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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351603/the-unexpected-function-of-a-flavin-dependent-oxidoreductase-fox-from-variovorax-paradoxus-tbea6
#1
Christina Meinert, Marc Schürmann, Jan-Eike Domeyer, Anja Poehlein, Rolf Daniel, Alexander Steinbüchel
3,3'-Thiodipropionic acid (TDP) is used as an additive in food and cosmetic industry and as precursor substrate for biotechnical polythioester production. Its catabolism was investigated in Variovorax paradoxus TBEA6 previous to this study. It was reported that the insertion of the transposon Tn5::mob into a gene showing high homology to flavin-dependent oxidoreductases (fox) resulted in impaired growth with TDP. Therefore, it was assumed that the initial cleavage of TDP is catalyzed by an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase (Fox, VPARA_05580)...
January 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351550/differential-actions-of-ppar-%C3%AE-and-ppar-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-on-beige-adipocyte-formation-a-study-in-the-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-male-mice
#2
Tamiris Lima Rachid, Flavia Maria Silva-Veiga, Francielle Graus-Nunes, Isabele Bringhenti, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Vanessa Souza-Mello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity compromises adipocyte physiology. PPARs are essential to adipocyte plasticity, but its isolated role in the browning phenomenon is not clear. This study aimed to examine whether activation of PPAR-α or PPAR-β/δ could induce beige cell depots in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty animals were randomly assigned to receive a control diet (C, 10% lipids) or a high-fat diet (HF, 50% lipids) for ten weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351546/accessing-an-expanded-exposure-science-module-at-the-comparative-toxicogenomics-database
#3
Cynthia J Grondin, Allan Peter Davis, Thomas C Wiegers, Jolene A Wiegers, Carolyn J Mattingly
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org) is a free resource that provides manually curated information on chemical, gene, phenotype, and disease relationships to advance understanding of the effect of environmental exposures on human health. Four core content areas are independently curated: chemical-gene interactions, chemical-disease and gene-disease associations, chemical-phenotype interactions, and environmental exposure data (e.g., effects of chemical stressors on humans). Since releasing exposure data in 2015, we have vastly increased our coverage of chemicals and disease/phenotype outcomes; greatly expanded access to exposure content; added search capability by stressors, cohorts, population demographics, and measured outcomes; and created user-specified displays of content...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351476/human-endoc-%C3%AE-h1-%C3%AE-cells-form-pseudoislets-with-improved-glucose-sensitivity-and-enhanced-glp-1-signaling-in-the-presence-of-islet-derived-endothelial-cells
#4
Michael G Spelios, Lauren A Afinowicz, Regine C Tipon, Eitan M Akirav
Three-dimensional (3D) pseudoislets (PIs) can be used for the study of insulin-producing β-cells in free-floating islet-like structures similar to that of primary islets. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of islet-derived endothelial cells (iECs) to induce PIs using murine insulinomas, where PI formation enhanced insulin production and glucose responsiveness. In this report, we examined the ability of iECs to spontaneously induce the formation of free-floating 3D PIs using the EndoC-βH1 human β-cell line murine MS1 iEC line...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351450/cardiac-vanilloid-receptor-1-afferent-depletion-enhances-stellate-ganglion-neuronal-activity-and-efferent-sympathetic-response-to-cardiac-stress
#5
Koji Yoshie, Pradeep S Rajendran, Louis Massoud, OhJin Kwon, Vasudev Tadimeti, Siamak Salavatian, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi A Ajijola
Afferent fibers expressing the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) channel are implicated in cardiac nociception, however, their role in modulating reflex responses to cardiac stress is not well-understood. We evaluated this role in Yorkshire pigs by percutaneous epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a toxic activator of the VR1 channel, resulting in depletion of cardiac VR1-expressing afferents. Hemodynamics, epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARIs), and in vivo activity of stellate ganglion (SG) neurons (SGNs) were recorded in control and RTX-treated animals...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351083/transcriptional-analysis-of-immune-relevant-genes-in-the-mucus-of-labeo-rohita-experimentally-infected-with-argulus-siamensis
#6
Sonali Parida, Amruta Mohapatra, Banya Kar, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Pramoda Kumar Sahoo
The knowledge of mucosa-associated molecular events that occur during infections is scarce despite the well-established importance of mucus in fish immunity. Using qRT-PCR, we analyzed the immune gene expression patterns in mucus of Labeo rohita experimentally infected with an ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Mucus samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 15 d, and 30 d post challenge of L. rohita with metanauplii of A. siamensis. All interleukins studied herein (IL 6, IL 15, and IL 1β) showed significant upregulation of expression levels in mucus of A...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351021/coupling-reinforcement-and-speciation
#7
Roger K Butlin, Carole M Smadja
During the process of speciation, populations may diverge for traits and at their underlying loci that contribute barriers to gene flow. These barrier traits and barrier loci underlie individual barrier effects, by which we mean the contribution that a barrier locus or trait-or some combination of barrier loci or traits-makes to overall isolation. The evolution of strong reproductive isolation typically requires the origin of multiple barrier effects. Critically, it also requires the coincidence of barrier effects; for example, two barrier effects, one due to assortative mating and the other due to hybrid inviability, create a stronger overall barrier to gene flow if they coincide than if they distinguish independent pairs of populations...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350789/tcr-modifications-that-enhance-chain-pairing-in-gene-modified-t-cells-can-augment-cross-reactivity-and-alleviate-cd8-dependence
#8
Timothy T Spear, Kendra C Foley, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Michael I Nishimura
T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells are a promising immunotherapy but require refinement to improve clinical responses and limit off-target toxicities. A variety of TCR and gene-delivery vector modifications have been developed to enhance introduced TCR expression and limit introduced/endogenous TCR chain mispairing, improving target antigen recognition and minimizing mispairing-induced cross-reactivity. Using our well-characterized HCV1406 TCR, we previously compared the impact of various chain pairing enhancing modifications on TCR expression and cognate antigen recognition...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350682/conditional-replication-of-oncolytic-viruses-based-on-detection-of-oncogenic-mrna
#9
REVIEW
M Renteln
Recently, split intein-based detection sensors for RNA have been developed that can target custom sequences in a modular fashion. If multi-region, multi-sample sequencing were to be applied to a patient's cancer, truncal (i.e., earliest-occurring) mutations could be identified and could serve as targets for these sense-and-respond modules. The next step would be to utilize an effective vector for treatment. A hyper-virulent herpes simplex virus could possibly serve as this vector, with concurrent immunosuppression to allow for unhindered infection of the tumor regions...
January 19, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350681/aav-9-mediated-phosphatase-1-inhibitor-1-overexpression-improves-cardiac-contractility-in-unchallenged-mice-but-is-deleterious-in-pressure-overload
#10
D M Schwab, L Tilemann, R Bauer, M Heckmann, A Jungmann, M Wagner, J Burgis, C Vettel, H A Katus, A El-Armouche, O J Müller
The downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and decreased cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in failing hearts results in decreased phosphorylation and inactivation of phosphatase-inhibitor-1 (I-1), a distal amplifier element of β-adrenergic signaling, leading to increased protein phosphatase 1 activity and dephosphorylation of key phosphoproteins, including phospholamban. Downregulated and hypophosphorylated I-1 likely contributes to β-AR desensitization; therefore its modulation is a promising approach in heart failure treatment...
January 19, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350427/role-of-microglia-in-the-spinal-cord-in-colon-to-bladder-neural-crosstalk-in-a-rat-model-of-colitis
#11
Tsuyoshi Majima, Yasuhito Funahashi, Naoki Kawamorita, Shun Takai, Yoshihisa Matsukawa, Tokunori Yamamoto, Naoki Yoshimura, Momokazu Gotoh
AIMS: We investigated whether spinal cord microglia are involved in colon-to-bladder neural crosstalk in a rat model of colitis. METHODS: Adult female SD rats were divided into A) control, B) colitis, and C) colitis + minocycline groups. Experimental colitis was induced by administering 50% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid into the distal colon in the colitis group and the minocycline group. Minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, was continuously infused into the intrathecal space in the minocycline group...
January 19, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350358/streptomyces-ach-505-triggers-production-of-a-salicylic-acid-analogue-in-the-fungal-pathogen-heterobasidion-abietinum-that-enhances-infection-of-norway-spruce-seedlings
#12
Nadine Keilhofer, Jonny Nachtigall, Andreas Kulik, Margret Ecke, Rüdiger Hampp, Roderich D Süssmuth, Hans-Peter Fiedler, Silvia D Schrey
The necrotrophic fungus Heterobasidion spp. is the causal agent of 'annosum root rot' of Norway spruce. In the presence of the rhizosphere bacterium Streptomyces AcH 505, enhanced colonization of Norway spruce roots with Heterobasidion abietinum 331 has previously been observed. By analyzing dual cultures of H. abietinum 331 and Streptomyces AcH 505 with HPLC, a fungal metabolite was identified that was increased in the presence of Streptomyces AcH 505. Likewise, challenge of H. abietum 331 with common antifungals produced by soil streptomycetes rendered the same effect...
January 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350317/a-study-on-the-role-that-quorum-sensing-play-in-antibiotic-resistant-plasmid-conjugative-transfer-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Yueheng Zhang, Qingping Ma, Bingmei Su, Rui Chen, Juan Lin, Zhifen Lin, Dali Wang, Yang Yu
Horizontal genes transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. However, the mechanisms of HGT of ARGs under the influence of antibiotics in sub-MIC remain rarely explored. Moreover, given its collective nature, HGT was considered to be relative to quorum sensing (QS) system. To investigate whether QS has any impact on horizontal gene transfer of ARGs, experiments were conducted to determine the conjugative efficiency of plasmid RP4 on Escherichia coli (E...
January 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350101/biomimetic-composite-scaffold-sis-mbg-exhibits-high-osteogenic-and-angiogenic-capacity
#14
Tingfang Sun, Man Liu, Sheng Yao, Yanhui Ji, Zekang Xiong, Kai Tang, Kaifang Chen, Hu Yang, Xiao-Dong Guo
Biomaterials with excellent osteogenic and angiogenic activities are desirable to repair massive bone defects. Decellularized matrix from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) has attracted particular attention for tissue regeneration because it has strong angiogenic effects and retains plentiful bioactive components. However, it has inferior osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we developed porous composite of SIS combined with mesoporous bioactive glass (SIS/MBG) with the goal of improving the mechanical and biological properties...
January 19, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349633/effects-of-tetradecylthioacetic-acid-tta-treatment-on-lipid-metabolism-in-salmon-hearts-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#15
Regin Arge, Jens-Erik Dessen, Tone-Kari Østbye, Bente Ruyter, Magny S Thomassen, Kjell-Arne Rørvik
In intensive farming of Atlantic salmon, a large proportion of observed mortality is related to cardiovascular diseases and circulatory failure, indicating insufficient robustness and inadequate cardiac performance. This paper reports on the use of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) where the main objective was to enhance utilisation of fatty acids (FA), considered the main energy source of the heart. In this study, three experiments were conducted: (I) an in vivo study where salmon post-smolt were administrated dietary TTA in sea, (II) an in vitro study where isolated salmon heart cells were pre-stimulated with increasing doses of TTA and (III) an in vivo experiment where salmon post-smolt were subjected to injections with increasing doses of TTA...
January 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349588/amphiregulin-enhances-cardiac-fibrosis-and-aggravates-cardiac-dysfunction-in-mice-with-experimental-myocardial-infarction-partly-through-activating-egfr-dependent-pathway
#16
Liang Liu, Xian Jin, Cui-Fen Hu, Ya-Ping Zhang, Zhong'e Zhou, Rong Li, Cheng-Xing Shen
Cardiac fibrosis (CF), a main process of ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI), plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) post-MI. It is known that amphiregulin (AR) is involved in fibrosis of several organs. However, the expression of AR and its role post-MI are yet to be determined. This study aimed to investigate the impact of AR on CF post-MI and related mechanisms. Significantly upregulated AR expression was evidenced in the infarct border zone of MI mice in vivo and the AR secretion was enhanced in macrophages, but not in cardiac fibroblasts...
January 18, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349579/malaria-infectivity-of-xanthurenic-acid-deficient-anopheline-mosquitoes-produced-by-talen-mediated-targeted-mutagenesis
#17
Daisuke S Yamamoto, Megumi Sumitani, Masatsugu Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki Matsuoka
Anopheline mosquitoes are major vectors of malaria parasites. When the gametocytes of the malaria parasite are transferred from a vertebrate to mosquitoes, they differentiate into gametes, and are fertilized in the midguts of mosquitoes. Xanthurenic acid (XA), a waste product of the ommochrome synthesis pathway, has been shown to induce exflagellation during microgametogenesis in vitro; however, it currently remains unclear whether endogenous XA affects the infectivity of anopheline mosquitoes to malaria parasites in vivo due to the lack of appropriate experimental systems such as a XA-deficient line...
January 18, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349567/hbeag-induces-the-expression-of-macrophage-mir-155-to-accelerate-liver-injury-via-promoting-production-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#18
Wenwen Wang, Hongjun Bian, Feifei Li, Xiao Li, Di Zhang, Shuohuan Sun, Shouyang Song, Qiang Zhu, Wanhua Ren, Chengyong Qin, Jianni Qi
Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) induced that inflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HBV infection. The previous studies from our and other laboratory demonstrated miRNAs can regulate TLR-inducing inflammatory responses to macrophage. However, the involvement of miRNAs in HBV-associated antigen-induced macrophage activation is still not thoroughly understood. Here, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of miR-155 in HBV-associated antigen-induced macrophage activation...
January 18, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349465/exploring-candidate-biomarkers-for-lung-and-prostate-cancers-using-gene-expression-and-flux-variability-analysis
#19
Yazdan Asgari, Pegah Khosravi, Zahra Zabihinpour, Mahnaz Habibi
Genome-scale metabolic models have provided valuable resources for exploring changes in metabolism under normal and cancer conditions. However, metabolism itself is strongly linked to gene expression, so integration of gene expression data into metabolic models might improve the detection of genes involved in the control of tumor progression. Herein, we considered gene expression data as extra constraints to enhance the predictive powers of metabolic models. We reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models for lung and prostate, under normal and cancer conditions to detect the major genes associated with critical subsystems during tumor development...
January 19, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349457/effects-of-tetrahedral-dna-nanostructures-on-autophagy-in-chondrocytes
#20
Sirong Shi, Shiyu Lin, Yong Li, Tao Zhang, Xiaoru Shao, Taoran Tian, Tengfei Zhou, Qianshun Li, Yunfeng Lin
Tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) have gathered great attention and are being widely used in biomedicine. We demonstrated that autophagy increased after exposure to TDNs (250 nM) along with the up-regulation of several autophagy-related genes and proteins. TDNs enhanced cell autophagy through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
January 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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