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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813705/the-lncrna-tug1-ezh2-axis-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-cell-proliferation-migration-and-emt-phenotype-formation-through-sponging-mir-382
#1
Liang Zhao, Hongwei Sun, Hongru Kong, Zongjing Chen, Bicheng Chen, Mengtao Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is the one of the most common and malignant cancers worldwide. LncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) was initially identified as a transcript upregulated by taurine, and the abnormal expression of TUG1 has been reported in many cancers. However, the biological role and molecular mechanism of TUG1 in PC still needs further investigation. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure the expression of TUG1 in PC cell lines and tissues...
August 15, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813675/cd44-interacts-with-hif-2%C3%AE-to-modulate-the-hypoxic-phenotype-of-perinecrotic-and-perivascular-glioma-cells
#2
Elinn Johansson, Elisa S Grassi, Vasiliki Pantazopoulou, Bei Tong, David Lindgren, Tracy J Berg, Elin J Pietras, Håkan Axelson, Alexander Pietras
Hypoxia-inducible factors enhance glioma stemness, and glioma stem cells have an amplified hypoxic response despite residing within a perivascular niche. Still, little is known about differential HIF regulation in stem versus bulk glioma cells. We show that the intracellular domain of stem cell marker CD44 (CD44ICD) is released at hypoxia, binds HIF-2α (but not HIF-1α), enhances HIF target gene activation, and is required for hypoxia-induced stemness in glioma. In a glioma mouse model, CD44 was restricted to hypoxic and perivascular tumor regions, and in human glioma, a hypoxia signature correlated with CD44...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813671/oct4-and-sox2-work-as-transcriptional-activators-in-reprogramming-human-fibroblasts
#3
Santosh Narayan, Gene Bryant, Shivangi Shah, Georgina Berrozpe, Mark Ptashne
SOX2 and OCT4, in conjunction with KLF4 and cMYC, are sufficient to reprogram human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), but it is unclear if they function as transcriptional activators or as repressors. We now show that, like OCT4, SOX2 functions as a transcriptional activator. We substituted SOX2-VP16 (a strong activator) for wild-type (WT) SOX2, and we saw an increase in the efficiency and rate of reprogramming, whereas the SOX2-HP1 fusion (a strong repressor) eliminated reprogramming...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813657/interferon-%C3%AE-represses-m2-gene-expression-in-human-macrophages-by-disassembling-enhancers-bound-by-the-transcription-factor-maf
#4
Kyuho Kang, Sung Ho Park, Janice Chen, Yu Qiao, Eugenia Giannopoulou, Karen Berg, Adedayo Hanidu, Jun Li, Gerald Nabozny, Keunsoo Kang, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Lionel B Ivashkiv
Mechanisms by which interferon (IFN)-γ activates genes to promote macrophage activation are well studied, but little is known about mechanisms and functions of IFN-γ-mediated gene repression. We used an integrated transcriptomic and epigenomic approach to analyze chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, transcription-factor binding, and gene expression in IFN-γ-primed human macrophages. IFN-γ suppressed basal expression of genes corresponding to an "M2"-like homeostatic and reparative phenotype. IFN-γ repressed genes by suppressing the function of enhancers enriched for binding by transcription factor MAF...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813650/we-can-still-be-friends-ifn-%C3%AE-breaks-up-macrophage-enhancers
#5
Boris Novakovic, Cheng Wang, Colin Logie
Interferon (IFN)-γ can prime macrophages for inflammatory responses by several mechanisms, including enhancer establishment and gene activation. In this issue of Immunity, Kang et al. (2017) provide insight into the mechanisms of IFN-γ-mediated gene repression as they show that IFN-γ promotes the disassembly of select active enhancers by interfering with enhancer-binding transcription factor MAF.
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813446/variable-stretch-reduces-the-pro-inflammatory-response-of-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#6
Ines Rentzsch, Cíntia L Santos, Robert Huhle, Jorge M C Ferreira, Thea Koch, Christian Schnabel, Edmund Koch, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco, Marcelo Gama de Abreu
Mechanical ventilation has the potential to increase inflammation in both healthy and injured lungs. Several animal studies have shown that variable ventilation recruits the lungs and reduces inflammation. However, it is unclear which cellular mechanisms are involved in those findings. We hypothesized that variable stretch of LPS-stimulated alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to non-variable stretch. AECs were subjected to non-variable or variable cyclic stretch (sinusoidal pattern), with and without LPS stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813015/transcriptional-responses-of-creeping-bentgrass-to-2-3-butanediol-a-bacterial-volatile-compound-bvc-analogue
#7
Yi Shi, Kuiju Niu, Bingru Huang, Wenhui Liu, Huiling Ma
Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) have been reported to enhance plant growth and elicit plant defenses against fungal infection and insect damage. The objective of this study was to determine transcriptomic changes in response to synthetic BVC that could be associated with plant resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in creeping bentgrass. The 2,3-butanediol (BD) (250 µM) was sprayed on creeping bentgrass leaves grown in jam jars. The result showed that synthetic BD induced plant defense against R. solani for creeping bentgrass...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812922/a-circulating-micro-rna-signature-serves-as-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-indicator-in-sarcoidosis
#8
Christian Ascoli, Yue Huang, Cody Schott, Benjamin A Turturice, Ahmed Metwally, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In sarcoidosis, aberrant miRNA expression may enhance immune responses mounted against an unknown antigenic agent. We tested whether a distinct miRNA signature functions as a diagnostic biomarker and explored its role as an immune modulator in sarcoidosis. Expression of miRNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects that met clinical and histopathologic criteria for sarcoidosis were compared to those from matched controls in the ACCESS study...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812581/nfia-co-localizes-with-ppar%C3%AE-and-transcriptionally-controls-the-brown-fat-gene-program
#9
Yuta Hiraike, Hironori Waki, Jing Yu, Masahiro Nakamura, Kana Miyake, Gaku Nagano, Ryo Nakaki, Ken Suzuki, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Shogo Yamamoto, Wei Sun, Tomohisa Aoyama, Yusuke Hirota, Haruya Ohno, Kenji Oki, Masayasu Yoneda, Andrew P White, Yu-Hua Tseng, Aaron M Cypess, Therese J Larsen, Naja Z Jespersen, Camilla Scheele, Shuichi Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Takashi Kadowaki
Brown fat dissipates energy as heat and protects against obesity. Here, we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as a transcriptional regulator of brown fat by a genome-wide open chromatin analysis of murine brown and white fat followed by motif analysis of brown-fat-specific open chromatin regions. NFIA and the master transcriptional regulator of adipogenesis, PPARγ, co-localize at the brown-fat-specific enhancers. Moreover, the binding of NFIA precedes and facilitates the binding of PPARγ, leading to increased chromatin accessibility and active transcription...
August 14, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812437/autophagy-induced-kdr-vegfr-2-activation-promotes-the-formation-of-vasculogenic-mimicry-by-glioma-stem-cells
#10
Hai-Bo Wu, Shuai Yang, Hai-Yan Weng, Qian Chen, Xi-Long Zhao, Wen-Juan Fu, Qin Niu, Yi-Fang Ping, Ji Ming Wang, Xia Zhang, Xiao-Hong Yao, Xiu-Wu Bian
Antiangiogenesis with bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has been used for devascularization to limit the growth of malignant glioma. However, the benefits are transient due to elusive mechanisms underlying resistance to the antiangiogenic therapy. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are capable of forming vasculogenic mimicry (VM), an alternative microvascular circulation independent of VEGF-driven angiogenesis. Herein, we report that the formation of VM was promoted by bevacizumab-induced macroautophagy/autophagy in GSCs, which was associated with tumor resistance to antiangiogenic therapy...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812353/dopamine-incorporated-dual-bioactive-electroactive-shape-memory-polyurethane-elastomers-with-physiological-shape-recovery-temperature-high-stretchability-and-enhanced-c2c12-myogenic-differentiation
#11
Xin Zhao, Ruonan Dong, Baolin Guo, Peter X Ma
Soft tissue engineering needs elastic biomaterials not only mimicking the elasticity of soft tissue but also possessing multiple bioactivity to promote cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, which still remains ongoing challenges. Herein, we synthesized a series of dopamine-incorporated dual bioactive electroactive shape memory polyurethane elastomers by combining the properties of elastomeric poly(citric acid-co-polycaprolactone) (CA-PCL) polyurethane elastomer, bioactive dopamine (DA) and electroactive aniline hexamer (AH)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812343/xanthohumol-suppresses-mylip-idol-gene-expression-and-modulates-ldlr-abundance-and-activity-in-hepg2-cells
#12
Shih-Fen Chen, Pei-Yi Chen, Hao-Jen Hsu, Ming-Jiuan Wu, Jui-Hung Yen
Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid found in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), exhibits multiple biological activities such as anti-atherosclerosis and hypolipidemic activities. In this study, we aim to investigate the hypocholesterolemic effects and molecular mechanisms of xanthohumol in hepatic cells. We found that xanthohumol (10 and 20 μM) increased the amount of cell-surface low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) from 100.0 ± 2.1% to 115.0±1.3% and 135.2±2.7%, and enhanced the LDL uptake activity from 100...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812292/effect-of-low-selenium-high-fat-diet-on-pig-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-perspectives-from-selenoproteins-heat-shock-proteins-and-cytokines
#13
Tianqi Liu, Tianshu Yang, Tingru Pan, Ci Liu, Shu Li
The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of low selenium (Se)/high fat on the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and cytokines in pig peripheral blood lymphocytes. Forty crossbred boar piglets with healthy lean body weights of 10 kg were randomly divided into four treatment groups (group C, group L-Se, group H-fat, and group L-Se-H-fat) (n = 10/group) and fed with the corresponding diet for 16 weeks. The pig peripheral blood lymphocytes were extracted, and the mRNA expression of selenoproteins, HSPs, and cytokines was measured...
August 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812165/methane-enhances-aluminum-resistance-in-alfalfa-seedlings-by-reducing-aluminum-accumulation-and-reestablishing-redox-homeostasis
#14
Weiti Cui, Hong Cao, Ping Yao, Jincheng Pan, Quan Gu, Sheng Xu, Ren Wang, Zhaozeng Ouyang, Qingya Wang, Wenbiao Shen
Methane (CH4) is emerging as a candidate of signal molecule recently. However, whether or how CH4 enhances plant adaptation to aluminum (Al)-contaminated environment is still unknown. In this report, the physiological roles and possible molecular mechanisms of CH4 in the modulation of Al toxicity in alfalfa seedlings were characterized. Our results showed that, CH4 pretreatment could alleviate Al-induced seedling growth inhibition and redox imbalance. The defensive effects of CH4 against Al toxicity including the remission of Al-induced root elongation inhibition, nutrient disorder, and relative electrolyte leakage...
August 15, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811977/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-extrinsic-oncosuppressor-ptx3-gene-in-inflammation-and-cancer
#15
Marcello Rubino, Paolo Kunderfranco, Gianluca Basso, Carolina Magdalen Greco, Fabio Pasqualini, Simone Serio, Massimo Roncalli, Luigi Laghi, Alberto Mantovani, Roberto Papait, Cecilia Garlanda
PTX3 is a component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and an extrinsic oncosuppressor gene taming tumor-promoting inflammation. Here, we show that two enhancers differently regulate PTX3 expression: enhancer 1, located 230 kb upstream of PTX3 promoter, mediated the action of inflammatory transcription factors; and enhancer 2, encompassing PTX3 second exon, was implicated in pre-initiation complex assembly. Polycomb repressive complex 2 silenced these regulatory elements and the promoter in basal condition...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811968/il-32%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-constitutes-a-link-between-obesity-and-colon-cancer
#16
Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Victor A Ortega, José Luis Hernández-Lizoain, Jorge Baixauli, Sara Becerril, Fernando Rotellar, Víctor Valentí, Rafael Moncada, Camilo Silva, Javier Salvador, Gema Frühbeck
Growing evidence indicates that adipose tissue inflammation is an important mechanism whereby obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Since IL-32 is an important inflammatory and remodeling factor in obesity and is also related to colon cancer (CC) development, the aim of this study was to explore whether IL-32 could function as an inflammatory factor in human obesity-associated CC promoting a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Samples obtained from 84 subjects [27 lean (LN) and 57 obese (OB)] were used in the study...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811680/the-antimicrobial-peptide-human-beta-defensin-3-is-induced-by-platelet-released-growth-factors-in-primary-keratinocytes
#17
Andreas Bayer, Justus Lammel, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad, Sebastian Lippross, Peter Behrendt, Tim Klüter, Thomas Pufe, Jochen Cremer, Holger Jahr, Franziska Rademacher, Regine Gläser, Jürgen Harder
Platelet-released growth factors (PRGF) and its related clinically used formulations (e.g., Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF®)) contain a variety of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors and are therefore used to support healing of chronic, hard-to-heal, or infected wounds. Human beta-defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide inducibly expressed in human keratinocytes especially upon wounding. The potent antimicrobial activity of hBD-3 together with its wound closure-promoting activities suggests that hBD-3 may play a crucial role in wound healing...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811612/coenzyme-q10-improves-lipid-metabolism-and-ameliorates-obesity-by-regulating-camkii-mediated-pde4-inhibition
#18
Zhe Xu, Jia Huo, Xin Ding, Mu Yang, Lin Li, Jian Dai, Kazunori Hosoe, Hiroshi Kubo, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi, Jinko Sawashita
Our recent studies revealed that supplementation with the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) inhibits oxidative stress and slows the process of aging in senescence-accelerated mice. CoQ10H2 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and regulates lipid metabolism. In the present study, we show that dietary supplementation with CoQ10H2 significantly reduced white adipose tissue content and improved the function of brown adipose tissue by regulating expression of lipid metabolism-related factors in KKAy mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811584/nanopriming-technology-for-enhancing-germination-and-starch-metabolism-of-aged-rice-seeds-using-phytosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles
#19
Wuttipong Mahakham, Ajit K Sarmah, Santi Maensiri, Piyada Theerakulpisut
Application of nanomaterials for agriculture is relatively new as compared to their use in biomedical and industrial sectors. In order to promote sustainable nanoagriculture, biocompatible silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized through green route using kaffir lime leaf extract for use as nanopriming agent for enhancing seed germination of rice aged seeds. Results of various characterization techniques showed the successful formation of AgNPs which were capped with phytochemicals present in the plant extract...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811571/identification-of-a-gene-encoding-slow-skeletal-muscle-troponin-t-as-a-novel-marker-for-immortalization-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#20
Takuya Kuroda, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiroyuki Nakashima, Nozomi Takada, Satoko Matsuyama, Shinji Kusakawa, Akihiro Umezawa, Akifumi Matsuyama, Shin Kawamata, Yoji Sato
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are leading candidate raw materials for cell-based therapeutic products (CTPs). In the development of hPSC-derived CTPs, it is imperative to ensure that they do not form tumors after transplantation for safety reasons. Because cellular immortalization is a landmark of malignant transformation and a common feature of cancer cells, we aimed to develop an in vitro assay for detecting immortalized cells in CTPs. We employed retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as a model of hPSC-derived products and identified a gene encoding slow skeletal muscle troponin T (TNNT1) as a novel marker of immortalized RPE cells by comprehensive microarray analysis...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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