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Black mold

Hung K Doan, Karina Perez, Richard M Davis, David C Slaughter
From 2009 to 2011, freshly harvested processing tomatoes from California commercial fields were surveyed for mold species present in the mature fruit. Molds were recovered from the majority of fruit that had visual symptoms of black mold and other decays and from about a quarter of randomly sampled, asymptomatic fruit. Alternaria, Fusarium, and Geotrichum spp. were the most commonly recovered fungi in both symptomatic and random samples. Based on pairwise statistical analysis, the frequencies of 2 different fungal genera in a composite 11 kg-sample were, in general, statistically independent events, with the exception of a weak association between the incidence of Geotrichum with Alternaria, Cladosporium, or Stemphylium...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Osamu Yamada, Masayuki Machida, Akira Hosoyama, Masatoshi Goto, Toru Takahashi, Taiki Futagami, Youhei Yamagata, Michio Takeuchi, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Hideaki Koike, Keietsu Abe, Kiyoshi Asai, Masanori Arita, Nobuyuki Fujita, Kazuro Fukuda, Ken-Ichi Higa, Hiroshi Horikawa, Takeaki Ishikawa, Koji Jinno, Yumiko Kato, Kohtaro Kirimura, Osamu Mizutani, Kaoru Nakasone, Motoaki Sano, Yohei Shiraishi, Masatoshi Tsukahara, Katsuya Gomi
Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A...
September 20, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Z O Coskun, O C Erdivanli, K C Kazikdas, S Terzi, U Sahin, A Ozgur, M Demirci, E Dursun, C Cingi
OBJECTIVES: Identification of the most common aeroallergens to which patients are sensitized in a specific area is important in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). We determined the distribution of aeroallergens, detected by skin-prick tests (SPT), in adult patients with AR in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey and compared the results with the other regions of Turkey and in the world. METHODS: The medical records of SPT performed on 1457 patients with symptoms of AR (with regard to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma 2008 guidelines) between March 2010 and March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Dilek Heperkan, Ece Gökmen
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of FTIR spectroscopy as a rapid screening method to detect fumonisin produced by Aspergillus niger. A. niger spore suspensions isolated from raisins were inoculated in Petri dishes prepared with sultana raisin or black raisin extracts containing agar and malt extract agar (MEA). After 9 days of incubation at 25°C, fumonisin B2 (FB2) production on each agar plate was determined by subjecting the agar plugs to IR spectroscopy. The presence of amino group (at 1636-1639 cm(-1)) was especially indicative of fumonisin production in MEA and the raisin extracts containing agar...
July 2016: Journal of AOAC International
N Estiarte, A Crespo-Sempere, S Marín, V Sanchis, A J Ramos
Ethylene is a naturally produced plant regulator involved in several plant functions, such as regulation of fruit ripening. Inhibition of ethylene perception by using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) slows down the ripening of the fruit maintaining its quality and freshness. The use of 1-MCP is a commercial strategy commonly used in the food industry to extend the postharvest life of several fruits, including tomatoes. To assess how 1-MCP affected infection by Alternaria alternata on tomatoes, three different cultivars were artificially inoculated with 5μL of an A...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Adrian U Jin Yap, Mirali Pandya, Wei Seong Toh
This study evaluated the depth of cure (DOC) of packable and flowable bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBCs) including PRG (prereacted glass ionomer) and short-fiber materials. The materials were placed in a black split-mold with a 7 mm deep recess and cured at 700 mW/cm(2) for 20 s using a LED curing light. DOC was assessed using the ISO scraping and Knoops hardness tests. Data (n=5) were computed and analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Scheffe's post hoc test (p<0.05). ISO DOC ranged from 3.66 to 2.54 mm while DOC based on hardness testing ranged from 3 to 1...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
Carol A Kauffman, Anurag N Malani
In mid-September 2012, the largest healthcare-associated outbreak in U.S. history began. Before it was over, 751 patients were reported with fungal meningitis, stroke, spinal or paraspinal infection, or peripheral osteoarticular infection, and 64 (8.5%) died. Most patients had undergone epidural injection, and a few osteoarticular injection, of methylprednisolone acetate that had been manufactured at the New England Compounding Center (NECC). The offending pathogen in most cases was Exserohilum rostratum, a brown-black soil organism that previously was a rare cause of human infection...
April 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Jamie H Rosenblum Lichtenstein, Ramon M Molina, Thomas C Donaghey, Yi-Hsiang H Hsu, Joel A Mathews, David I Kasahara, Jin-Ah Park, André Bordini, John J Godleski, Bruce S Gillis, Joseph D Brain
After a single or multiple intratracheal instillations of Stachybotrys chartarum (S. chartarum or black mold) spores in BALB/c mice, we characterized cytokine production, metabolites, and inflammatory patterns by analyzing mouse bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung tissue, and plasma. We found marked differences in BAL cell counts, especially large increases in lymphocytes and eosinophils in multiple-dosed mice. Formation of eosinophil-rich granulomas and airway goblet cell metaplasia were prevalent in the lungs of multiple-dosed mice but not in single- or saline-dosed groups...
May 5, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Heng Hsieh, Chun-Ying Wu, Yung-Chun Lee
This paper presents a contact photolithography method for large-area ultraviolet (UV) patterning using a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) photomask and a planar light source consisting of arrayed light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With simple design and construction, the UV light source can achieve uniformly distributed UV light intensity over an area of 4" in diameter but its divergent angle is 15°. To overcome this large divergent angle, a PDMS soft mold embedded with carbon-black inserts as the UV light blocking materials is applied...
April 18, 2016: Optics Express
Taehoon Kim, Junyong Park, Jongmoo Sohn, Donghwi Cho, Seokwoo Jeon
Here we propose a concept of conductive dry adhesives (CDA) combining a gecko-inspired hierarchical structure and an elastomeric carbon nanocomposite. To complement the poor electrical percolation of 1D carbon nanotube (CNT) networks in an elastomeric matrix at a low filler content (∼1 wt %), a higher dimensional carbon material (i.e., carbon black, nanographite, and graphene nanopowder) is added into the mixture as an aid filler. The co-doped graphene and CNT in the composite show the lowest volume resistance (∼100 ohm·cm) at an optimized filler ratio (1:9, total filler content: 1 wt %) through a synergetic effect in electrical percolation...
April 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Amin Taheri Najafabadi, Norvin Ng, Előd Gyenge
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present promising options for environmentally sustainable power generation especially in conjunction with waste water treatment. However, major challenges remain including low power density, difficult scale-up, and durability of the cell components. This study reports enhanced biocurrent production in a membrane-free MFC, using graphene microsheets (GNs) as anode and MnOx catalyzed air cathode. The GNs are produced by ionic liquid assisted simultaneous anodic and cathodic electrochemical exfoliation of iso-molded graphite electrodes...
July 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yang Liu, Zijun Shi, Yanfang Gao, Weidan An, Zhenzhu Cao, Jinrong Liu
The preparation of porous materials from renewable resources is a new area and is quickly being recognized not only in terms of application/economic advantages but also with regard to a holistic sustainable approach to useful porous media synthesis. In this work, we focused on the transformation of natural biomass, such as cotton, into more stable porous carbonaceous forms for the storage of electrical energy in practical applications. Biomorphic cotton fibers are pretreated under the effect of NaOH/urea swelling on cellulose and are subsequently used as a biomass carbon source to mold the porous microtubule structure through a certain degree of calcining...
February 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Magali Gautier, Anne-Cécile Normand, Coralie L'Ollivier, Carole Cassagne, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Fabienne Brégeon, Marijke Hendrickx, Carine Gomez, Stéphane Ranque, Renaud Piarroux
The black Aspergillus group comprises A. niger and 18 other species, which are morphologically indistinguishable. Among this species subset, A. tubingensis, described in less than 30 human cases before 2014, is primarily isolated from ear, nose, and throat samples. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful technique to identify microbes in diagnostic settings. We applied this method to identify 1,720 filamentous fungi routinely isolated from clinical samples our laboratory over a two-year study period...
July 1, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Asada Leelahavanichkul, Krit Pongpirul, Nisa Thongbor, Navaporn Worasilchai, Kwanta Petphuak, Bussakorn Thongsawang, Piyaporn Towannang, Pichet Lorvinitnun, Kanya Sukhontasing, Pisut Katavetin, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Ariya Chindamporn, Talerngsak Kanjanabuch
UNLABELLED:BACKGROUND: Aseptic, sheet-like foreign bodies observed inside Tenckhoff (TK) catheter lumens (referred to as "black particles") are, on gross morphology, hardly distinguishable from fungal colonization because these contaminants adhere tightly to the catheter. Detection of fungal cell wall components using (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BG) and galactomannan index (GMI) might be an alternative method for differentiating the particles. ♦ METHODS: Foreign particles retrieved from TK catheters in 19 peritoneal dialysis patients were examined microscopically and cultured for fungi and bacteria...
July 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Zhi Li, Ian D Tevis, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Lucas B Newcomb, Julian Halbertsma-Black, Jean-Francis Bloch, Martin Thuo
Interest in low-cost analytical devices (especially for diagnostics) has recently increased; however, concomitant translation to the field has been slow, in part due to personnel and supply-chain challenges in resource-limited settings. Overcoming some of these challenges require the development of a method that takes advantage of locally available resources and/or skills. We report a Melt-and-mold fabrication (MnM Fab) approach to low-cost and simple devices that has the potential to be adapted locally since it requires a single material that is recyclable and simple skills to access multiple devices...
December 1, 2015: Talanta
Alan S Lewis, Mark A Oldham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Anurag N Malani, Lisa E Kerr, Carol A Kauffman
Voriconazole is an important agent in the antifungal armamentarium. It is the treatment of choice for invasive aspergillosis, other hyaline molds, and many brown-black molds. It is also effective for infections caused by Candida species, including those that are fluconazole resistant, and for infections caused by the endemic mycoses, including those that occur in the central nervous system. It has the advantage of being available in both an intravenous and an oral formulation that is well absorbed. Drawbacks to the use of voriconazole are that it has unpredictable, nonlinear pharmacokinetics with extensive interpatient and intrapatient variation in serum levels...
October 2015: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Gabriela Garmendia, Silvana Vero
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected...
January 4, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Renuka Nayar, S K Mendiratta, P P Prabhakaran, Sagar Chand, B D Sharma
A study was undertaken to develop shelf stable hot air oven dried goat meat cubes extended with different legume based binder mixes. Based on preliminary trials, four different formulations containing 80 % meat mince + 10 % Bengal gram based binder mix (HBE), 70 % meat mince + 20 % green gram based binder mix (HGR), 80 % meat mince + 10 % black gram based binder mix (HBL) and 80 % meat mince + 10 % lentil based binder mix (HLE) were selected and subjected to physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics...
July 2015: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yehuda Z Cohen, Wendy Stead
Exophiala species are black, yeast-like molds that can cause subcutaneous cysts as well as disseminated disease. Isolated pneumonia due to Exophiala species is extremely uncommon. We report a case of isolated Exophiala pneumonia in a patient with bronchiectasis who presented with worsening dyspnea and a cough productive of black sputum. The production of black sputum, known as melanoptysis, is an uncommon physical finding with a limited differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Exophiala pneumonia presenting with a cough productive of black sputum...
2015: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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