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Pediatric, newborn, neonate? Infant

Ana L Neves, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, Adelino Leite-Moreira, José C Areias
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to evaluate the clinical utility of brain natriuretic peptide in pediatric patients, examining the diagnostic value, management, and prognostic relevance, by critical assessment of the literature. DATA SOURCES: In December 2015, a literature search was performed (PubMed access to MEDLINE citations; and included these Medical Subject Headings and text terms for the key words: "brain natriuretic peptide," "amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide," "children," "neonate/s," "newborn/s," "infant/s," and "echocardiography...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Kamal Ali, Thomas Rosser, Ravindra Bhat, Kim Wolff, Simon Hannam, Gerrard F Rafferty, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To determine at the peak age for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the ventilatory response to hypoxia of infants whose mothers substance misused in pregnancy (SM infants), or smoked during pregnancy (S mothers) and controls whose mothers neither substance misused or smoked. In addition, we compared the ventilatory response to hypoxia during the neonatal period and peak age of SIDS. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: Infants of S or SM mothers compared to control infants would have a poorer ventilatory response to hypoxia at the peak age of SIDS...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri, Shima Rostami, Manelie Sadeghi
Acute otitis externa (AOE) is an infection of the external auditory canal, the auricle, and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane. Although AOE is one of the most common otologic conditions encountered in pediatric population, it is known to primarily affect children older than 2 years. We report a case of AOE caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a 23-day-old neonate. A 23-day-old female infant presented to our neonatology clinic with irritability and discharge from the right ear. There were yellow otorrhea, mild erythema, and edema of right external ear canal...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Donatella Bagagiolo, Alessia Didio, Marco Sbarbaro, Claudio Giuseppe Priolo, Tiziana Borro, Daniele Farina
Osteopathic medicine is a form of complementary and alternative medicine. Osteopathic practitioners treat patients of all ages: according to the Osteopathic International Alliance's 2012 survey, about one-third of all treated patients are aged between 31 and 50 years and nearly a quarter (23.4%) are pediatric patients, with 8.7% of them being younger than 2 years. In 2013 a systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in pediatric patients with different underlying disorders, but due to the paucity and low methodological quality of the primary studies the results were inconclusive...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Bianca Karber, Lenore Omesi, Sunny Chang, Andrew Handel, Monica Hegedus, Echezona Maduekwe
Congenital ascites is rare, but when it occurs, urinary ascites secondary to posterior urethral valve obstruction is the most common, and tumors are the least. Among the tumors in the pediatric population, the central nervous system tumors are common, but spinal cord tumors are rare. We describe a very rare case of congenital malignant spinal cord glioma presenting as isolated congenital ascites secondary to neurogenic bladder. A female infant was diagnosed sonographically with isolated congenital ascites at 40 weeks' gestational age, with uneventful development prior to 40 weeks' gestational age...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Ali Seven, Emine Esin Yalinbas, Rahmi Ozdemir
Absent pulmonary valve syndrome (APVS) is a rare congenital heart disease with severe pulmonary insufficiency, characterized with aneurysmal dilation in the pulmonary artery and one or both of its branches. We presented a rare case with APVS and literature review in this letter. Prenatal USG examination of the fetus at the 26th week of gestation revealed severe polyhydramnios, dilatation at right ventricle, and abnormal appearance of the heart. At the 31st gestational week, the baby was born with cesarean section...
2016: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hiroyuki Kitajima, Shinya Hirano
BACKGROUND: Since 1982, viable cells of Bifidobacterium breve, BBG-01, have been used in clinical conditions in pediatric patients such as intractable infantile diarrhea, preterm infants, and pediatric surgical patients. Although the efficacy of BBG-01 has been widely reported, adverse events related to the use of BBG-01 have been reported in very few cases. METHODS: In order to trace adverse events seen by 109 doctors in 88 medical institutions where BBG-01 was used, a questionnaire survey of the number of occurrences and details of each case was conducted...
August 18, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Colleen Psarros, Sarah Love
Newborn hearing screening has led to the early diagnosis of hearing loss in neonates and early device fitting is common, based primarily on electrophysiologic and radiologic information, with some supplementary behavioral measures. Such early fitting of hearing devices, in particular cochlear implants (CIs), has been beneficial to the majority of children implanted under the age of 12 months who meet the cochlear implant candidacy criteria. Comorbidities are common in children with hearing loss, although they may not be evident in neonates and may not emerge until later in infants...
August 2016: Seminars in Hearing
Claudia Reinheimer, Volkhard A J Kempf, Boris E Wittekindt, Antje Allendorf, Thomas A Wichelhaus, Michael Hogardt, Rolf L Schlößer, Doris Fischer
BACKGROUND: Infections by group B streptococci (GBS), e.g. Streptococcus agalactiae, presenting as early-onset disease (EOD) or late-onset disease (LOD), are leading causes of severe infections in newborn and premature patients. Although screening and intra partum antibiotic prophylaxis are frequently performed, vertically transmitted GBS remain a challenge for pediatrics. AIMS: In order to prevent or reduce potential life-threatening events, this study retrospectively investigated epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of infants admitted to the Division of Neonatology at the Department of Pediatrics at the University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany (UHF)...
July 29, 2016: Early Human Development
A E Njom Nlend, C Zeudja, S Ndiang, A Nga Motaze, L Ngassam, L Nsoa
OBJECTIVE: To measure the mortality rate and the survival of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants at two given periods. METHOD: Descriptive retrospective study. Data were extracted from activity reports and pediatric registries during the years 1998, 1999, and 2004 for the first period and from 2010 to 2013 from the second period. This population study comprised all VLBW infants admitted to the unit weighing <1500g irrespective of gestational age. The main outcome measurement was the percentage of VLBW infants discharged alive during each period...
September 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Kelly Mercier, Susan McRitchie, Wimal Pathmasiri, Andrew Novokhatny, Rajesh Koralkar, David Askenazi, Patrick D Brophy, Susan Sumner
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) staging has been developed in the adult and pediatric populations, but these do not yet exist for the neonatal population. Metabolomics was utilized to uncover biomarkers of normal and AKI-associated renal function in preterm infants. The study comprised 20 preterm infants with an AKI diagnosis who were matched by gestational age and gender to 20 infants without an AKI diagnosis. METHODS: Urine samples from pre-term newborn infants collected on day 2 of life were analyzed using broad-spectrum nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics...
July 19, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Tracey L Lutz, Elizabeth J Elliott, Heather E Jeffery
BACKGROUND: The incidence of sudden unexpected early neonatal death (SUEND) or acute life-threatening events (ALTEs) is reported as 0.05/1,000 to 0.38/1,000 live births. There is currently no national system in Australia for reporting and investigating such cases. METHODS: A 3-y prospective, national surveillance study, run in collaboration with the Australian Pediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU). Data were provided by pediatricians reporting to APSU; and independently ascertained by the Coroner in two states (NSW and QLD) and the Newborn Early Transport Network in NSW...
October 2016: Pediatric Research
Mostafa Sedighi, Farzaneh Asadi, Nasrin Moradian, Mazyar Vakiliamini, Mohamad Moradian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam (LEV) in the management of seizures in neonates. METHODS: A prospective non-blind, single arm clinical trial conducted in the Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, Mohamad Kermanshahi, and Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran from May 2014 to December 2014. Fifty out of 60 newborns with gestational age >/=30 weeks with clinically diagnosed seizures were included...
July 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Ravi Goyal, Dipali Goyal, Lawrence D Longo, Ronald I Clyman
BACKGROUND: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the newborn is the most common congenital heart anomaly and is significantly more common in preterm infants. Contemporary pharmacological treatment is effective in only 70-80% of the cases. Moreover, indomethacin or ibuprofen, which are used to close a PDA may be accompanied by serious side effects in premature infants. To explore the novel molecular pathways, which may be involved in the maturation and closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA), we used fetal and neonatal sheep to test the hypothesis that maturational development of DA is associated with significant alterations in specific mRNA expression...
October 2016: Pediatric Research
Jason Fawley, Thomas H Chelius, Yvonne Anderson, Laura D Cassidy, Marjorie J Arca
BACKGROUND: Adult data suggest that perioperative transfusion may have deleterious effects through immunomodulation. Limited data regarding the effect of transfusions exist in the pediatric population. We hypothesized that perioperative transfusions may be associated with surgical site infections (SSI) in newborns. METHODS: The 2012 and 2013 American College of Surgeons National Safety and Quality Improvement Project-Pediatric (ACS-NSQIP-P) Participant User Files were queried to include all neonates that underwent surgical procedures...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Cristiane Ribeiro Ambrósio, Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida, Ruth Guinsburg
OBJECTIVE: To describe the opinions of pediatricians who teach resuscitation in Brazil on initiating and limiting the delivery room resuscitation of extremely preterm infants. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with electronic questionnaire (Dec/2011-Sep/2013) sent to pediatricians who are instructors of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program of the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics, containing three hypothetical clinical cases: (1) decision to start the delivery room resuscitation; (2) limitation of neonatal intensive care after delivery room resuscitation; (3) limitation of advanced resuscitation in the delivery room...
May 31, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Mansour Sadeghzadeh, Parisa Khoshnevisasl, Mehdi Parvaneh, Noreddin Mousavinasab
OBJECTIVE: Premature birth is an important factor for mortality and morbidity of neonates. This study was designed to evaluate the outcome of preterm neonates who needed neonatal intensive care (NICU) hospitalization after 6 yr at their entrance to the school. MATERIALS & METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted on premature neonates consecutively hospitalized in NICU of Valie Asr Hospital (the Academic Pediatric Hospital, Zanjan, Northwestern Iran) from September 2001 to September 2003...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Alison Volpe Holmes, Emily C Atwood, Bonny Whalen, Johanna Beliveau, J Dean Jarvis, John C Matulis, Shawn L Ralston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The incidence and associated costs of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have recently risen sharply; newborns with NAS occupy 4% of NICU beds. We implemented a coordinated program for NAS including standardized protocols for scoring, medications and weaning, and a calm rooming-in environment, to improve family-centered care and to decrease both length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs. METHODS: In early 2013, a multidisciplinary quality improvement team began consecutive plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Cristiane Ribeiro Ambrósio, Adriana Sanudo, Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida, Ruth Guinsburg
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to examine the decisions of pediatricians who teach neonatal resuscitation in Brazil, particularly those who start resuscitation in the delivery room for newborns born at 23-26 gestational weeks. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional study that used electronic questionnaires (Dec/11-Sep/13) sent to instructors of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program of the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. The primary outcome was the gestational age at which the respondent said that he/she would initiate positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room...
April 2016: Clinics
Matteo Bruschettini, Olga Romantsik, Simona Zappettini, Rita Banzi, Luca Antonio Ramenghi, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth remains the major risk factor for the development of intraventricular haemorrhage, an injury that occurs in 25% of very low birth weight infants. Intraventricular haemorrhage is thought to be venous in origin and intrinsic thromboses in the germinal matrix are likely to play a triggering role. Heparin activates antithrombin and promotes the inactivation of thrombin and other target proteinases. The administration of anticoagulants such as heparin may offset the increased risk of developing intraventricular haemorrhage and may also reduce the risk of developing parenchymal venous infarct, a condition known to complicate intraventricular haemorrhage...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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