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Parkinson disease dementia neuropsychiatry

Kalyani Kansal, David J Irwin
The gold standard for diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases (ie, Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) is neuropathologic examination at autopsy. As such, laboratory studies play a central role in antemortem diagnosis of these conditions and their differentiation from the neuroinflammatory, infectious, toxic, and other nondegenerative etiologies (eg, rapidly progressive dementias) that are encountered in neuropsychiatric practice...
June 2015: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Yat Fung Shea, Joyce Ha, Leung-Wing Chu
BACKGROUND: There has been no previous Chinese study that differentiated the clinical symptoms among biomarker-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The objective of this study was to compare the cognitive, behavioural, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in biomarker-confirmed AD, DLB, and FTD patients. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients (14 AD, 7 DLB, 9 FTD) who presented to the memory clinic at Queen Mary Hospital from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013...
December 2015: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Chon-Haw Tsai, Hui-Chun Huang, Bey-Ling Liu, Chia-Ing Li, Ming-Kuei Lu, Xianxiu Chen, Mu-Chieh Tsai, Yu-Wan Yang, Hsien-Yuan Lane
AIM: We have previously found that sarcosine, a glycine transporter I inhibitor, can improve the psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the agent can also ameliorate neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with dementia. METHODS: An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients who had PD with dementia (PD-D). Neuropsychiatric manifestations were measured before and at week 2 (V1), week 4 (V2) and week 8 (V3) after treatment...
September 2014: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
B K Puri, S W Lewis
Cranial single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT or SPET) can now give regional cerebral blood flow images with a resolution approaching that of positron emission tomography (PET). In this paper, the use of high resolution SPECT neuroimaging in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, Pick's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, Korsakoff's psychosis, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, HIV infection and AIDS is reviewed...
1992: Behavioural Neurology
Michele Poletti, Chiara Logi, Claudio Lucetti, Paolo Del Dotto, Filippo Baldacci, Andrea Vergallo, Martina Ulivi, Simone Del Sarto, Giuseppe Rossi, Roberto Ceravolo, Ubaldo Bonuccelli
The current study aimed at establishing the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and their association with demographic, drug-related, and disease-related characteristics. We performed a single-center cross-sectional study of 805 PD patients. Impulse control disorders were investigated with the Questionnaire for Impulsive Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; also comorbid neuropsychiatric complications (dementia, delusions, visual hallucinations) were investigated with clinical interviews and ad hoc instruments (Parkinson Psychosis Questionnaire and Neuropsychiatry Inventory)...
October 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Marla B Bruns, Keith A Josephs
Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS) are two of the atypical Parkinsonism syndromes, in that patients exhibit rigidity, occasional tremor and postural instability, but do not symptomatically respond to dopamine replacement. CBS and PSPS can often present with complex cognitive difficulties and neuropsychiatric disturbances. Symptoms of depression, apathy, or agitation can be subtle and are often overlooked as reactions to learning a new diagnosis of Parkinsonism. These symptoms may be the earliest presenting evidence of CBS or PSPS, and these syndromes can be misdiagnosed with a primary psychiatric disorder rather than a neurodegenerative condition...
April 2013: International Review of Psychiatry
Sverre Bergh, Geir Selbæk, Knut Engedal
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of discontinuing antidepressant treatment in people with dementia and neuropsychiatric symptoms. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised, parallel group, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Norwegian nursing homes; residents recruited by 16 study centres in Norway from August 2008 to June 2010. PARTICIPANTS: 128 patients with Alzheimer's disease, dementia or vascular dementia, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (but no depressive disorder), who had been prescribed escitalopram, citalopram, sertraline, or paroxetine for three months or more...
2012: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Ian McKeith
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia in older people, accounting for 10% to 15% of all cases, it occupies part of a spectrum that includes Parkinson's disease and primary autonomic failure. All these diseases share a neuritic pathology based upon abnormal aggregation of the synaptic protein α-synuciein. It is important to identify DLB patients accurately because they have specific symptoms, impairments, and functional disabilities thai differ from other common dementia syndromes such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular cognitive impairment, and frontotemporal dementia...
September 2004: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Sergio E Starkstein, Marcelo Merello, Simone Brockman, David Bruce, Gustavo Petracca, Brian D Power
OBJECTIVES: Parkinsonian signs are frequent in Alzheimer disease (AD) and are associated with a faster cognitive decline, worse quality of life, and early nursing home admission. Cross-sectional studies in AD reported a significant association between parkinsonism and apathy. The aim of this study was to assess the chronological association between apathy and parkinsonism in AD. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of a consecutive series of patients with AD. SETTING: Dementia clinic from a tertiary clinical center...
April 2009: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
B Borroni, M Turla, V Bertasi, C Agosti, N Gilberti, A Padovani
Parkinson's disease (PD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome (CBDS) are the most common neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes. Beyond motor symptoms, cognitive dysfunctions and behavioral disturbances are reported. Neuropsychological and neuropsychiatry features in the early stages, however, are under-investigated, and few comparison studies are available yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive and behavioral profile in the early stages of neurodegenerative extrapyramidal syndromes...
July 2008: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Constantin G Lyketsos, Nicholas Kozauer, Peter V Rabins
Neuropsychiatry represents a field of medicine situated at the crossroads of neurology and psychiatry, and deals with the interface of behavioral phenomena driven by brain dysfunction. Psychiatric symptoms are highly prevalent in these conditions, are a major source of disability and diminished quality of life, and potentially represent the target of treatment interventions that stand to significantly decrease the suffering they generate. In this article, the disease paradigm is explained, with particular attention to its role as an organizing principle for the field...
2007: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Sharan Randhawa, Mark Walterfang, Kathryn Miller, Amelia Scholes, Ramon Mocellin, Dennis Velakoulis
OBJECTIVES: The carer history is an integral part of the assessment of patients with cognitive impairment. We aimed to develop a comprehensive yet concise carer questionnaire, the CogRisk, which captures actuarial risk variables for cognitive impairment in addition to key symptoms suggestive of cognitive decline in a number of cognitive domains, and to then assess its validity and reliability in a neuropsychiatric population. METHOD: Carers of patients assessed for cognitive impairment completed the CogRisk, and patients were clinically assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Neuropsychiatry Unit COGnitive assessment tool (NUCOG)...
July 2007: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Joseph Tonkonogy, Jeffrey Geller
In the spirit of Adolf Mayer's medico-biological approach to the understanding of mental illnesses the article describes the advantages that neuropsychiatric approach brings to the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of psychiatric patients in a state hospital. Our review discusses the neuropsychiatric approach to the evaluation of state hospital patients with mild, moderate, and severe cognitive disturbances showing the role of neuropsychological testing, electroencephalography (EEG), and brain imaging in the neuropsychiatric assessment of primary and secondary mental illnesses...
September 2007: Psychiatric Quarterly
Uwe Ehrt, Dag Aarsland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, there has been much interest and rapid progress in understanding the neuropsychiatry of Parkinson's disease. This paper reviews the most important papers published during 2004 on dementia and cognitive impairment, depression and psychosis in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Many new studies of cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease have been published during 2004. Cognitive impairment has been demonstrated even during the first 1-2 years after onset of disease...
May 2005: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
E C Lauterbach
The neuropsychiatry of Parkinson's disease (PD) and its correlates are reviewed. Dementia occurs in up to 30% and can be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors. Cognitive impairments involve executive, visuospatial, attentional, and memory dysfunctions. Apathy may respond to dopamine agonists or cholines-terase inhibitors. Cognitive impairment, psychosis, and depression predict quality of life. Visual hallucinations and paranoia are common, and respond to low dose clozapine. Depression is common and predicts caregiver burden and depression...
June 2005: Minerva Medica
Edward C Lauterbach
Parkinson's disease is associated with classical Parkinsonian features that respond to dopaminergic therapy. Neuropsychiatric sequelae include dementia, major depression, dysthymia, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, and sexual disorders. Panic attacks are particularly common. With treatment, visual hallucinations, paranoid delusions, mania, or delirium may evolve. Psychosis is a key factor in nursing home placement, and depression is the most significant predictor of quality of life. Clozapine may be the safest treatment for psychotic features, but more research is needed to establish the efficacy of antidepressant treatments...
December 2004: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Teresa Corona-Vázquez, Carlos Campillo-Serrano, Mario López, Jose Humberto Mateos-G, José Luis Soto-Hernández
Neurologic diseases have important social and economic repercussions. The economic cost related to medications, caretakers, and therapists is evident, as well as the impact the disease may cause on the family. Epilepsy is the most frequent cause of medical care at the out-patient service of the Manuel Velasco Suárez National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery (NINN), in Mexico City and the estimated annual prevalence of this disease is 5.9 per 1,000 inhabitants. Parkinson's disease, the most representative of movement disorders, affects 20% of the populating aged > 65 years...
November 2002: Gaceta Médica de México
A Rosenblatt, I Leroi
Degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia, such as Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease, and Wilson's disease, are characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric manifestations. HD, in particular, can be considered a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder that has all three components of the "Triadic Syndromes": dyskinesia, dementia, and depression. The authors examine the phenomenology, prevalence, and management of psychiatric disturbances occurring in diseases of the basal ganglia. They address psychiatric conditions such as depression, mania, psychosis, obsessive-compulsive disorders, aggression, irritability, apathy, sexual disorders, and delirium, discussing subtleties of diagnosis, and making reference to more unusual disorders of the basal ganglia, such as postencephalitic parkinsonism and Fahr's disease...
January 2000: Psychosomatics
S R Cheyette, J L Cummings
Encephalitis lethargica (von Economo's encephalitis), pandemic from 1917 to 1926, opened a window on the study of behavioral consequences of infection-induced subcortical disorder. Widely varying acute manifestations included extrapyramidal disorders, myoclonus, eye movement disorders, paralyses, delirium, mood changes, inverted diurnal rhythms, and catatonia. Major pathological changes involved the substantia nigra, globus pallidus, and hypothalamus. A symptom-free recovery period was often followed by postencephalitic disturbances, typically parkinsonism in adults and conduct disorder in children...
1995: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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