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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667499/breaking-the-silence-and-other-prevention-lessons-from-the-opioid-epidemic
#1
Paul E Terry
The goal of this editorial is to equip readers with opioid education resources that enable you to role model what it looks like to speak out about addiction. How are we doing as a profession speaking up about addiction? Stigma is commanded by a deep irony: where peer pressure is what likely keeps us quiet, peer support is what enables us to speak up. The "#MeToo" movement is an extraordinary example of the inertia needed to break open a taboo topic. From Hollywood celebrities to US women's gymnastics stars, it was clear that as more women spoke up about sexual harassment, well, the more women spoke out...
May 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667437/transdermal-buprenorphine-for-moderate-chronic-noncancer-pain-syndromes
#2
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Flaminia Coluzzi, Robert Taylor
Chronic noncancer pain has remained a challenging clinical problem. Opioid analgesics are effective, but they are known to be associated with opioid use disorder and potentially treatment-limiting side effects. Buprenorphine is a Schedule III synthetic opioid in the USA with a chemical structure similar to that of morphine but with a longer duration of action, greater potency, and other unique pharmacological attributes. Its role in treatment of chronic noncancer pain may be broader than currently thought. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of transdermal buprenorphine in moderate chronic noncancer pain syndromes patients will be discussed...
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664203/trends-and-patterns-of-opioid-analgesic-prescribing-regional-and-rural-urban-variations-in-kentucky-from-2012-to-2015
#3
Huong Luu, Svetla Slavova, Patricia R Freeman, Michelle Lofwall, Steven Browning, Heather Bush
PURPOSE: Increased opioid analgesic prescribing (OAP) has been associated with increased risk of prescription opioid diversion, misuse, and abuse. We studied regional and rural-urban variations in OAP trends in Kentucky, from 2012 to 2015, and examined potential county-level risk and protective factors. METHODS: This study used prescription drug monitoring data. Marginal models employing generalized estimating equations were used to model repeated counts of residents with opioid analgesic prescriptions within county-quarter, 2012-2015, with offset for resident population, by rural-urban classification exposure, and adjusting for time-varying socioeconomic and relevant health status measures...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652682/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-a-case-report-of-overdose-and-management-of-withdrawal
#4
Jack Diep, David Tian Chin, Somdatta Gupta, Faraz Syed, Ming Xiong, Jianguo Cheng
Kratom is an herb indigenous to Southeast Asia with psychoactive opioid compounds, often used as a treatment for chronic pain or opiate withdrawal symptoms. It is legally and readily available via Internet sales and has been identified as an emerging drug of abuse in the United States. Kratom use has been associated with psychosis, seizures, and even death. At lower doses, kratom acts as a stimulant, while at higher doses, it produces analgesia and euphoria. Here, we describe the successful management of kratom overdose and withdrawal in a young man with negative toxicology screens...
April 15, 2018: A&A practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651781/abuse-deterrent-opioid-formulations-a-key-ingredient-in-the-recipe-to-prevent-opioid-disasters
#5
Aaron J Salwan, Nicholas E Hagemeier, Sam Harirforoosh
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is encouraging the innovation of long-acting opioid formulations that are manipulation-resistant. The purpose of this commentary is to assess the benefits and limitations of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations (ADFs) and discuss their role in mitigating the current opioid epidemic. ADFs have been created with chemical properties that make it difficult for people who non-medically use prescription drugs to crush and dissolve opioid tablets, as well as by combining opioids with antagonists such as naloxone or naltrexone, which are released only when the dosage form has been manipulated or the drug is taken by a non-intended route...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649695/doctor-shopping-of-opioid-analgesics-relative-to-benzodiazepines-a-pharmacoepidemiological-study-among-11-7-million-inhabitants-in-the-french-countries
#6
Camille Ponté, Marion Lepelley, Quentin Boucherie, Michel Mallaret, Maryse Lapeyre Mestre, Vincent Pradel, Joëlle Micallef
BACKGROUND: The abuse of prescription opioids and its subsequent consequences is an important public concern particularly in the USA. The literature on opioid analgesic abuse is scarce. OBJECTIVE: We assess the extent and risk of opioid analgesics abuse relative to benzodiazepines (BZD) using the doctor shopping method, taken into account the pharmacological characteristics (dosage, route of administration, extended or immediate release). METHODS: We used SNIIRAM database covering 11...
April 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645083/polypharmacy-and-patterns-of-prescription-medication-use-among-cancer-survivors
#7
Caitlin C Murphy, Hannah M Fullington, Carlos A Alvarez, Andrea C Betts, Simon J Craddock Lee, David A Haggstrom, Ethan A Halm
BACKGROUND: The population of cancer survivors is rapidly growing in the United States. Long-term and late effects of cancer, combined with the ongoing management of other chronic conditions, make survivors particularly vulnerable to polypharmacy and its adverse effects. In the current study, the authors examined patterns of prescription medication use and polypharmacy in a population-based sample of cancer survivors. METHODS: Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), the authors matched cancer survivors (5216 survivors) with noncancer controls (19,588 controls) by age, sex, and survey year...
April 12, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644109/morphine-alcohol-treatment-impairs-cognitive-functions-and-increases-neuro-inflammatory-responses-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-male-rats
#8
Adekomi Damilare Adedayo, Adegoke Adebiyi Aderinola, Tijani Ahmad Adekilekun, Olaniyan Olayinka Olaolu, Alabi Mutiyat Olanike, Ijomone Kafilat Olayemi
In the developed and developing world, opioid consumption in combination with alcohol has become one of the substances abused. In this experiment, we examined the effects of alcohol, morphine, and morphine+alcohol combination on cognitive functions and neuroinflammatory responses in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile male rats. Alcohol (1.0 ml of 15% v/v ethanol twice daily, subcutaneously, 7 hours apart), morphine (0.5 ml/kg of 0.4 mg/kg morphine chlorate twice daily, subcutaneously, 7 hours apart), morphine+alcohol co-treatment (0...
March 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626143/opioid-analgesia-on-the-battlefield-a-retrospective-review-of-data-from-operation-herrick
#9
Pip Lewis, C Wright, C Hooper
BACKGROUND: Acute pain secondary to trauma is commonly encountered on the battlefield. The use of morphine to manage pain during combat has been well established since the 19th century. Despite this, there is relatively little research on analgesia use in this environment. This study aims to review the use and complications of morphine and other opioids during Operation HERRICK. METHODS: A database search of the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was completed looking for all incidences of morphine, fentanyl or naloxone use from February 2007 to September 2014...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623667/a-review-of-the-opioid-epidemic-what-do-we-do-about-it
#10
REVIEW
Edward A Shipton, Elspeth E Shipton, Ashleigh J Shipton
The opioid epidemic, with its noticeable increase in opioid prescriptions and related misuse, abuse and resultant deaths in the previous 12 years, is a particularly North American phenomenon. Europe, and particularly low- and middle-income countries, appear to be less influenced by this problem. There is undisputable value in using opioids not only in the treatment of acute pain, but in cancer pain as well. However, opioids are progressively being prescribed more and more for chronic non-cancer pain, despite inadequate data on their efficacy...
April 6, 2018: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623654/tapentadol-extended-release-in-the-treatment-of-severe-chronic-low-back-pain-and-osteoarthritis-pain
#11
REVIEW
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Robert Taylor, Jo Ann LeQuang, Robert B Raffa, John Bisney
Tapentadol is a novel pain reliever with apparently synergistic dual mechanisms of action, capable of addressing both nociceptive and neuropathic components of chronic pain. As an effective analgesic with good tolerability, tapentadol may be appropriate for patients suffering from severe chronic pain associated with low back pain (LBP) or osteoarthritis (OA). Efficacy studies of tapentadol in populations of patients with severe chronic LBP or OA pain suggest that tapentadol is non-inferior to oxycodone. Its tolerability, especially with respect to gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, may be better than that of other strong opioids in clinical trials and analyses of multiple trials...
April 5, 2018: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623639/pharmacogenetics-of-opioid-use-disorder-treatment
#12
Richard C Crist, Toni-Kim Clarke, Wade H Berrettini
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant health problem in the United States and many other countries. A combination of issues, most notably increased prescription of opioid analgesics, has resulted in climbing rates of opioid abuse and overdose over the last decade. This ongoing epidemic has produced a growing population of patients requiring treatment for OUD. Medications such as methadone and buprenorphine have well documented success rates in treating the disorder compared with placebo. However, significant percentages of the population still fail to maintain abstinence or reduce illicit opioid use while using such medications...
April 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623562/decline-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-prescriptions-in-a-state-medicaid-population-following-formulary-conversion-from-suboxone-to-bunavail
#13
Richard Soper, Sireesh Appajosyula, Christina Deximo
INTRODUCTION: A large, statewide, fee-for-service Medicaid plan recently (October 2015) executed a complete switch from sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone [(SLBN), Suboxone® ] to buccal buprenorphine-naloxone [(BBN), Bunavail® ] on its preferred drug formulary. This complete formulary switch provided an opportunity to assess dynamic changes in prescribing patterns, patient/physician acceptance, and indices of potential misuse/diversion. METHODS: For the period January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2016, two datasets were analyzed: prescriptions and associated costs for buprenorphine-naloxone (BN) products and urine toxicology test results for patients in the Medicaid plan...
April 6, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622502/chronic-pain-medication-management-of-older-populations-key-points-from-a-national-conference-and-innovative-opportunities-for-pharmacy-practice
#14
Julia Fiona-Maree Gilmartin-Thomas, J Simon Bell, Danny Liew, Carolyn A Arnold, Rachelle Buchbinder, Colin Chapman, Flavia Cicuttini, Malcolm Dobbin, Stephen J Gibson, Melita J Giummarra, Jenny Gowan, Benny Katz, Dan L Lubman, Matthew McCrone, Jennifer Pilgrim, Anneliese Synnot, Eleanor van Dyk, Barbara Workman, John McNeil
OBJECTIVE: Inappropriate use of pain medication has serious consequences for older populations. Experts in the field have noted an increase in opioid prescriptions, and opioid-related hospitalisations and deaths among this vulnerable population. In the pursuit of educating pharmacists, physicians, allied healthcare professionals, researchers, academics and the public facing the challenges of chronic pain medication management, 'The Inaugural Monash University School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine (SPHPM) Best Practice in Chronic Pain Medication Management Day Conference' was held in December 2016 at the Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct (Melbourne, Australia)...
March 19, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621965/analytical-approaches-in-fatal-intoxication-cases-involving-new-synthetic-opioids
#15
Enrico Gerace, Alberto Salomone, Marco Vincenti
BACKGROUND: Synthetic opioids are compounds that were created to act on the opioid receptors. Novel synthetic opioids include various analogs of fentanyl (e.g., acetylfentanyl, acryloylfentanyl, carfentanil, furanylfentanyl, 4-fluorobutyrylfentanyl or ocfentanil) and newly emerging non-fentanyl compounds with different chemical structures, such as AH-7921, MT-45, and U-47700. In the last years, these drugs have rapidly emerged on the recreational drug market, and their abuse has been increasing worldwide...
April 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621905/pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-buprenorphine-samidorphan-for-the-treatment-of-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Renee-Marie Ragguett, Carola Rong, Joshua D Rosenblat, Roger C Ho, Roger S McIntyre
Treatment resistant depression (TRD) represents approximately 20% of all individuals receiving care for major depressive disorder. The opioidergic system is identified as a novel target which hitherto has not been sufficiently investigated in adults with TRD. The combination product buprenorphine + samidorphan is an opioid modulatory agent which has demonstrated replicated evidence of efficacy in TRD without abuse liability. Areas covered: Databases Pubmed, Google Scholar and clinicaltrials.gov were searched from inception through December 2017 for clinical trial information, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of buprenorphine + samidorphan...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621659/suicide-deaths-by-intentional-self-poisoning-in-people-with-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Michael Hawkins, Ayal Schaffer, Mark Sinyor, Yasunori Nishikawa, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt, Rima Styra, Maurizio Pompili, Jeffrey Huffman
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize self-poisoning deaths in people with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and compare to other suicide decedent groups. METHODS: Suicide deaths by self-poisoning in people with CVD (n = 151) were compared to suicide deaths by other methods in people with CVD (n = 260) and suicide deaths by self-poisoning in people without CVD (n = 509). Sub-analysis of the CVD self-poisoning group compared people with depression and without depression...
March 23, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619569/america-s-opioid-epidemic-a-comprehensive-review-and-look-into-the-rising-crisis
#18
REVIEW
Peter S Ostling, Kelly S Davidson, Best O Anyama, Erik M Helander, Melville Q Wyche, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the USA, there has been a sharp increase in heroin, prescription opiate, and illicitly manufactured fentanyl abuse with overdoses tripling since the 1990s. Several states have been deemed as "high-burden" abuse states where there is a greater proportion of synthetic opiate use. During the same period that prescription limitations were initially implemented throughout the country, the fentanyl epidemic started nationwide. RECENT FINDINGS: In the setting of data demonstrating an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008, states began restricting access to Food and Drug Agency (FDA) approved opioid medications...
April 4, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619568/global-supply-and-demand-of-opioids-for-pain-management
#19
REVIEW
Sreekumar Kunnumpurath, Natasha Julien, Gopal Kodumudi, Anamika Kunnumpurath, Vijay Kodumudi, Nalini Vadivelu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to evaluate the global supply and demand of opioids used for pain management and discuss how it relates to the utilization of opioids around the world. The purpose of the review is also to determine the factors that contribute to inappropriate pain management. RECENT FINDINGS: The total global production of opium for opioid manufacturing is enough to supply the growing global demands. However, licit opioids are only consumed by 20% of the world population...
April 4, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618978/is-there-a-potential-of-misuse-for-venlafaxine-and-bupropion
#20
Fabrizio Schifano, Stefania Chiappini
Objective: Traditionally, studies on the non-medical use of pharmaceutical products have focused on controlled substances; e.g., opiates/opioids; and benzodiazepines. Although both bupropion and venlafaxine have been reported as being misused, only anecdotal reports have been made available so far. Hence, the European Monitoring Agency (EMA) Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), misuse/abuse/dependence and withdrawal, venlafaxine- and bupropion-related, database was here analyzed. Methods: All EMA spontaneous reports relating to venlafaxine (2005-2016) and bupropion (2003-2016) notifications were here analyzed, to provide a descriptive analysis by source, gender, age, and type of report...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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