases and prevention of chronic diseases in adulthood requires a better comprehension of the complex maturational processes associated with newborns' development. Urine-based metabolomic studies play a promising role in the fields of pediatrics and neonatology, relying on simple and noninvasive collection procedures while integrating a variety of factors such as genotype, nutritional state, lifestyle, and diseases. Here, we investigate the influence of age, weight, height, and gender on the urine metabolome during the first 4 months of life...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752833/mapping-the-nursing-competences-in-neonatology-a-qualitative-research
#8
Emanuela Alfieri, Alessia Alebbi, M Giovanna Bedini, Laura Boni, Chiara Foà
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There are several studies that support the importance of advanced expertise and specialization of the neonatal pediatric nurse. However, proceeding with a analysis of the scientific literature regarding the nursing advanced competence in neonatology, very few studies specify and define these competences. The aim of the study is investigate and analyze skills, tasks and responsibilities of the neonatal pediatric nurse, to map a "neonatal nurse competence profile", offered from the points of view of the Neonatology Units professionals...
July 18, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723888/association-between-supraclavicular-brown-adipose-tissue-composition-at-birth-and-adiposity-gain-from-birth-to-6-months-of-age
#9
Sonja Entringer, Jerod Rasmussen, Dan M Cooper, Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Pathik D Wadhwa, Claudia Buss
BackgroundBrown adipose tissue (BAT) is associated with higher energy expenditure and lower adiposity in adults. However, the relationship between BAT composition and adiposity in early life is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that brown fat composition at birth is prospectively associated with adiposity gain during the first 6 months of postnatal life.MethodsN=35 healthy infants were followed up prospectively from intrauterine life and birth through 6 months of age. Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were conducted during the neonatal period to characterize supraclavicular BAT composition...
December 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715290/trainees-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-caring-for-the-substance-exposed-mother-infant-dyad
#10
Davida M Schiff, Barry Zuckerman, Elisha M Wachman, Megan Bair-Merritt
BACKGROUND: As rates of substance use disorder during pregnancy rise, pediatric trainees are increasingly caring for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of trainees caring for substance-exposed newborns and their families, comparing differences by level and type of training, and personal experience with addiction or trauma. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of medical students and pediatric, medicine/pediatric, and family medicine residents in 2015-2106...
October 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706729/a-retrospective-review-of-the-pediatric-development-clinic-implementation-a-model-to-improve-medical-nutritional-and-developmental-outcomes-of-at-risk-under-five-children-in-rural-rwanda
#11
Eric Ngabireyimana, Christine Mutaganzwa, Catherine M Kirk, Ann C Miller, Kim Wilson, Evodia Dushimimana, Olivier Bigirumwami, Evelyne S Mukakabano, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Hema Magge
BACKGROUND: As more high-risk newborns survive the neonatal period, they remain at significant medical, nutritional, and developmental risk. However, no follow-up system for early intervention exists in most developing countries. In 2014, a novel Pediatric Development Clinic (PDC) was implemented to provide comprehensive follow-up to at-risk under-five children, led by nurses and social workers in a district hospital and surrounding health centers in rural Rwanda. METHODS: At each PDC visit, children undergo clinical/nutritional assessment and caregivers participate in counseling sessions...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672762/critical-congenital-heart-disease-screening-with-a-pulse-oximetry-in-neonates
#12
Şahin Hamilçıkan, Emrah Can
OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of pulse oximetry screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) in newborn infants performed at <24 h and >24 h following. METHOD: Measurements were taken for each group at <24 h and >24 h following birth. Echocardiography was performed if the SpO2 readings remained abnormal results. RESULTS: A total of 4518 newborns were included in this prospective descriptive study. Of these, 2484 (60...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530325/-diversity-in-product-selection-and-thresholds-for-platelets-transfusion-in-neonates-and-premature-infants
#13
Shraga Aviner, Ornit Cohen, Faid El-Ubra, Vered Yahalom, Haim Bibi, Shmuel Zangen
INTRODUCTION: Many premature and full-term newborns receive prophylactic platelet transfusions to prevent bleeding, particularly the most prevalent one, i.e, intracranial hemorrhages. However, the platelet count threshold above which bleeding is prevented and the efficacy of platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic neonates, have yet to be established. Therefore, inter-Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) variations in treatment indications and practices are expected. Considerable inter-NICU variations will emphasize the need for guidelines on platelet transfusions to neonates and premature infants...
August 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481066/-utility-of-ultrasonography-in-the-placement-of-long-term-venous-catheters-in-newborns-and-infants
#14
P Y Reyes Ríos, O Girón Vallejo, R Ruiz Pruneda, I Martínez Castaño, J Rojas Ticona, V Villamil, J I Ruiz Jiménez
OBJETIVES: The implantation of long duration intravenous catheters in pediatric population constitutes a challenge due to the size of vascular structures. Because of that, ultrasound is an important tool for vascular accesses in newborns and infants. The objective is to analyze our experience in ultrasound-guided implantation of reservoir type and tunneled catheters, as well as to compare it between both age groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of the ultrasound-guided implantable catheters placed from October 2010 to December 2014 in children under 18 months...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439195/the-role-of-serial-measurements-of-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-levels-in-the-development-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#15
Bayram Ali Dorum, Cansu Canbolat Yılmaz, Nilgün Köksal, Hilal Özkan, Meral Yıldız, Ahmet Tuncer Özmen
AIM: To determine the role of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in the development of retinopathy of prematurity, which is a major cause of childhood blindness worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We prospectively studied newborn infants born at a postmenstrual age of <32 weeks and birth weights <1 500 gr, between January 1(st), 2015, and December 31(st), 2015. A total of 40 infants were enrolled in the study. The retinal examination time was determined in accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for retinopathy of prematurity screening and follow-up...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386505/the-child-as-a-surrogate-for-diagnosis-of-lupus-in-the-mother
#16
Olufemi O Adelowo, Kenneth A Ohagwu, Ejiehi E Aigbokhan, Richard O Akintayo
Introduction. Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an acquired disease of the newborn caused by transplacental transfer of maternal anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB, and infrequently anti-U1 RNP antibodies. Methodology. This is a case report of a male infant delivered via Caesarean section at 36-week gestation following detection of fetal bradycardia during routine antenatal clinic visit. Results. The mother was seropositive for antinuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-Ro/SSA and had elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate...
2017: Case Reports in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364046/neonatal-hypoglycemia
#17
REVIEW
Alecia Thompson-Branch, Thomas Havranek
Lower blood glucose values are common in the healthy neonate immediately after birth as compared to older infants, children, and adults. These transiently lower glucose values improve and reach normal ranges within hours after birth. Such transitional hypoglycemia is common in the healthy newborn. A minority of neonates experience a more prolonged and severe hypoglycemia, usually associated with specific risk factors and possibly a congenital hypoglycemia syndrome. Despite the lack of a specific blood glucose value that defines hypoglycemia, concern for substantial neurologic morbidity in the neonatal population has led to the generation of guidelines by both the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES)...
April 2017: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288145/rectal-temperature-in-the-first-five-hours-after-hypoxia-ischaemia-critically-affects-neuropathological-outcomes-in-neonatal-rats
#18
Thomas Wood, Catherine Hobbs, Mari Falck, Anne Charlotte Brun, Else Marit Løberg, Marianne Thoresen
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia after hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) in newborn infants is associated with worse neurological outcomes. Loss of thermoregulation may also be associated with greater injury. METHODS: In the postnatal-day 7 (P7) rat, the effect of 5h of graded hyperthermia (38°C or 39°C) immediately after unilateral HI was compared to normothermia (NT, 37°C), and therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 32°C). Early (negative geotaxis) and late (staircase test) behavioural testing was performed, as well as neuropathology scoring in adulthood...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283552/anaesthetic-considerations-for-surgery-in-newborns
#19
REVIEW
Constance S Houck, Amy E Vinson
Almost 30 years ago, the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn coauthored a policy statement strongly advocating for the use of anaesthesia in all neonates stating 'local or systemic pharmacologic agents now available permit relatively safe administration of anesthesia or analgesia to neonates undergoing surgical procedures and that such administration is indicated according to the usual guidelines for the administration of anesthesia to high-risk, potentially unstable patients'. With current techniques and advanced monitoring, preterm and full-term infants routinely undergo surgical procedures under general anaesthesia to repair congenital defects that were lethal in years past...
July 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281303/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-infants-born-at-term
#20
REVIEW
Bonny Jasani, Karen Simmer, Sanjay K Patole, Shripada C Rao
BACKGROUND: The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are considered essential for maturation of the developing brain, retina and other organs in newborn infants. Standard infant milk formulae are not supplemented with LCPUFA; they contain only alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, from which formula-fed infants must synthesise their own DHA and AA, respectively. Over the past few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formula milk and have marketed these products as providing an advantage for the overall development of full-term infants...
March 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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