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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724078/genome-wide-association-study-of-developing-leaves-heat-tolerance-during-vegetative-growth-stages-in-a-sorghum-association-panel
#1
Junping Chen, Ratan Chopra, Chad Hayes, Geoffrey Morris, Sandeep Marla, John Burke, Zhanguo Xin, Gloria Burow
Heat stress reduces grain yield and quality worldwide. Enhancing heat tolerance of crops at all developmental stages is one of the essential strategies required for sustaining agricultural production especially as frequency of temperature extremes escalates in response to climate change. Although heat tolerance mechanisms have been studied extensively in model plant species, little is known about the genetic control underlying heat stress responses of crop plants at the vegetative stage under field conditions...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724071/haplotypes-phased-from-population-transcriptomes-detecting-selection-in-the-initial-adaptation-of-miscanthus-lutarioriparius-to-stressful-environments
#2
Cai-Yun Zhu, Wei Liu, Li-Fang Kang, Qin Xu, Shi-Lai Xing, Yang-Yang Fan, Zhi-Hong Song, Juan Yan, Jian-Qiang Li, Tao Sang
Adaptation is a characteristic that enhances the survival or reproduction of organisms; selection is the critical process leading to adaptive evolution. Therefore, detecting selection is important in studying evolutionary biology. Changes in allele frequency are fundamental to adaptive evolution. The allele frequency of entire genes at the genomic scale is more intensive and precise for analyzing selection effects, compared with simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles from nuclear gene fragments...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723932/the-nucleoid-occlusion-factor-noc-controls-dna-replication-initiation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Ting Pang, Xindan Wang, Hoong Chuin Lim, Thomas G Bernhardt, David Z Rudner
Successive division events in the spherically shaped bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are oriented in three alternating perpendicular planes. The mechanisms that underlie this relatively unique pattern of division and coordinate it with chromosome segregation remain largely unknown. Thus far, the only known spatial regulator of division in this organism is the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc that inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic ring over the chromosome. However, Noc is not essential in S. aureus, indicating that additional regulators are likely to exist...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723926/ghsos1-a-plasma-membrane-na-h-antiporter-gene-from-upland-cotton-enhances-salt-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Xiugui Chen, Xuke Lu, Na Shu, Delong Wang, Shuai Wang, Junjuan Wang, Lixue Guo, Xiaoning Guo, Weili Fan, Zhongxu Lin, Wuwei Ye
Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an important source of natural fiber, can tolerate relatively high salinity and drought stresses. In the present study, a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene, GhSOS1, was cloned from a salt-tolerant genotype of G. hirsutum, Zhong 9807. The expression level of GhSOS1 in cotton roots was significantly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (200 mM), while its transcript abundance was increased when exposed to low temperature and drought stresses. Localization analysis using onion epidermal cells showed that the GhSOS1 protein was localized to the plasma membrane...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723893/in-vivo-crispr-screening-identifies-ptpn2-as-a-cancer-immunotherapy-target
#5
Robert T Manguso, Hans W Pope, Margaret D Zimmer, Flavian D Brown, Kathleen B Yates, Brian C Miller, Natalie B Collins, Kevin Bi, Martin W LaFleur, Vikram R Juneja, Sarah A Weiss, Jennifer Lo, David E Fisher, Diana Miao, Eliezer Van Allen, David E Root, Arlene H Sharpe, John G Doench, W Nicholas Haining
Immunotherapy with PD-1 checkpoint blockade is effective in only a minority of patients with cancer, suggesting that additional treatment strategies are needed. Here we use a pooled in vivo genetic screening approach using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in transplantable tumours in mice treated with immunotherapy to discover previously undescribed immunotherapy targets. We tested 2,368 genes expressed by melanoma cells to identify those that synergize with or cause resistance to checkpoint blockade. We recovered the known immune evasion molecules PD-L1 and CD47, and confirmed that defects in interferon-γ signalling caused resistance to immunotherapy...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723877/human-spinal-bone-dust-as-a-potential-local-autograft-in-vitro-potent-anabolic-effect-on-human-osteoblasts
#6
Ryan Gao, Matthew Street, Mei Lin Tay, Karen E Callon, Dorit Naot, Alistair Lock, Jacob T Munro, Jillian Cornish, John Ferguson, David Musson
STUDY DESIGN: In Vitro Study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect that factors released from human posterior spinal bone dust have on primary human osteoblast growth and maturation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Bone dust, created during spinal fusion surgeries has the potential to be used as an autologous bone graft by providing a source of viable autologous osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells with osteogenic potential. To date, no information is available on whether bone dust also provides a source of anabolic factors with the potential to enhance osteoblast proliferation and maturation, which would enhance its therapeutic potential...
July 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723865/microrna-106b-5p-regulates-cisplatin-chemosensitivity-by-targeting-polycystic-kidney-disease-2-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
Shaorong Yu, Xiaobing Qin, Tingting Chen, Leilei Zhou, Xiaoyue Xu, Jifeng Feng
Systemic therapy with cytotoxic agents remains one of the main treatment methods for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, that, when combined with other drugs, is an effective treatment for NSCLC. However, effective cancer therapy is hindered by a patient's resistance to cisplatin. Unfortunately, the potential mechanism underlying such resistance remains unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanism of microRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p), which is involved in the resistance to cisplatin in the A549 cell line of NSCLC...
July 18, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723696/advanced-glycation-end-products-downregulate-hoxa9ec-through-activation-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-by-reciprocal-interaction
#8
Qian-Qian Zhu, Dong-Lin Li, Yang-Yan He, Zi-Heng Wu, Lu Tian, Cheng-Fei Zheng, Nan Zhang, Hong-Kun Zhang
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been recognized as an important pathophysiological mechanism in endothelial dysfunction during diabetic atherogenesis. Homeobox (Hox) genes have been identified as playing a regulatory role in the adult cardiovascular system. Regulation of HoxA9EC is involved in diabetic endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanism of HoxA9EC regulation has remained undefined. Here, we sought to investigate how HoxA9EC is regulated in AGE-induced endothelial dysfunction and to explore the mechanism involved...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723667/resistance-to-ctla-4-checkpoint-inhibition-reversed-through-selective-elimination-of-granulocytic-myeloid-cells
#9
Paul E Clavijo, Ellen C Moore, Jianhong Chen, Ruth J Davis, Jay Friedman, Young Kim, Carter Van Waes, Zhong Chen, Clint T Allen
PURPOSE: Local immunosuppression remains a critical problem that limits clinically meaningful response to checkpoint inhibition in patients with head and neck cancer. Here, we assessed the impact of MDSC elimination on responses to CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Murine syngeneic carcinoma immune infiltrates were characterized by flow cytometry. Granulocytic MDSCs (gMDSCs) were depleted and T-lymphocyte antigen-specific responses were measured...
June 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723572/robust-identification-of-developmentally-active-endothelial-enhancers-in-zebrafish-using-fans-assisted-atac-seq
#10
Aurelie Quillien, Mary Abdalla, Jun Yu, Jianhong Ou, Lihua Julie Zhu, Nathan D Lawson
Identification of tissue-specific and developmentally active enhancers provides insights into mechanisms that control gene expression during embryogenesis. However, robust detection of these regulatory elements remains challenging, especially in vertebrate genomes. Here, we apply fluorescent-activated nuclei sorting (FANS) followed by Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) to identify developmentally active endothelial enhancers in the zebrafish genome. ATAC-seq of nuclei from Tg(fli1a:egfp)(y1) transgenic embryos revealed expected patterns of nucleosomal positioning at transcriptional start sites throughout the genome and association with active histone modifications...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722829/megakaryocytes-enhance-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-proliferation-and-inhibit-differentiation
#11
Arbi M Emmakah, Hussain E Arman, Marta B Alvarez, Paul J Childress, Joseph P Bidwell, William S Goebel, Tien-Min Gabriel Chu, Melissa A Kacena
Megakaryocytes (MKs) can induce proliferation of calvarial osteoblasts [Ciovacco et al., 2009], but this same phenomenon has not been reported for bone marrow stromal populations from long bones. Bone marrow contains several types of progenitor cells which can be induced to differentiate into multiple cell types. Herein, we examined mesenchymal stromal cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation when rabbit or mouse MK were cultured with i) rabbit bone marrow stromal cells, ii) rabbit dental pulp stromal cells, or iii) mouse bone marrow stromal cells...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722778/breast-cancer-stem-cells-are-involved-in-trastuzumab-resistance-through-the-her2-modulation-in-3d-culture
#12
Cristina Elisa Rodríguez, Damian Emilio Berardi, Marianela Abrigo, Laura Beatriz Torado, Elisa Dora Bal de Kier Joffé, Gabriel León Fiszman
Breast cancer human cells culture as spheroids develop autophagy and apoptosis, which promotes Trastuzumab resistance in HER2 overexpressing cells. Our aim was to study the association of the hostile environment developed in 3D with the breast cancer stem cells population and the HER2 modulation. Human mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines were cultured as spheroids using the hanging drop method. We generated hypoxia conditions by using a hypoxic chamber and CoCl2 treatment. Breast cancer stem cells were measured with mammosphere assays, the analysis of CD44 + CD24(low) population by flow cytometry and the pluripotent gene expression by RT-qPCR...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722764/12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-and-ezh2-inhibition-a-novel-approach-for-promoting-myogenic-differentiation-in-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells
#13
Irene Marchesi, Luca Sanna, Milena Fais, Paolo Fiorentino Francesco, Antonio Giordano, Luigi Bagella
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a soft tissue sarcoma that arises from muscle precursors affecting predominately children and young adults. It can be divided into two main classes: embryonal (eRMS) and alveolar rhabodomyosarcomas (aRMS). Despite the expression of early muscle specific genes, RMS cells fail to complete myogenesis even in differentiation conditions. We previously demonstrated that Enhancer Zeste of Homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunits of PRC2 complex, contributes to inhibit muscle differentiation in eRMS and its down-regulation causes a partial recovery of myogenesis...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722539/an-autophagy-driven-pathway-of-atp-secretion-supports-the-aggressive-phenotype-of-braf-v600e-inhibitor-resistant-metastatic-melanoma-cells
#14
Shaun Martin, Aleksandra M Dudek-Peric, Abhishek D Garg, Heleen Roose, Seyma Demirsoy, Sofie Van Eygen, Freya Mertens, Peter Vangheluwe, Hugo Vankelecom, Patrizia Agostinis
The ingrained capacity of melanoma cells to rapidly evolve towards an aggressive phenotype is manifested by their increased ability to develop drug-resistance, evident in the case of vemurafenib, a therapeutic-agent targeting BRAF(V600E). Previous studies indicated a tight correlation between heightened melanoma-associated macroautophagy/autophagy and acquired Vemurafenib resistance. However, how this vesicular trafficking pathway supports Vemurafenib resistance remains unclear. Here, using isogenic human and murine melanoma cell lines of Vemurafenib-resistant and patient-derived melanoma cells with primary resistance to the BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, we found that the enhanced migration and invasion of the resistant melanoma cells correlated with an enhanced autophagic capacity and autophagosome-mediated secretion of ATP...
July 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722335/protective-effects-of-folic-acid-on-pm2-5-induced-cardiac-developmental-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos-by-targeting-ahr-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signal-pathways
#15
Cong Yue, Cheng Ji, Hang Zhang, Leshuai W Zhang, Jian Tong, Yan Jiang, Tao Chen
Our previous observations indicated that extractable organic matter (EOM) from PM2.5 induced malformations in the heart of zebrafish embryos by activating AhR and inhibiting canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. As a nutritional factor, folic acid (FA) is reported to prevent cardiac defects during embryo development. Hence, we hypothesize that FA may prevent PM2.5-induced heart defects by interfering with AhR and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Our results showed that FA supplementation alleviated the EOM-induced heart defects in zebrafish embryos, and both AhR inhibitor CH223191 and Wnt activator CHIR99021 enhanced the protective efficiency of FA...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722316/the-mincle-ligand-trehalose-dibehenate-differentially-modulates-m1-like-and-m2-like-macrophage-phenotype-and-function-via-syk-signaling
#16
Kristel Kodar, Jacquie L Harper, Melanie J McConnell, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker
INTRODUCTION: Macrophages play a significant role in the progression of diseases, such as cancer, making them a target for immune-modulating agents. Trehalose dibehenate (TDB) is known to activate M1-like macrophages via Mincle, however, the effect of TDB on M2-like macrophages, which are found in the tumor microenvironment, has not been studied. METHODS: qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, cytokine ELISA, and Western Blotting were used to study the effect of TDB on GM-CSF and M-CSF/IL-4 derived bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) from C57BL/6 and Mincle(-/-) mice...
July 19, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722229/a-transposon-directed-epigenetic-change-in-zmcct-underlies-quantitative-resistance-to-gibberella-stalk-rot-in-maize
#17
Chao Wang, Qin Yang, Weixiang Wang, Yipu Li, Yanling Guo, Dongfeng Zhang, Xuena Ma, Wei Song, Jiuran Zhao, Mingliang Xu
A major resistance quantitative trait locus, qRfg1, significantly enhances maize resistance to Gibberella stalk rot, a devastating disease caused by Fusarium graminearum. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We adopted a map-based cloning approach to identify the resistance gene at qRfg1 and examined the dynamic epigenetic changes during qRfg1-mediated maize resistance to the disease. A CCT domain-containing gene, ZmCCT, is the causal gene at the qRfg1 locus and a polymorphic CACTA-like transposable element (TE1) c...
July 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722224/integrating-high-resolution-and-solid-state-magic-angle-spinning-nmr-spectroscopy-and-a-transcriptomic-analysis-of-soybean-tissues-in-response-to-water-deficiency
#18
Isabel D Coutinho, Tiago Bueno Moraes, Liliane Marcia Mertz-Henning, Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno, Willian Giordani, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Silvia Santagneli, Luiz Alberto Colnago
INTRODUCTION: Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy methods provide chemical environment and ultrastructural details that are not easily accessible by other non-destructive, high-resolution spectral techniques. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) has been widely used to obtain the metabolic profile of a heterogeneous sample, combining the resolution enhancement provided by MAS in SSNMR with the shimming and locking procedures in liquid-state NMR. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we explored the feasibility of using the HR-MAS and SSNMR techniques to identify metabolic changes in soybean leaves subjected to water-deficient conditions...
July 19, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722170/activation-of-the-b-cell-receptor-successively-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-stat3-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cells
#19
Uri Rozovski, David M Harris, Ping Li, Zhiming Liu, Preetesh Jain, Ivo Veletic, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Jan Burger, Philip Thompson, Nitin Jain, William Wierda, Michael J Keating, Zeev Estrov
In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the B-cell receptor (BCR) activate Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and induce the phosphorylation of signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) on tyrosine 705 residues. However, whereas IL-6 phosphorylates STAT3 within 15 minutes, stimulation of the BCR with anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies phosphorylates STAT3 in 2-4 hours. Here we show that this process takes longer because it requires transcriptional activity of NF-κB...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722145/dendrobium-nobile-lindl-alkaloids-regulate-metabolism-gene-expression-in-livers-of-mice
#20
Yun-Yan Xu, Ya-Sha Xu, Yuan Wang, Qin Wu, Yuan-Fu Lu, Jie Liu, Jing-Shan Shi
OBJECTIVES: In our previous studies, Dendrobium nobile Lindl. alkaloids (DNLA) has been shown to have glucose-lowering and antihyperlipidaemia effects in diabetic rats, in rats fed with high-fat diets, and in mice challenged with adrenaline. This study aimed to examine the effects of DNLA on the expression of glucose and lipid metabolism genes in livers of mice. METHODS: Mice were given DNLA at doses of 10-80 mg/kg, po for 8 days, and livers were removed for total RNA and protein isolation to perform real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
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