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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933526/epigenetics-and-control-of-rnas
#1
Henrike Maatz, Sebastiaan van Heesch, Franziska Kreuchwig, Allison Faber, Eleonora Adami, Norbert Hubner, Matthias Heinig
Histone modifications are epigenetic marks that fundamentally impact the regulation of gene expression. Integrating histone modification information in the analysis of gene expression traits (eQTL mapping) has been shown to significantly enhance the prediction of eQTLs. In this chapter, we describe (1) how to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using histone modification levels as traits and (2) how to integrate these data with information on RNA expression for the elucidation of the epigenetic control of transcript levels...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933184/coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor-expression-is-enhanced-in-pancreas-from-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#2
M Hodik, M Anagandula, J Fuxe, L Krogvold, K Dahl-Jørgensen, H Hyöty, L Sarmiento, G Frisk
OBJECTIVES: One of the theories connecting enterovirus (EV) infection of human islets with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the development of a fertile field in the islets. This implies induction of appropriate proteins for the viral replication such as the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent CAR is expressed in human islets of Langerhans, and what conditions that would change the expression. DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry for CAR was performed on paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue from patients with T1D (n=9 recent onset T1D, n=4 long-standing T1D), islet autoantibody-positive individuals (n=14) and non-diabetic controls (n=24) individuals...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933081/the-density-and-length-of-root-hairs-are-enhanced-in-response-to-cadmium-and-arsenic-by-modulating-gene-expressions-involved-in-fate-determination-and-morphogenesis-of-root-hairs-in-arabidopsis
#3
Ramin Bahmani, Dong G Kim, Jin A Kim, Seongbin Hwang
Root hairs are tubular outgrowths that originate from epidermal cells. Exposure of Arabidopsis to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic [arsenite, As(III)] increases root hair density and length. To examine the underlying mechanism, we measured the expression of genes involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs. Cd and As(III) downregulated TTG1 and GL2 (negative regulators of fate determination) and upregulated GEM (positive regulator), suggesting that root hair fate determination is stimulated by Cd and As(III)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933078/citrus-leprosis-virus-c-infection-results-in-hypersensitive-like-response-suppression-of-the-ja-et-plant-defense-pathway-and-promotion-of-the-colonization-of-its-mite-vector
#4
Gabriella D Arena, Pedro L Ramos-González, Maria A Nunes, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Luis E A Camargo, Elliot W Kitajima, Marcos A Machado, Juliana Freitas-Astúa
Leprosis is a serious disease of citrus caused by Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C, genus Cilevirus) whose transmission is mediated by false spider mites of the genus Brevipalpus. CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions around the feeding sites of viruliferous mites. To get insight into this unusual pathosystem, we evaluated the expression profiles of genes involved in defense mechanisms of Arabidopsis thaliana and Citrus sinensis upon infestation with non-viruliferous and viruliferous mites by using reverse-transcription qPCR...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933076/overexpression-of-tanac2d-displays-opposite-responses-to-abiotic-stresses-between-seedling-and-mature-stage-of-transgenic-arabidopsis
#5
Quanjun Huang, Yan Wang
Environmental stresses frequently affect plant growth and development, and many genes have been found to be induced by unfavorable environmental conditions. Here, we reported the biological functions of TaNAC2D, a stress-related NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) gene from wheat. TaNAC2D showed transcriptional activator activity in yeast. TaNAC2D-GFP fusion protein was localized in the nucleus of wheat mesophyll protoplasts. TaNAC2D transcript abundance was significantly induced by NaCl, PEG6000, and abscisic acid (ABA) at seedling stage, and repressed by NaCl and PEG6000 at mature plant stage...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933075/a-non-specific-setaria-italica-lipid-transfer-protein-gene-plays-a-critical-role-under-abiotic-stress
#6
Yanlin Pan, Jianrui Li, Licong Jiao, Cong Li, Dengyun Zhu, Jingjuan Yu
Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a class of cysteine-rich soluble proteins having small molecular weights. LTPs participate in flower and seed development, cuticular wax deposition, also play important roles in pathogen and abiotic stress responses. A non-specific LTP gene (SiLTP) was isolated from a foxtail millet (Setaria italica) suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for differentially expressed genes after abiotic stress treatments. A semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that SiLTP was expressed in all foxtail millet tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933067/peptide-idr-1002-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nuclear-translocation-by-inhibition-of-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-degradation-and-activates-p38-erk1-2-msk1-dependent-creb-phosphorylation-in-macrophages-stimulated-with-lipopolysaccharide
#7
Alejandro Huante-Mendoza, Octavio Silva-García, Javier Oviedo-Boyso, Robert E W Hancock, Víctor M Baizabal-Aguirre
The inflammatory response is a critical molecular defense mechanism of the innate immune system that mediates the elimination of disease-causing bacteria. Repair of the damaged tissue, and the reestablishment of homeostasis, must be accomplished after elimination of the pathogen. The innate defense regulators (IDRs) are short cationic peptides that mimic natural host defense peptides and are effective in eliminating pathogens by enhancing the activity of the immune system while controlling the inflammatory response...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933045/what-is-the-link-between-stringent-response-endoribonuclease-encoding-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-and-persistence
#8
Bhaskar C M Ramisetty, Dimpy Ghosh, Maoumita Roy Chowdhury, Ramachandran S Santhosh
Persistence is a transient and non-inheritable tolerance to antibiotics by a small fraction of a bacterial population. One of the proposed determinants of bacterial persistence is toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) which are also implicated in a wide range of stress-related phenomena. Maisonneuve E, Castro-Camargo M, Gerdes K. 2013. Cell 154:1140-1150 reported an interesting link between ppGpp mediated stringent response, TAS, and persistence. It is proposed that accumulation of ppGpp enhances the accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate which modulates Lon protease to degrade antitoxins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932956/hypothalamic-vasopressinergic-projections-innervate-central-amygdala-gabaergic-neurons-implications-for-anxiety-and-stress-coping
#9
Vito S Hernández, Oscar R Hernández, Miguel Perez de la Mora, María J Gómora, Kjell Fuxe, Lee E Eiden, Limei Zhang
The arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-containing hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (VPMNNs) are known for their role in hydro-electrolytic balance control via their projections to the neurohypophysis. Recently, projections from these same neurons to hippocampus, habenula and other brain regions in which vasopressin infusion modulates contingent social and emotionally-affected behaviors, have been reported. Here, we present evidence that VPMNN collaterals also project to the amygdaloid complex, and establish synaptic connections with neurons in central amygdala (CeA)...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932954/neuronal-release-of-cytokine-il-3-triggered-by-mechanosensitive-autostimulation-of-the-p2x7-receptor-is-neuroprotective
#10
Jason C Lim, Wennan Lu, Jonathan M Beckel, Claire H Mitchell
Mechanical strain due to increased pressure or swelling activates inflammatory responses in many neural systems. As cytokines and chemokine messengers lead to both pro-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions, understanding the signaling patterns triggered by mechanical stress may help improve overall outcomes. While cytokine signaling in neural systems is often associated with glial cells like astrocytes and microglia, the contribution of neurons themselves to the cytokine response is underappreciated and has bearing on any balanced response...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932893/let-7a-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-to-cetuximab-by-regulating-stat3-expression
#11
Fei Xue, Yanhui Liu, Hongwei Zhang, Yu Wen, Lei Yan, Qiang Tang, Erhui Xiao, Dongyi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Let-7 miRNAs are reported to play an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, recurrence, and pluripotency of cancer. However, few studies have reported the relationship between let-7 and drug sensitivity, especially for let-7a (a subtype of let-7). This study aimed to investigate the function of let-7a in regulating the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines to cetuximab. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of cetuximab on HCC cell lines (Huh7, Hep3B, HepG2, SNU449, and SNU387) was evaluated using a cell viability assay (the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay) and a cell proliferation assay (the Click-iT EdU Imaging Kit) in the presence of a control, a let-7a mimic, and a let-7a inhibitor...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932482/patz1-down-regulates-fads1-by-binding-to-rs174557-and-is-opposed-by-sp1-srebp1c
#12
Gang Pan, Adam Ameur, Stefan Enroth, Madhusudhan Bysani, Helena Nord, Marco Cavalli, Magnus Essand, Ulf Gyllensten, Claes Wadelius
The FADS1 and FADS2 genes in the FADS cluster encode the rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Genetic variation in this region has been associated with a large number of diseases and traits many of them correlated to differences in metabolism of PUFAs. However, the causative variants leading to these associations have not been identified. Here we find that the multiallelic rs174557 located in an AluYe5 element in intron 1 of FADS1 is functional and lies within a PATZ1 binding site...
December 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932455/single-cell-profiling-reveals-that-erna-accumulation-at-enhancer-promoter-loops-is-not-required-to-sustain-transcription
#13
Samir Rahman, Cornelia E Zorca, Tatiana Traboulsi, Emmanuel Noutahi, Matthew R Krause, Sylvie Mader, Daniel Zenklusen
Enhancers are intergenic DNA elements that regulate the transcription of target genes in response to signaling pathways by interacting with promoters over large genomic distances. Recent studies have revealed that enhancers are bi-directionally transcribed into enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). Using single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH), we investigated the eRNA-mediated regulation of transcription during estrogen induction in MCF-7 cells. We demonstrate that eRNAs are localized exclusively in the nucleus and are induced with similar kinetics as target mRNAs...
December 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932380/absence-of-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-mediated-ppar%C3%AE-suppression-causes-alopecia-in-vdr-null-mice
#14
Vaibhav Saini, Hengguang Zhao, Elizabeth T Petit, Francesca Gori, Marie B Demay
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mutations in humans and mice cause alopecia. VDR-null mice (VDR(-/-)) exhibit lack of postmorphogenic hair cycles as a result of impaired keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) function. To identify the molecular basis for abnormal KSC function, RNA sequencing of wild-type (WT) and VDR(-/-) KSCs was performed. These studies demonstrated that >80% of differentially expressed genes are up-regulated in VDR(-/-) KSCs; thus, the VDR is a transcriptional suppressor in WT KSCs. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), PPARγ coactivator 1β (PGC1β), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were among the up-regulated genes identified...
December 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932034/oncogenic-retinoic-acid-receptor-%C3%AE-promotes-human-colorectal-cancer-growth-through-simultaneously-regulating-p21-transcription-and-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#15
Gui-Li Huang, Wei Zhang, Hong-Yue Ren, Pan Zhou, Yun Chen, Qing-Xi Chen, Dong-Yan Shen
Retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) plays important roles in the progression of several cancers such as leukemia, breast cancer, and lung cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that RARα protein was frequently overexpressed in human CRC specimens and CRC cell lines. RARα knockdown decreased cell survival, proliferation, and colony formation in vitro and tumorigenic potential in nude mice. Specifically, RARα knockdown inhibited cell cycle progression at G1 phase through upregulation of cell cycle inhibitor p21, and downregulation of cyclinD1...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931511/myod-overexpressed-equine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-enhanced-myogenic-differentiation-potential
#16
Soo-Eun Sung, Meeyul Hwang, Ah-Young Kim, Eun-Mi Lee, Eun-Joo Lee, Su-Kyeong Hwang, Shin-Yoon Kim, Hong-Kyun Kim, Kyu-Shik Jeong
Mesenchymal stem cells could potentially be used in the clinical treatment of muscle disorders and muscle regeneration. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be easily isolated from adipose tissue, as opposed to stem cells of other tissues. We believe that cell therapy using ADSCs could be applied to muscle disorders in horses and other species. We sought to improve the myogenic differentiation potential of equine ADSCs (eqADSCs) using a MyoD lentiviral vector. MyoD lentiviruses were transduced into eqADSCs and selected using puromycin...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931510/generation-of-equine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-analysis-of-their-therapeutic-potential-for-muscle-injuries
#17
Eun-Mi Lee, Ah-Young Kim, Eun-Joo Lee, Jin-Kyu Park, Se-Il Park, Ssang-Goo Cho, Hong Kyun Kim, Shin-Yoon Kim, Kyu-Shik Jeong
Horse health has become a major concern with the expansion of horse-related industries and sports; the importance of healthy muscles for horse performance and daily activities is undisputed. Here we generated equine-induced pluripotent stem cells (E-iPSCs) by reprogramming equine adipose-derived stem cells (E-ADSCs) into iPSCs using a polycistronic lentiviral vector encoding four transcription factors (i.e., Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) and then examined their pluripotent characteristics. Subsequently, established E-iPSCs were transplanted into muscle-injured Rag/mdx mice...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931143/synergistic-in-vitro-activity-of-sodium-houttuyfonate-with-fluconazole-against-clinical-candida-albicans-strains-under-planktonic-growing-conditions
#18
Jing Shao, YanYan Cui, MengXiang Zhang, TianMing Wang, DaQiang Wu, ChangZhong Wang
CONTEXT: Fluconazole resistance is an intractable problem of treating Candida albicans, calling for more antifungal agents to enhance the activity of fluconazole. OBJECTIVE: This work investigates the anti-C. albicans activities of sodium houttuyfonate (SH) and/or fluconazole and the associated mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of SH and fluconazole both ranging from 0.5 to 1024 μg/mL were determined by broth microdilution method in 19 C...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930738/mir-151-3p-targets-twist1-to-repress-migration-of-human-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Ting-Chih Yeh, Tzu-Ting Huang, Tien-Shun Yeh, Yu-Ren Chen, Kai-Wen Hsu, Pen-Hui Yin, Hsin-Chen Lee, Ling-Ming Tseng
TWIST1 is a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that contributes to cancer metastasis by promoting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and repressing E-cadherin gene expression in breast cancer. In this study, we explored the potential role of miR-151 in TWIST1 expression and cancer properties in human breast cancer cells. We found that the human TWIST1 3'UTR contains a potential binging site for miR-151-3p at the putative target sequence 5'-CAGUCUAG-3'. Using a TWIST1-3'UTR luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that the target sequence within the TWIST1 3'UTR is required for miR-151-3p regulation of TWIST1 expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930646/retinal-expression-of-the-drosophila-eyes-absent-gene-is-controlled-by-several-cooperatively-acting-cis-regulatory-elements
#20
Bonnie M Weasner, Brandon P Weasner, Sarah D Neuman, Arash Bashirullah, Justin P Kumar
The eyes absent (eya) gene of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a member of an evolutionarily conserved gene regulatory network that controls eye formation in all seeing animals. The loss of eya leads to the complete elimination of the compound eye while forced expression of eya in non-retinal tissues is sufficient to induce ectopic eye formation. Within the developing retina eya is expressed in a dynamic pattern and is involved in tissue specification/determination, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell fate choice...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
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