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Pediatric, newborn, neonate? Infant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078861/interleukin-6-and-interleukin-8-in-diagnosing-neonatal-septicemia
#1
Y Q Wu, J Shen, Q L Zhou, H W Zhao, L R Liu, X Liu
Neonatal septicemia (NS) is a common cause of death of newborn infants, hence early diagnosis and treatment are of the utmost importance. However, lack of specific clinical symptoms and late detection delay a correct diagnosis. It is therefore of great importance to establish auxiliary indexes for the early diagnosis of NS. To evaluate the value of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8) in the diagnosis of NS, a prospective study was carried out. Seventy-five newborns who developed septicemia and received treatment in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects; also, 50 healthy newborns were set as a control group...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045472/inhaled-nitric-oxide-for-respiratory-failure-in-preterm-infants
#2
REVIEW
Keith J Barrington, Neil Finer, Thomas Pennaforte
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure and the potential risks of iNO differ substantially in preterm infants, necessitating specific study in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine effects of treatment with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or other serious brain injury and on adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009337/wireless-multichannel-electroencephalography-in-the-newborn
#3
Z H Ibrahim, G Chari, S Abdel Baki, V Bronshtein, M R Kim, J Weedon, J Cracco, J V Aranda
OBJECTIVES: First, to determine the feasibility of an ultra-compact wireless device (microEEG) to obtain multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) recording in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Second, to identify problem areas in order to improve wireless EEG performance. STUDY DESIGN: 28 subjects (gestational age 24-30 weeks, postnatal age <30 days) were recruited at 2 sites as part of an ongoing study of neonatal apnea and wireless EEG. Infants underwent 8-9 hour EEG recordings every 2-4 weeks using an electrode cap (ANT-Neuro) connected to the wireless EEG device (Bio-Signal Group)...
2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007511/-neonatal-palliative-care-at-home-contribution-of-the-regional-pediatric-palliative-care-team
#4
N Cojean, C Strub, P Kuhn, L Calvel
The "patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has allowed implementation of palliative care in neonatology as an alternative to unreasonable therapeutic interventions. A palliative care project can be offered to newborns suffering from intractable diseases. It must be focused on the newborn's quality of life and comfort and on family support. Palliative care for newborns can be provided in the delivery room, in the neonatal unit, and also at home. Going home is possible but requires medical support...
December 19, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997557/evidence-based-weighing-policy-during-the-first-week-to-prevent-neonatal-hypernatremic-dehydration-while-breastfeeding
#5
Suzanne Boer, Sevim Unal, Jacobus P van Wouwe, Paula van Dommelen
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypernatremic dehydration is prevented by daily neonatal weight monitoring. We aim to provide evidence-based support of this universally promoted weighing policy and to establish the most crucial days of weighing. METHODS: Weight measurements of 2,359 healthy newborns and of 271 newborns with clinical hypernatremic dehydration were used within the first seven days of life to simulate various weighting policies to prevent hypernatremic dehydration; its sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of these policies were calculated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976561/congenital-malaria-importance-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-pregnancy
#6
Selvi Gülaşı, Nureddin Özdener
Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria endemic regions. We report an unusual case of a 23-day-old girl with neonatal Plasmodium vivax malaria, suspected primarily on the basis of positive maternal history that her mother had malaria during her pregnancy and was cured with chloroquine therapy. Infant presented with fever, thrombocytopenia and a significant parasitemia...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975109/cholestasis-in-infancy
#7
Melissa G Andrianov, Ruba K Azzam
Jaundice is a key manifestation of hepatobiliary disease in all age groups. Jaundice is a common finding in the first 2 weeks after birth, occurring in 2.4% to 15% of newborns. The neonatal liver is at increased susceptibility to cholestasis, with an incidence ranging from 1 in 2,500 to 1 in 5,000 live births. Etiologies vary, but the most common is biliary atresia. In 2004, the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition published guidelines for the evaluation of cholestasis that clearly stated any infant with jaundice persisting beyond age 2 weeks (3 weeks in breast-fed infants with an otherwise normal history and physical examination) should be evaluated with a fractionated serum bilirubin level...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925622/relation-between-amniotic-fluid-infection-or-cytokine-levels-and-hearing-screen-failure-in-infants-at-32-wk-gestation-or-less
#8
Eun Young Jung, Byung Yoon Choi, Jihye Rhee, Jaehong Park, Soo-Hyun Cho, Kyo Hoon Park
BACKGROUND: To determine whether the presence of intra-amniotic infection and elevated proinflammatory cytokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) are associated with failure in the newborn hearing screen (NHS) test in very preterm neonates. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 112 premature singleton neonates born to women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes at ≤32 wk. AF obtained through amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were determined...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925621/presepsin-for-the-detection-of-early-onset-sepsis-in-preterm-newborns
#9
Paolo Montaldo, Roberto Rosso, Alfredo Santantonio, Giovanni Chello, Paolo Giliberti
BACKGROUND: Early-onset sepsis (EOS) is responsible for an important fraction of neonatal morbidity and mortality all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess whether presepsin (P-SEP) can be a more accurate biomarker of EOS compared with pro-calcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive preterm neonates (<34 wk gestational age, admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit by 6 h of age and undergoing sepsis evaluation) were recruited as part of a case-matched control study...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923247/patterns-of-empiric-antibiotic-administration-for-presumed-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-in-the-united-states
#10
Emily A Oliver, Patricia B Reagan, Jonathan L Slaughter, Catalin S Buhimschi, Irina A Buhimschi
Objective To evaluate current patterns in empiric antibiotic use for early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study of newborns admitted on postnatal day 0 to 1 and discharged from NICUs participating in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS 2006-2013). Analyses included frequency of antibiotic initiation within 3 days of birth, duration of first course, and variation among hospitals. Results Of 158,907 newborns, 118,624 (74.7%) received antibiotics on or before postnatal day 3...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906195/congenital-hypothyroidism-with-delayed-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-elevation-in-premature-infants-born-at-less-than-30-weeks-gestation
#11
D C Kaluarachchi, T T Colaizy, L M Pesce, M Tansey, J M Klein
OBJECTIVE: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with delayed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) elevation is a common form of thyroid dysfunction among premature infants. Routine newborn screening (NBS) may miss infants with CH with delayed TSH elevation. The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of CH with delayed TSH elevation in premature infants and to identify associated risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of serum thyroid function screening (TFS) at day of life 30 in premature infants <30 weeks gestation, admitted to University of Iowa Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2015...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882741/bacteremia-induced-by-bifidobacterium-breve-in-a-newborn-with-cloacal-exstrophy
#12
Shinichi Sato, Toshihiko Uchida, Shota Kuwana, Kazuto Sasaki, Tatsuya Watanabe, Junko Saito, Takahiro Kawaji
Bifidobacterium breve is an effective probiotic agent used in the field of neonatology. Although B. breve has been considered safe, a case of B. breve bacteremia has been reported. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the bacteremia is unknown. Herein, we report a second case of B. breve bacteremia that developed in a neonate with multiple abdominal organ anomalies. Following surgical repair immediately after birth, B. breve treatment was started. After 1 week, the infant developed B. breve bacteremia following the onset of adhesive ileus...
November 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852818/parents-acute-illnesses-hospitalizations-and-medication-changes-during-the-difficult-first-year-after-infant-or-child-nicu-picu-death
#13
Dorothy Brooten, JoAnne M Youngblut, Carmen Caicedo, Teresa Del Moral, G Patricia Cantwell, Balagangadhar Totapally
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infant/child death is described as a most stressful life event; however, there are few reports of effects on parent physical health during the first year after the death. The study's purpose is to examine the patterns of parent acute illnesses, hospitalizations, and medication changes over 1 to 13 months after neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) infant/child death in 3 racial/ethnic groups. METHODS: Secondary analyses were conducted with longitudinal data on parent health and functioning 1 to 13 months after infant/child NICU/PICU death...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820879/heparin-for-the-treatment-of-thrombosis-in-neonates
#14
REVIEW
Olga Romantsik, Matteo Bruschettini, Simona Zappettini, Luca Antonio Ramenghi, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Among pediatric patients, newborns are at highest risk of developing thromboembolism. Neonatal thromboembolic (TE) events may consist of both venous and arterial thromboses and often iatrogenic complications (eg, central catheterization). Treatment guidelines for pediatric patients with TE events most often are extrapolated from the literature regarding adults. Options for the management of neonatal TE events include expectant management; nitroglycerin ointment; thrombolytic therapy or anticoagulant therapy, or a combination of the two; and surgery...
7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816865/low-dose-thimerosal-in-pediatric-vaccines-adverse-effects-in-perspective
#15
REVIEW
José G Dórea
Vaccines are prophylactics used as the first line of intervention to prevent, control and eradicate infectious diseases. Young children (before the age of six months) are the demographic group most exposed to recommended/mandatory vaccines preserved with Thimerosal and its metabolite ethylmercury (EtHg). Particularly in the less-developed countries, newborns, neonates, and young children are exposed to EtHg because it is still in several of their pediatric vaccines and mothers are often immunized with Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) during pregnancy...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795756/early-growth-in-preterm-infants-after-hospital-discharge-in-rural-kenya-longitudinal-study
#16
Diana Mawia Sammy, Margaret Njambi Chege, Jennifer Oyieke
INTRODUCTION: Prematurity is the single most important cause of mortality during the neonatal period. The early growth of these infants has been shown to be a predictor of their later growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The objective of this study was to establish the determinants of early growth in preterm infants after hospital discharge at the Kitui District Hospital, Kenya. METHODS: A short longitudinal study design was adopted to execute the study. During the period of April and June 2014, all the preterm infants who were discharged from the Kitui District Hospital Newborn Unit were enrolled in the study by obtaining written informed consent from their guardians...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770527/role-of-viral-pathogens-in-infants-with-systemic-infection-at-the-newborn-intensive-care-units-in-georgia
#17
M Kochlamazashvili, Kh Khatiashvili, M Butsashvili, O Chubinishvili, Sh Khetsuriani, G Kamkamidze
In Georgia, causative agents among infants with systemic infections are generally not identified and "neonatal sepsis" is usually diagnosed and treated without determining the etiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of viral pathogens (Herpesviridae and Enteroviruses) among neonates with generalized infections. A cross-sectional study was performed among neonates younger than <8 weeks admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the two largest pediatric hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749513/the-utility-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-in-pediatric-cardiology-a-review
#18
Ana L Neves, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, Adelino Leite-Moreira, José C Areias
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to evaluate the clinical utility of brain natriuretic peptide in pediatric patients, examining the diagnostic value, management, and prognostic relevance, by critical assessment of the literature. DATA SOURCES: In December 2015, a literature search was performed (PubMed access to MEDLINE citations; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/) and included these Medical Subject Headings and text terms for the key words: "brain natriuretic peptide," "amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide," "children," "neonate/s," "newborn/s," "infant/s," and "echocardiography...
November 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723956/antenatal-smoking-and-substance-misuse-infant-and-newborn-response-to-hypoxia
#19
Kamal Ali, Thomas Rosser, Ravindra Bhat, Kim Wolff, Simon Hannam, Gerrard F Rafferty, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To determine at the peak age for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the ventilatory response to hypoxia of infants whose mothers substance misused in pregnancy (SM infants), or smoked during pregnancy (S mothers) and controls whose mothers neither substance misused or smoked. In addition, we compared the ventilatory response to hypoxia during the neonatal period and peak age of SIDS. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: Infants of S or SM mothers compared to control infants would have a poorer ventilatory response to hypoxia at the peak age of SIDS...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703821/external-otitis-an-unusual-presentation-in-neonates
#20
Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri, Shima Rostami, Manelie Sadeghi
Acute otitis externa (AOE) is an infection of the external auditory canal, the auricle, and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane. Although AOE is one of the most common otologic conditions encountered in pediatric population, it is known to primarily affect children older than 2 years. We report a case of AOE caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a 23-day-old neonate. A 23-day-old female infant presented to our neonatology clinic with irritability and discharge from the right ear. There were yellow otorrhea, mild erythema, and edema of right external ear canal...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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