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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324674/osteoblast-osteoclast-interactions
#1
Xiao Chen, Zhongqiu Wang, Na Duan, Guoying Zhu, Edward M Schwarz, Chao Xie
Bone homeostasis depends on the resorption of bones by osteoclasts and formation of bones by the osteoblasts. Imbalance of this tightly coupled process can cause diseases such as osteoporosis. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts are critical to bone cell biology. It has been shown that osteoblasts and osteoclasts can communicate with each other through direct cell-cell contact, cytokines, and extracellular matrix interaction. Osteoblasts can affect osteoclast formation, differentiation, or apoptosis through several pathways, such as OPG/RANKL/RANK, RANKL/LGR4/RANK, Ephrin2/ephB4, and Fas/FasL pathways...
February 8, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324113/microrna-expression-patterns-involved-in-amyloid-beta-induced-retinal-degeneration
#2
Peirong Huang, Junran Sun, Fenghua Wang, Xueting Luo, Jingyang Feng, Qing Gu, Te Liu, Xiaodong Sun
Purpose: Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the accumulation of drusen under Bruch's membrane, and amyloid beta (Aβ) is speculated to be one of the key pathologic factors. While the detrimental effects of Aβ on retinas have been widely explored, Aβ-induced epigenetic regulatory changes have yet to be fully investigated. We therefore aimed to identify the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in an Aβ-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were intravitreally injected with Aβ1-40 or PBS and the eye tissues were collected for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, apoptosis immunofluorescence staining, and miRNA profiling...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324055/substrate-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-during-fasting-in-obese-human-subjects-impact-of-gh-blockade
#3
Morten Høgild Pedersen, Mads Vandsted Svart, Janne Lebeck, Martin Bidlingmaier, Hans Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen, Niels Møller, Niels Jessen, Jens O L Jørgensen
Context: Insulin resistance and metabolic inflexibility are features of obesity and are amplified by fasting. GH secretion increases during fasting and GH causes insulin resistance. Objective: To study the metabolic effects of GH blockade during fasting in obese subjects. Subjects and Methods: Nine obese males were studied thrice in a randomized design: 1) After an overnight fast (Control), 2) After 72 h fasting (Fasting) and 3) After 72 h fasting with GH blockade (pegvisomant) (Fasting + GHA)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324020/paracrine-pathways-in-uterine-leiomyoma-stem-cells-involve-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-and-insulin-receptor-a
#4
Molly B Moravek, Ping Yin, John S Coon V, Masanori Ono, Stacy A Druschitz, Saurabh S Malpani, Matthew T Dyson, Alfred W Rademaker, Jared C Robins, Jian-Jun Wei, J Julie Kim, Serdar E Bulun
Context: Uterine leiomyoma (fibroids) are the most common benign tumor in women. Recently, three populations of leiomyoma cells were discovered based on CD34 and CD49b expression, but the molecular differences between these populations remain unknown. Objective: Define differential gene expression and signaling pathways in leiomyoma cell populations. Design: Cells from human leiomyoma were sorted by flow cytometry into three populations: CD34+/CD49b+, CD34+/CD49b-, and CD34-/CD49b-...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323965/long-acting-ctp-modified-hgh-mod-4023-results-of-a-safety-and-dose-finding-study-in-ghd-children
#5
Nataliya Zelinska, Violeta Iotova, Julia Skorodok, Oleg Malievsky, Valentina Peterkova, Lubov Samsonova, Ron G Rosenfeld, Zvi Zadik, Michal Jaron-Mendelson, Ronit Koren, Leanne Amitzi, Dmitri Raduk, Oren Hershkovitz, Gili Hart
Context: Daily injections are required for growth hormone replacement therapy, which may cause low compliance as a result of inconvenience and distress in patients. Objective: CTP-modified human growth hormone (MOD-4023) is developed for once-a-week dosing regimen in GH-deficient (GHD) adults and children. The present trial was a safety and dose-finding study for weekly MOD-4023 in GHD children. Design: a multi-center, open-label, randomized, controlled Phase 2 study in children with GHD, evaluating the safety, tolerability, PK/PD and efficacy of 3 different weekly MOD-4023 doses, compared to daily r-hGH...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323955/rapid-onset-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-following-sglt2-inhibition-in-a-patient-with-unrecognized-acromegaly
#6
Marino Quarella, Daniel Walser, Michael Brändle, Jean-Yves Fournier, Stefan Bilz
Context: Diabetic ketoacidosis has been described as a rare complication of acromegaly and may be observed in 1% of affected patients. The well described direct lipolytic effect of growth hormone results in increased availability of free fatty acids (FFA) for hepatic ketogenesis and is an important pathogenic event. More recently, ketoacidosis has been identified as an important complication of sodium-glucose-transport-protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i). Increased pancreatic glucagon secretion, impaired renal ketone body clearance and an increase in FFA concentrations secondary to decreased insulin concentrations are likely precipitating factors...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323915/insulin-igf-1-and-gh-receptors-are-altered-in-an-adipose-tissue-depot-specific-manner-in-male-mice-with-modified-gh-action
#7
Rikke Hjortebjerg, Darlene E Berryman, Ross Comisford, Stuart J Frank, Edward O List, Mette Bjerre, Jan Frystyk, John J Kopchick
Growth hormone (GH) is an important determinant of glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue (AT) function. Using seven-month-old bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice and GH receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice, we examined whether changes in GH action affect glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance and AT expression patterns of proteins involved in the interrelated signaling pathways of GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Furthermore, we searched for AT depot-specific differences in control mice that may explain why GH effects depend on AT location...
February 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318464/effects-of-a-dietary-crude-fibre-concentrate-on-growth-in-weaned-piglets
#8
P Superchi, R Saleri, P Borghetti, G Ferrarini, V Cavalli, M Sereni, S Zavattini, A Sabbioni
Many fibre sources can help the adaptation of piglets at weaning, improving the growth. In this study, the effects of a dietary crude fibre concentrate (CFC) on piglet's growth was investigated. From 31 to 51 days of age, 108 weaned piglets (D×(Lw×L)), had access to two isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets, supplemented with 1% of CFC (CFC group) or not (control (CON) group). From days 52 to 64 all piglets received the same starter diet. During the dietary treatment period the CFC group showed higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency (P<0...
March 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317235/astrocyte-specific-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-transfer-in-aging-female-rats-improves-stroke-outcomes
#9
Andre K Okoreeh, Shameena Bake, Farida Sohrabji
Middle aged female rats sustain larger stroke infarction and disability than younger female rats. This older group also shows age-related reduction of insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 in serum and in astrocytes, a cell type necessary for poststroke recovery. To determine the impact of astrocytic IGF-1 for ischemic stroke, these studies tested the hypothesis that gene transfer of IGF-1 to astrocytes will improve stroke outcomes in middle aged female rats. Middle aged (10-12 month old), acyclic female rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) packaged with the coding sequence of the human (h)IGF-1 gene downstream of an astrocyte-specific promoter glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (AAV5-GFP-hIGF-1) into the striatum and cortex...
March 20, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316158/-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-octreotide-long-acting-release-and-lanreotide-slow-release-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-patients-with-active-acromegaly-in-china
#10
J W Xuan, Z Y Zhang, Y F Wang, Z G Mao, Y J Lu, R Z Wang
Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of octreotide long acting release (LAR) vs lanreotide slow release (SR) for the treatment of postoperative acromegalic patients with elevated levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in China. Methods: A decision tree model was constructed and the treatment impact was projected for one year in Chinese setting. The clinical efficacy measure used was the percentage of patients achieving normalization (control) of either IGF-1 or GH levels...
March 14, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316090/impaired-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-treated-acromegaly-despite-long-term-biochemically-stable-disease-results-from-a-5-year-prospective-study
#11
Nikolaos Kyriakakis, Julie Lynch, Stephen G Gilbey, Susan M Webb, Robert D Murray
OBJECTIVE: Patients with acromegaly demonstrate impaired quality of life (QoL), but data on long-term QoL changes in treated acromegaly are limited. This study evaluates and identifies factors that influence QoL in patients with long-term biochemical remission. DESIGN: The study consists of a cross-sectional arm comparing QoL between patients with treated and controlled acromegaly and healthy controls; and a longitudinal arm assessing QoL changes in patients with biochemically stable disease during 5...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316059/prevention-of-tumour-cell-apoptosis-associated-with-sustained-protein-kinase-b-phosphorylation-is-more-sensitive-to-regulation-by-insulin-signalling-than-stimulation-of-proliferation-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase
#12
Christoph Schmid, Claudia Ghirlanda, Markus Niessen
Insulin controls blood glucose while insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 is an important growth factor. Interestingly, both hormones have overlapping bioactivities and can activate the same intracellular signal transduction cascades. Growth control (mainly by IGF1) and metabolic function (predominantly by insulin) are believed to depend on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), respectively. Therefore, insulin analogues that are used to normalize blood glucose are tested for their ability to preferentially activate Akt/PKB but not ERK1/2 and mitogenesis...
March 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315973/stem-cell-factor-kit-signal-insufficiency-contributes-to-hypoxia-induced-intestinal-motility-dysfunctions-in-neonatal-mice
#13
Hong Ren, Juan Han, Zhifang Li, Zhiyong Xiong
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders represent a group of problems that more constantly encountered in preterm infants. However, whether hypoxia exposure contributes to the GI dysfunctions is still unclear. METHODS: Newborn mice were exposed to hypoxia (10%) from P1 to P7. Intestinal motilities were examined by a strain gauge transducer. The proliferation of ICCs was detected by using immunostaining for BrdU, Ki67, Kit, Ano1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R+)...
March 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315335/microrna-99a-inhibits-insulin-induced-proliferation-migration-dedifferentiation-and-rapamycin-resistance-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-inhibiting-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-and-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin
#14
Zi-Wei Zhang, Rui-Wei Guo, Jin-Lin Lv, Xian-Mei Wang, Jin-Shan Ye, Ni-Hong Lu, Xing Liang, Li-Xia Yang
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by insulin resistance and are subsequently at high risk for atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia has been associated with proliferation, migration, and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Moreover, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been demonstrated to be the underlying signaling pathways. Recently, microRNA-99a (miR-99a) has been suggested to regulate the phenotypic changes of VSMCs in cancer cells...
March 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315227/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-gene-polymorphism-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#15
Danylo Rafhael Costa-Silva, Maria da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Rafael Soares Borges, Larysse Maira Campos-Verdes, João Paulo da Silva-Sampaio, Carla Solange Escorcio-Dourado, Luana Mota Martins, Airlane Pereira Alencar, Edmund Chada Baracat, Vladimir Costa Silva, Benedito Borges da Silva
Breast cancer is a disease of unknown etiology; however, the major risk factors are genetic alterations. Studies have demonstrated an association between insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene polymorphism and cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in addition to its role in breast cancer growth and aggressiveness. Two polymorphic variants of the IGF-1 gene are highlighted in association with breast cancer, rs6220 and rs7136446, although controversy exists as to this relationship. The current study included 137 women (68 breast cancer cases and 69 controls without breast cancer) who had 3 ml of peripheral blood drawn for the study of genomic DNA extracted from leukocytes using the genotyping technique by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306165/is-gh-dosing-optimal-in-female-patients-with-adult-onset-gh-deficiency-an-analysis-from-the-nordinet-%C3%A2-international-outcome-study
#16
Charlotte Höybye, Matthias M Weber, Effie Pournara, Birgitte Tønnes Pedersen, Beverly M K Biller
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gender differences in GH dosing, IGF-I and cardiovascular risk markers in adults with GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: NordiNet(®) International Outcome Study (NCT00960128), a non-interventional, multicentre study, evaluates the long-term effectiveness and safety of Norditropin(®) (Novo Nordisk A/S) in the real-life clinical setting. PATIENTS: Non-diabetic patients (n=252; 41.7% female) with adult-onset GHD (age ≥20 years at GH start), ≥4 years' GH therapy, and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) data at baseline and 4 years...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302957/relationship-between-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-umbilical-cord-plasma-and-birth-weight-follows-a-u-shaped-curve
#17
Junji Takaya, Yuko Tanabe, Yuichi Kuroyanagi, Kazunari Kaneko
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. NO regulates placental blood flow, which plays an important role in fetal growth. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that restricted fetal growth is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We studied the relationship between ADMA in cord blood and birth size. Nine small for gestational age (SGA) and 32 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were studied...
March 7, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302721/involvement-of-notch1-signaling-in-malignant-progression-of-a549-cells-subjected-to-prolonged-cadmium-exposure
#18
Kota Fujiki, Hisako Inamura, Takamitsu Miyayama, Masato Matsuoka
Cadmium exposure is known to increase lung cancer risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms in cadmium-stimulated progression of malignancy are unclear. Here, we examined the effects of prolonged cadmium exposure on the malignant progression of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and the roles of Notch1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-α), and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R)/Akt/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) signaling pathways. Exposing A549 cells to 10 or 20 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 9-15 weeks induced a high proliferative potential, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stress fiber formation, high cell motility, and resistance to anti-tumor drugs...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302205/-value-of-nutritional-risk-screening-in-evaluating-adverse-clinical-outcomes-in-children-with-severe-pneumonia
#19
Xiao-Hui Guo, Yan-Feng Sun, Jiang-Bo Wang, Shu-Zhen Han, Jing Miao, Min Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nutritional risk in children with severe pneumonia using the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP) and the association between nutritional risk and adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: According to the STAMP score, 216 children with severe pneumonia were classified into high nutritional risk group (HR group; n=98), moderate nutritional risk group (MR group; n=65), and low nutritional risk group (LR group; n=53)...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301320/analysis-of-growth-hormone-receptor-gene-expression-in-tall-and-short-stature-children
#20
Sara Pagani, Giorgio Radetti, Cristina Meazza, Mauro Bozzola
BACKGROUND: The majority of children who present for evaluation of tall stature fall under the diagnosis of constitutional tall stature (CTS). METHODS: To investigate mechanisms of tall stature, we evaluated serum IGF-I values and the expression of the GHR gene in the peripheral blood cells of 46 subjects with normal height, 38 with tall stature and 30 healthy children with short stature. RESULTS: Our results showed significantly lower IGF-I levels in children with short stature (-0...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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