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Black mold

N Di Chiacchio, L F Noriega, N Gioia Di Chiacchio, J Ocampo-Garza
Onychomycosis is the most common onychopathy observed in adults and the elderly, and it is a frequent reason for medical visits.(1) Its prevalence ranges from 2.0-26.9%, depending on the population and geographic region.(1,2) Non-dermatophyte molds are responsible for 1.5-17.6% of onychomycosis cases, with higher prevalence in tropical and subtropical countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 12, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Andrea T Borchers, Christopher Chang, M Eric Gershwin
There are possibly millions of mold species on earth. The vast majority of these mold spores live in harmony with humans, rarely causing disease. The rare species that does cause disease does so by triggering allergies or asthma, or may be involved in hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or allergic fungal sinusitis. Other hypersensitivity diseases include those related to occupational or domiciliary exposures to certain mold species, as in the case of Pigeon Breeder's disease, Farmer's lung, or humidifier fever...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Mijail Karpyn Esqueda, Alan L Yen, Simone Rochfort, Kathryn M Guthridge, Kevin S Powell, Jacqueline Edwards, German C Spangenberg
The major insect pest of Australian cool temperate pastures is the root-feeding insect Heteronychus arator (African black beetle, ABB). Significant pasture damage can occur even at low ABB densities (11 individuals per square meter), and often re-sowing of the whole paddock is required. Mitigation of the effects of pasture pests, and in particular subterranean species such as the larval form of ABB, can be challenging. Early detection is limited by the ability to visualize above-ground symptoms, and chemical control of insects in soil is often ineffective...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anbazhagan Mageswari, Jeong-Seon Kim, Kyu-Ho Cheon, Soon-Wo Kwon, Osamu Yamada, Seung-Beom Hong
Aspergillus luchuensis is known as an industrially important fungal species used for making fermented foods such as awamori and shochu in Japan, makgeolli and Meju in Korea, and Pu-erh tea in China. Nonetheless, this species has not yet been widely studied regarding mating-type genes. In this study, we examined the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 gene ratio in black koji molds (A. luchuensis, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus tubingensis) and in Aspergillus welwitschiae isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea...
December 2016: Mycobiology
Michelangelo Storari, Giovanni A L Broggini
The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows the rapid and specific amplification of target DNA under isothermal conditions without a prior DNA purification step. Moreover, successful amplifications can be directly evaluated through a color change of the reaction solutions. Here, we describe two LAMP assays for the detection of ochratoxin-A producing black aspergilli isolated from grapes. The two assays can detect DNA of OTA-producing black aspergilli following a very simple sample preparation and have the potential to significantly speed up the routine monitoring of these toxigenic molds in vineyards...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jiyeon Kim, Si-Gyun Kweon, Junhyung Park, Harim Lee, Ki Woo Kim
The spatial patterns for temperature distribution on crape myrtle leaves infested with sooty mold were investigated using a digital infrared thermal imaging camera. The mean temperatures of the control and sooty regions were 26.98°C and 28.44°C, respectively. In the thermal images, the sooty regions appeared as distinct spots, indicating that the temperatures in these areas were higher than those in the control regions on the same leaves. This suggests that the sooty regions became warmer than their control regions on the adaxial leaf surface...
December 2016: Plant Pathology Journal
Tainá A Barreto, Sonalle C A Andrade, Janeeyre F Maciel, Narciza M O Arcanjo, Marta S Madruga, Bruno Meireles, Ângela M T Cordeiro, Evandro L Souza, Marciane Magnani
The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hung K Doan, Karina Perez, Richard M Davis, David C Slaughter
From 2009 to 2011, freshly harvested processing tomatoes from California commercial fields were surveyed for mold species present in the mature fruit. Molds were recovered from the majority of fruit that had visual symptoms of black mold and other decays and from about a quarter of randomly sampled, asymptomatic fruit. Alternaria, Fusarium, and Geotrichum spp. were the most commonly recovered fungi in both symptomatic and random samples. Based on pairwise statistical analysis, the frequencies of 2 different fungal genera in a composite 11 kg-sample were, in general, statistically independent events, with the exception of a weak association between the incidence of Geotrichum with Alternaria, Cladosporium, or Stemphylium...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Osamu Yamada, Masayuki Machida, Akira Hosoyama, Masatoshi Goto, Toru Takahashi, Taiki Futagami, Youhei Yamagata, Michio Takeuchi, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Hideaki Koike, Keietsu Abe, Kiyoshi Asai, Masanori Arita, Nobuyuki Fujita, Kazuro Fukuda, Ken-Ichi Higa, Hiroshi Horikawa, Takeaki Ishikawa, Koji Jinno, Yumiko Kato, Kohtaro Kirimura, Osamu Mizutani, Kaoru Nakasone, Motoaki Sano, Yohei Shiraishi, Masatoshi Tsukahara, Katsuya Gomi
Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A...
December 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Z O Coskun, O C Erdivanli, K C Kazikdas, S Terzi, U Sahin, A Ozgur, M Demirci, E Dursun, C Cingi
OBJECTIVES: Identification of the most common aeroallergens to which patients are sensitized in a specific area is important in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). We determined the distribution of aeroallergens, detected by skin-prick tests (SPT), in adult patients with AR in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey and compared the results with the other regions of Turkey and in the world. METHODS: The medical records of SPT performed on 1457 patients with symptoms of AR (with regard to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma 2008 guidelines) between March 2010 and March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Dilek Heperkan, Ece Gökmen
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of FTIR spectroscopy as a rapid screening method to detect fumonisin produced by Aspergillus niger. A. niger spore suspensions isolated from raisins were inoculated in Petri dishes prepared with sultana raisin or black raisin extracts containing agar and malt extract agar (MEA). After 9 days of incubation at 25°C, fumonisin B2 (FB2) production on each agar plate was determined by subjecting the agar plugs to IR spectroscopy. The presence of amino group (at 1636-1639 cm(-1)) was especially indicative of fumonisin production in MEA and the raisin extracts containing agar...
July 2016: Journal of AOAC International
N Estiarte, A Crespo-Sempere, S Marín, V Sanchis, A J Ramos
Ethylene is a naturally produced plant regulator involved in several plant functions, such as regulation of fruit ripening. Inhibition of ethylene perception by using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) slows down the ripening of the fruit maintaining its quality and freshness. The use of 1-MCP is a commercial strategy commonly used in the food industry to extend the postharvest life of several fruits, including tomatoes. To assess how 1-MCP affected infection by Alternaria alternata on tomatoes, three different cultivars were artificially inoculated with 5μL of an A...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Adrian U Jin Yap, Mirali Pandya, Wei Seong Toh
This study evaluated the depth of cure (DOC) of packable and flowable bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) including PRG (prereacted glass ionomer) and short-fiber materials. The materials were placed in a black split-mold with a 7 mm deep recess and cured at 700 mW/cm(2) for 20 s using a LED curing light. DOC was assessed using the ISO scraping and Knoops hardness tests. Data (n=5) were computed and analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Scheffe's post hoc test (p<0.05). ISO DOC ranged from 3.66 to 2.54 mm while DOC based on hardness testing ranged from 3 to 1...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
Carol A Kauffman, Anurag N Malani
In mid-September 2012, the largest healthcare-associated outbreak in U.S. history began. Before it was over, 751 patients were reported with fungal meningitis, stroke, spinal or paraspinal infection, or peripheral osteoarticular infection, and 64 (8.5%) died. Most patients had undergone epidural injection, and a few osteoarticular injection, of methylprednisolone acetate that had been manufactured at the New England Compounding Center (NECC). The offending pathogen in most cases was Exserohilum rostratum, a brown-black soil organism that previously was a rare cause of human infection...
April 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Jamie H Rosenblum Lichtenstein, Ramon M Molina, Thomas C Donaghey, Yi-Hsiang H Hsu, Joel A Mathews, David I Kasahara, Jin-Ah Park, André Bordini, John J Godleski, Bruce S Gillis, Joseph D Brain
After a single or multiple intratracheal instillations of Stachybotrys chartarum (S. chartarum or black mold) spores in BALB/c mice, we characterized cytokine production, metabolites, and inflammatory patterns by analyzing mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung tissue, and plasma. We found marked differences in BAL cell counts, especially large increases in lymphocytes and eosinophils in multiple-dosed mice. Formation of eosinophil-rich granulomas and airway goblet cell metaplasia were prevalent in the lungs of multiple-dosed mice but not in single- or saline-dosed groups...
October 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Heng Hsieh, Chun-Ying Wu, Yung-Chun Lee
This paper presents a contact photolithography method for large-area ultraviolet (UV) patterning using a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) photomask and a planar light source consisting of arrayed light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With simple design and construction, the UV light source can achieve uniformly distributed UV light intensity over an area of 4" in diameter but its divergent angle is 15°. To overcome this large divergent angle, a PDMS soft mold embedded with carbon-black inserts as the UV light blocking materials is applied...
April 18, 2016: Optics Express
Taehoon Kim, Junyong Park, Jongmoo Sohn, Donghwi Cho, Seokwoo Jeon
Here we propose a concept of conductive dry adhesives (CDA) combining a gecko-inspired hierarchical structure and an elastomeric carbon nanocomposite. To complement the poor electrical percolation of 1D carbon nanotube (CNT) networks in an elastomeric matrix at a low filler content (∼1 wt %), a higher dimensional carbon material (i.e., carbon black, nanographite, and graphene nanopowder) is added into the mixture as an aid filler. The co-doped graphene and CNT in the composite show the lowest volume resistance (∼100 ohm·cm) at an optimized filler ratio (1:9, total filler content: 1 wt %) through a synergetic effect in electrical percolation...
April 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Amin Taheri Najafabadi, Norvin Ng, Előd Gyenge
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present promising options for environmentally sustainable power generation especially in conjunction with waste water treatment. However, major challenges remain including low power density, difficult scale-up, and durability of the cell components. This study reports enhanced biocurrent production in a membrane-free MFC, using graphene microsheets (GNs) as anode and MnOx catalyzed air cathode. The GNs are produced by ionic liquid assisted simultaneous anodic and cathodic electrochemical exfoliation of iso-molded graphite electrodes...
July 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yang Liu, Zijun Shi, Yanfang Gao, Weidan An, Zhenzhu Cao, Jinrong Liu
The preparation of porous materials from renewable resources is a new area and is quickly being recognized not only in terms of application/economic advantages but also with regard to a holistic sustainable approach to useful porous media synthesis. In this work, we focused on the transformation of natural biomass, such as cotton, into more stable porous carbonaceous forms for the storage of electrical energy in practical applications. Biomorphic cotton fibers are pretreated under the effect of NaOH/urea swelling on cellulose and are subsequently used as a biomass carbon source to mold the porous microtubule structure through a certain degree of calcining...
February 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Magali Gautier, Anne-Cécile Normand, Coralie L'Ollivier, Carole Cassagne, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Fabienne Brégeon, Marijke Hendrickx, Carine Gomez, Stéphane Ranque, Renaud Piarroux
The black Aspergillus group comprises A. niger and 18 other species, which are morphologically indistinguishable. Among this species subset, A. tubingensis, described in less than 30 human cases before 2014, is primarily isolated from ear, nose, and throat samples. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful technique to identify microbes in diagnostic settings. We applied this method to identify 1,720 filamentous fungi routinely isolated from clinical samples our laboratory over a two-year study period...
July 1, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
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