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Enhancer transcription

Ki Mo Kim, Deok Rim Heo, Young-A Kim, Jun Lee, No Soo Kim, Ok-Sun Bang
Coniferaldehyde (CA) exerts anti-inflammatory properties by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). To define the regulation mechanism by which CA induces a cytoprotective function and HO-1 expression, the up-stream regulations involved in the activation of nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf)-2/HO-1 pathway were investigated. CA dramatically increased the Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 expression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and cell death were down-regulated by CA, which were reversed by inhibition of HO-1 activity...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Lin Fu, Jinlong Shi, Anqi Liu, Lei Zhou, Mengmeng Jiang, Huaping Fu, Keman Xu, Dandan Li, Ailing Deng, Qingyi Zhang, Yifan Pang, Yujie Guo, Kai Hu, Jiansuo Zhou, Yapeng Wang, Wenrong Huang, Yu Jing, Liping Dou, Lili Wang, Kailin Xu, Xiaoyan Ke, Clara Nervi, Yonghui Li, Li Yu
MicroRNA-9-1(miR-9-1) plays an important role in the mechanism that regulates the lineage fate of differentiating hematopoietic cells. Recent studies have shown that miR-9-1 is downregulated in t (8; 21) AML. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying miR-9-1 down-regulation and the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion protein, generated from the translocation of t (8; 21) in AML, remain unclear. RUNX1-RUNX1T1 can induce leukemogenesis through resides in and functions as a stable RUNX1-RUNX1T1-containing transcription factor complex...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Zhaoyue Wang, Xuejing Bai, Xuena Guo, Xiuping He
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is widely used in food, perfume and pharmaceutical industry, but lower production in microbes and less known regulatory mechanisms of 2-PE make further study necessary. In this study, crucial genes like ARO8 and ARO10 of Ehrlich pathway for 2-PE synthesis and key transcription factor ARO80 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were re-regulated using constitutive promoter; in the meantime, the effect of nitrogen source in synthetic complete (SC) medium with L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) on Aro8/Aro9 and Aro10 was investigated...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Min-Min Shi, Yuan Kong, Yang Song, Yu-Qian Sun, Yu Wang, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Lan-Ping Xu, Kai-Yan Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang
Poor graft function (PGF) is a serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Murine studies suggest that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are preferential supporting cells for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Our previous work found that a reduced number of BM EPCs was an independent risk factor for the occurrence of PGF after allo-HSCT. However, little is known about the functional role of BM EPCs and how to improve impaired BM EPCs in PGF...
October 21, 2016: Blood
Julie Grandbois, Sandhya Khurana, Kelly Graff, Phong Nguyen, Leah Meltz, T C Tai
Epinephrine is synthesized by the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), primarily in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and secondarily in brainstem adrenergic neurons of the medulla oblongata. Epinephrine is an important neurotransmitter/neurohormone involved in cardiovascular regulation; however, overproduction is detrimental with negative outcomes such as cellular damage, cardiovascular dysfunction, and hypertension. Genetic mapping studies have linked elevated expression of PNMT to hypertension...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Federico Zambelli, Giulio Pavesi
NF-Y is a trimeric transcription factor that binds on DNA the CCAAT-box motif. In this article we reviewed and complemented with additional bioinformatic analysis existing data on genome-wide NF-Y binding characterization in human, reaching the following main conclusions: (1) about half of NF-Y binding sites are located at promoters, about 60-80 base pairs from transcription start sites; NF-Y binding to distal genomic regions takes place at inactive chromatin loci and/or DNA repetitive elements more often than active enhancers; (2) on almost half of its binding sites, regardless of their genomic localization (promoters or distal regions), NF-Y finds on DNA more than one CCAAT-box, and most of those multiple CCAAT binding loci present precise spacing and organization of the elements composing them; (3) there exists a well defined class of transcription factors that show genome-wide co-localization with NF-Y...
October 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elena Hernandez-Encinas, Diana Aguilar-Morante, Jose A Morales-Garcia, Elena Gine, Marina Sanz-SanCristobal, Angel Santos, Ana Perez-Castillo
BACKGROUND: The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor implicated in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and inflammatory processes mainly in adipose tissue and liver; although more recent results have revealed an important role for this transcription factor in the brain. Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β is implicated in inflammatory process and brain injury, since mice lacking this gene were less susceptible to kainic acid-induced injury...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hongwu Wang, Kun Li, Xiaojiao Hu, Zhifang Liu, Yujin Wu, Changling Huang
BACKGROUND: Plant digestibility of silage maize (Zea mays L.) has a large influence on nutrition intake for animal feeding. Improving forage quality will enhance the utilization efficiency and feeding value of forage maize. Dissecting the genetic basis of forage quality will improve our understanding of the complex nature of cell wall biosynthesis and degradation, which is also helpful for breeding good quality silage maize. RESULTS: Acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stalk were evaluated in a diverse maize population, which is comprised of 368 inbred lines and planted across seven environments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Hongfang Zhang, Conghua Xie, Jing Yue, Zhenzhen Jiang, Rongjing Zhou, Ruifei Xie, Yan Wang, Shixiu Wu
Previous studies on the mechanisms underlying ESCC (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma) chemoresistance only focused on tumor cells while tumor microenvironment has been completely ignored. Our study aimed to clarify the effect of CAFs (cancer-associated fibroblasts), one major component of tumor microenvironment, on the chemoresistance of ESCC. By primary culture, two pairs of CAFs and matched NFs (normal fibroblasts) were isolated from tumor tissues of ESCC patients and matched normal esophageal epithelial tissues, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Elizabeth E Hjort, Weiqi Huang, Liping Hu, Elizabeth A Eklund
Icsbp/Irf8 is an interferon regulatory transcription factor that functions as a suppressor of myeloid leukemias. Consistent with this activity, Icsbp represses a set of genes encoding proteins that promote cell proliferation/survival. One such gene encodes Gas2, a calpain inhibitor. We previously found that increased Gas2-expression in Bcr-abl+ cells stabilized βcatenin; a Calpain substrate. This was of interest, because βcatenin contributes to disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Calpain has additional substrates implicated in leukemogenesis, including Stat5...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Evgeny Z Kvon, Olga K Kamneva, Uirá S Melo, Iros Barozzi, Marco Osterwalder, Brandon J Mannion, Virginie Tissières, Catherine S Pickle, Ingrid Plajzer-Frick, Elizabeth A Lee, Momoe Kato, Tyler H Garvin, Jennifer A Akiyama, Veena Afzal, Javier Lopez-Rios, Edward M Rubin, Diane E Dickel, Len A Pennacchio, Axel Visel
The evolution of body shape is thought to be tightly coupled to changes in regulatory sequences, but specific molecular events associated with major morphological transitions in vertebrates have remained elusive. We identified snake-specific sequence changes within an otherwise highly conserved long-range limb enhancer of Sonic hedgehog (Shh). Transgenic mouse reporter assays revealed that the in vivo activity pattern of the enhancer is conserved across a wide range of vertebrates, including fish, but not in snakes...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Ivan A Zaporozhchenko, Evgeny S Morozkin, Tatyana E Skvortsova, Anastasia A Ponomaryova, Elena Yu Rykova, Nadezhda V Cherdyntseva, Evgeny S Polovnikov, Oksana A Pashkovskaya, Evgeny A Pokushalov, Valentin V Vlassov, Pavel P Laktionov
Lung cancer is a complex disease that often manifests at the point when treatment is not effective. Introduction of blood-based complementary diagnostics using molecular markers may enhance early detection of this disease and help reduce the burden of lung cancer. Here we evaluated the diagnostic potential of seven plasma miRNA biomarkers (miR-21, -19b, -126, -25, -205, -183, -125b) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Influence clinical and demographical characteristics, including age, tumor stage and cancer subtype on miRNA levels was investigated...
2016: PloS One
Lasse van Wijlick, René Geissen, Jessica S Hilbig, Quentin Lagadec, Pilar D Cantero, Eugen Pfeifer, Mateusz Juchimiuk, Sven Kluge, Stephan Wickert, Paula Alepuz, Joachim F Ernst
In eukaryotes, Dom34 upregulates translation by securing levels of activatable ribosomal subunits. We found that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, Dom34 interacts genetically with Pmt1, a major isoform of protein O-mannosyltransferase. In C. albicans, lack of Dom34 exacerbated defective phenotypes of pmt1 mutants, while they were ameliorated by Dom34 overproduction that enhanced Pmt1 protein but not PMT1 transcript levels. Translational effects of Dom34 required the 5'-UTR of the PMT1 transcript, which bound recombinant Dom34 directly at a CA/AC-rich sequence and regulated in vitro translation...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Xingkang Jiang, Changwen Zhang, Shiyong Qi, Shanqi Guo, Yue Chen, E Du, Hongtuan Zhang, Xiaoming Wang, Ranlu Liu, Baomin Qiao, Kuo Yang, Zhihong Zhang, Yong Xu
Although we and other studies indicated ZNF217 expression was increased in prostate cancer (PCa), the factors mediating its misregulated expression and their oncogenic activity remain largely unexplored. Recent evidence demonstrated that ferroportin (FPN) reduction lead to decreased iron export and increased intercellular iron that consequently aggravates the oncogenic effects of iron. In the present study, ZNF217 was identified as a transcriptional repressor that inhibits FPN expression. Increased of ZNF217 expression led to decreased FPN concentration, coupled with resultant intracellular iron retention, increased iron-related cellular activities and enhanced tumor cell growth...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Takashi Nakamura, Yuta Chiba, Masahiro Naruse, Kan Saito, Hidemitsu Harada, Satoshi Fukumoto
Tooth crown morphogenesis is tightly regulated by the proliferation and differentiation of dental epithelial cells. Globoside (Gb4), a globo-series glycosphingolipid, is highly expressed during embryogenesis as well as organogenesis, including tooth development. We previously reported that Gb4 is dominantly expressed in the neutral lipid fraction of dental epithelial cells. However, because its functional role in tooth development remains unknown, we investigated the involvement of Gb4 in dental epithelial cell differentiation...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
Sajjad Karim, Jaudah A Al-Maghrabi, Hasan M A Farsi, Ahmad J Al-Sayyad, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Zeenat Mirza, Alaa A Al-Boogmi, Fai T Ashgan, Manal M Shabaad, Hend F NourEldin, Khalid B M Al-Ghamdi, Adel Abuzenadah, Adeel G A Chaudhary, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a seventh ranked malignancy with poor prognosis. RCC is lethal at metastatic stage as it does not respond to conventional systemic treatments, and there is an urgent need to find out promising novel biomarkers for effective treatment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biomarkers that can be potential therapeutic target and predict effective inhibitors to treat the metastatic stage of RCC. METHODS: We conducted transcriptomic profiling to identify differentially expressed genes associated with RCC...
September 30, 2016: BMC Cancer
Yusaku Sugimura, Katsuharu Saito
The development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is strongly suppressed under high-phosphate (Pi) conditions. To investigate AM fungal responses during the suppression of AM by high Pi, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of Rhizophagus irregularis colonizing Lotus japonicus roots at different levels of Pi (20, 100, 300, and 500 μM). AM fungal colonization decreased markedly under high-Pi conditions. In total, 163 fungal genes were differentially expressed among the four Pi treatments. Among these genes, a cell cycle-regulatory gene, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1, and several DNA replication- and mitosis-related genes were repressed under high-Pi conditions...
October 20, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Sher Bahadur Poudel, Govinda Bhattarai, Jae-Hwan Kim, Sung-Ho Kook, Young-Kwon Seo, Young-Mi Jeon, Jeong-Chae Lee
Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) plays an important role in regulating the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of cells. However, the role of FGF7 in bone formation is not yet fully understood. We examined the effect of FGF7 on bone formation using a rat model of mandible defects. Rats underwent mandible defect surgery and then either scaffold treatment alone (control group) or FGF7-impregnated scaffold treatment (FGF7 group). Micro-CT and histological analyses revealed that the FGF7 group exhibited greater bone formation than did the control group 10 weeks after surgery...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Can Chen, Junfeng Pan, Xiaobing Yang, He Xiao, Yaoling Zhang, Meiru Si, Xihui Shen, Yao Wang
Corynebacterium glutamicum can survive by using ferulic acid as the sole carbon source. In this study, we assessed the response of C. glutamicum to ferulic acid stress by means of a global transcriptional response analysis. The transcriptional data showed that several genes involved in degradation of ferulic acid were affected. Moreover, several genes related to the stress response; protein protection or degradation and DNA repair; replication, transcription and translation; and the cell envelope were differentially expressed...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Jing Chen, Xiaoyan Zhang, Han Zhang, Tongqiang Liu, Hui Zhang, Jie Teng, Jun Ji, Xiaoqiang Ding
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a state of Klotho deficiency. The Klotho expression may be suppressed due to DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells so we have investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The vascular Klotho hypermethylation in radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease was described. Cultured HASMCs and 5/6-nephrectomized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats treated with indoxyl sulfate (IS) were used as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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