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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637304/effects-of-alternative-electron-acceptors-on-the-activity-and-community-structure-of-methane-producing-and-consuming-microbes-in-the-sediments-of-two-shallow-boreal-lakes
#1
Antti J Rissanen, Anu Karvinen, Hannu Nykänen, Sari Peura, Marja Tiirola, Anita Mäki, Paula Kankaala
The role of anaerobic CH4 oxidation in controlling lake sediment CH4 emissions remains unclear. Therefore, we tested how relevant EAs (SO42-, NO3-, Fe3+, Mn4+, O2) affect CH4 production and oxidation in the sediments of two shallow boreal lakes. The changes induced to microbial communities by the addition of Fe3+ and Mn4+ were studied using next-generation sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA and methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes and mcrA transcripts. Putative anaerobic CH4 oxidizing archaea (ANME-2D) and bacteria (NC 10) were scarce (up to 3...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637297/a-role-for-progesterone-regulated-sfrp4-expression-in-uterine-leiomyomas
#2
Meaghan A Delaney, Ying-Wooi Wan, Gyoung-Eun Kim, Chad J Creighton, Margaret G Taylor, Ramya Masand, Andrew Park, Cecilia Valdes, William Gibbons, Zhandong Liu, Matthew L Anderson
Context: Despite progesterone's key role in uterine smooth muscle tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which it promotes the growth of uterine leiomyomas remain poorly understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify novel gene products mediating progesterone's effects in uterine leiomyomas. Design: Gene expression profiling was used to identify putative progesterone-regulated genes differentially expressed in uterine leiomyomas, which were then studied in vitro...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637206/improving-combination-osteoporosis-therapy-in-a-preclinical-model-of-heightened-osteoanabolism
#3
Yu Shao, Selene Hernandez-Buquer, Paul Childress, Keith R Stayrook, Marta B Alvarez, Hannah Davis, Lilian Plotkin, Yongzheng He, Keith W Condon, David B Burr, Stuart J Warden, Alexander G Robling, Feng-Chun Yang, Ronald C Wek, Matthew R Allen, Joseph P Bidwell
Combining anti-catabolic agents with parathyroid hormone (PTH) to enhance bone mass has yielded mixed results in osteoporosis patients. Towards the goal of enhancing the efficacy of these regimens, we tested their utility in combination with loss of the transcription factor Nmp4 since disabling this gene amplifies PTH-induced increases in trabecular bone in mice by boosting osteoblast secretory activity. We addressed whether combining a sustained anabolic response with an anti-catabolic results in superior bone acquisition compared to PTH mono-therapy...
June 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637009/jagged-2-jag2-enhances-tumorigenicity-and-chemoresistance-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#4
Vivek Vaish, Joohwee Kim, Minsub Shim
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. Recent studies have stated that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in the development and progression of CRC. However, the role of Jagged-2 (JAG2), one of the NOTCH ligands, has not been delineated in colorectal tumorigenesis and drug resistance. In the present study, we have examined the impact of targeting JAG2 on CRC cells. Among all the members of NOTCH ligands, only the expression of JAG2 was found up-regulated in the intestinal tumors of ApcMin/+ mice as compared to the nearby normal mucosa...
June 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637005/cxcl13-is-androgen-responsive-and-involved-in-androgen-induced-prostate-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#5
Long Fan, Qingyi Zhu, Li Liu, Cuicui Zhu, Haojie Huang, Shan Lu, Ping Liu
Androgen receptor (AR) is a key transcription factor playing a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms of AR action in prostate cancer are not very clear. CXCL13, known as B cell attracting chemokine1 (BCA-1), is a member of CXC chemokine family and relevant to cancer metastasis. This study shows that CXCL13 is an androgen-responsive gene and involved in AR-induced PCa cell migration and invasion. In clinical specimens, expression of CXCL13 in PCa tissues is markedly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636939/the-super-enhancer-derived-alncrna-ec7-bloodlinc-potentiates-red-blood-cell-development-in%C3%A2-trans
#6
Juan R Alvarez-Dominguez, Marko Knoll, Austin A Gromatzky, Harvey F Lodish
Enhancer-derived RNAs are thought to act locally by contributing to their parent enhancer function. Whether large domains of clustered enhancers (super-enhancers) also produce cis-acting RNAs, however, remains unclear. Unlike typical enhancers, super-enhancers form large spans of robustly transcribed chromatin, amassing capped and polyadenylated RNAs that are sufficiently abundant to sustain trans functions. Here, we show that one such RNA, alncRNA-EC7/Bloodlinc, is transcribed from a super-enhancer of the erythroid membrane transporter SLC4A1/BAND3 but diffuses beyond this site...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636938/the-ldb1-complex-co-opts-ctcf-for-erythroid-lineage-specific-long-range-enhancer-interactions
#7
Jongjoo Lee, Ivan Krivega, Ryan K Dale, Ann Dean
Lineage-specific transcription factors are critical for long-range enhancer interactions, but direct or indirect contributions of architectural proteins such as CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) to enhancer function remain less clear. The LDB1 complex mediates enhancer-gene interactions at the β-globin locus through LDB1 self-interaction. We find that an LDB1-bound enhancer upstream of carbonic anhydrase 2 (Car2) activates its expression by interacting directly with CTCF at the gene promoter. Both LDB1 and CTCF are required for enhancer-Car2 looping, and the domain of LDB1 contacted by CTCF is necessary to rescue Car2 transcription in LDB1-deficient cells...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636886/sirt1-enzymatically-potentiates-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-signaling-via-vitamin-d-receptor-deacetylation
#8
Marya S Sabir, Chengcheng Hu, Zainab Khan, Michael A Galligan, Christopher M Dussik, Sanchita Mallick, Angelika Dampf Stone, Shane F Batie, Elizabeth T Jacobs, G Kerr Whitfield, Mark R Haussler, Michael C Heck, Peter W Jurutka
The hormonal metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and promotes heterodimerization of VDR with a retinoid-X-receptor (RXR) to genomically regulate diverse cellular processes. Herein, it is revealed for the first time that VDR is post-translationally acetylated, and that VDR immunoprecipitated from human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells displays a dramatic decrease in acetylated receptor in the presence of 1,25D-ligand, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase, or the resveratrol activator of SIRT1...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636876/tissue-alignment-enhances-remodeling-potential-of-tendon-derived-cells-lessons-from-a-novel-microtissue-model-of-tendon-scarring
#9
Jasper Foolen, Stefania L Wunderli, Sandra Loerakker, Jess G Snedeker
Tendinopathy is a widespread and unresolved clinical challenge, in which associated pain and hampered mobility present a major cause for work-related disability. Tendinopathy associates with a change from a healthy tissue with aligned extracellular matrix (ECM) and highly polarized cells that are connected head-to-tail, towards a diseased tissue with a disorganized ECM and randomly distributed cells, scar-like features that are commonly attributed to poor innate regenerative capacity of the tissue. A fundamental clinical dilemma with this scarring process is whether treatment strategies should focus on healing the affected (disorganized) tissue or strengthen the remaining healthy (anisotropic) tissue...
June 18, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636652/integrative-analysis-of-genomic-alterations-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-association-with-homologous-recombination-deficiency
#10
Masahito Kawazu, Shinya Kojima, Toshihide Ueno, Yasushi Totoki, Hiromi Nakamura, Akiko Kunita, Wei Qu, Jun Yoshimura, Manabu Soda, Takahiko Yasuda, Natsuko Hama, Mihoko Saito-Adachi, Kazuhito Sato, Shinji Kohsaka, Eirin Sai, Masako Ikemura, Shigeru Yamamoto, Tomoko Ogawa, Masashi Fukayama, Keiichiro Tada, Yasuyuki Seto, Shinichi Morishita, Shoichi Hazama, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Yoshihiro Yamashita, Hiroyuki Mano
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells do not express estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Currently, apart from poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors, there are few effective therapeutic options for this type of cancer. Here, we present comprehensive characterization of the genetic alterations in TNBC performed by high coverage whole genome sequencing together with transcriptome and whole exome sequencing. Silencing of the BRCA1 gene impaired the homologous recombination pathway in a subset of TNBCs, which exhibited similar phenotypes to tumors with BRCA1 mutations; they harbored many structural variations (SVs) with relative enrichment for tandem duplication...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636635/microrna-144-3p-inhibits-autophagy-activation-and-enhances-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-infection-by-targeting-atg4a-in-raw264-7-macrophage-cells
#11
Le Guo, Linlin Zhou, Qian Gao, Aijun Zhang, Jun Wei, Dantong Hong, Yuankui Chu, Xiangguo Duan, Ying Zhang, Guangxian Xu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding nucleotides that play major roles in the response of host immune cells. Autophagy plays a key role in activating the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Whether miRNAs specifically influence the activation of macrophage autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection is largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection of macrophages leads to increased expression of miR-144-3p, which targets autophagy-related gene 4a (ATG4a), to inhibit autophagy activation and antimicrobial responses to BCG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636437/tobacco-rattle-virus-trv-mediated-silencing-of-nicotiana-benthamiana-argonautes-nbagos-reveals-new-antiviral-candidates-and-dominant-effects-of-trv-nbago1
#12
Denis Odokonyero, Maria R Mendoza, Peter Moffett, Herman B Scholthof
The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of different ARGONAUTE proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana (NbAGOs) to the defense against silencing sensitive GFP-expressing viral constructs based on Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) (Tombusvirus), Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (Tobamovirus), and Foxtail mosaic virus (Potexvirus). Upon Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated down-regulation of NbAGO1, 4, 5, or 6, no effects were noted on susceptibility to any virus construct, whereas knockdown of NbAGO2 specifically prevented silencing of P19-defective TBSV (TGdP19)...
June 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636310/sensing-mechanisms-in-the-redox-regulated-2fe-2s-cluster-containing-bacterial-transcriptional-factor-soxr
#13
Kazuo Kobayashi
Bacteria possess molecular biosensors that enable responses to a variety of stressful conditions, including oxidative stress, toxic compounds, and interactions with other organisms, through elaborately coordinated regulation of gene expression. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the transcription factor SoxR functions as a sensor of oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO). SoxR protein contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster essential for its transcription-enhancing activity, which is regulated by redox changes in the [2Fe-2S] cluster...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636277/esrrb-plays-a-crucial-role-in-the-promotion-of-porcine-cell-reprogramming
#14
Fan Yang, Yahui Ren, Huan Li Huayan Wang
The estrogen-related receptor b (ESRRB) is an orphan nuclear receptor and targets many genes involved in self-renewal and pluripotency. In mouse ES cells, overexpression of ESRRB can maintain LIF-independent self-renewal in the absence of Nanog. However, the fundamental features of porcine ESRRB remain elusive. In this study, we revealed the expression profiles of ESRRB in both porcine pluripotent stem cells and early stage embryos and dissected the functional domains of ESRRB protein to prove that ESRRB is a key transcription factor that enhanced porcine pluripotent gene activation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636266/marap2-4-a-waterlogging-responsive-erf-from-mentha-regulates-bidirectional-sugar-transporter-atsweet10-to-modulate-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#15
Ujjal J Phukan, Gajendra Singh Jeena, Vineeta Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
As waterlogging and successive events severely influence growth and development of economically important plants, we attempted to characterize the role of a waterlogging-responsive Group I (A-6) Ethylene response factor (MaRAP2-4) from Mentha arvensis. Waterlogging, ethylene and Methyl jasmonate rapidly induced the expression of MaRAP2-4. MaRAP2-4 interacted with multiple cis-elements like Dehydration response elements (DRE1/2), Anoxia/Jasmonic acid response element (JARE) and GCC box showing its involvement in multiple responses...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635622/the-arabidopsis-gpr1-gene-negatively-affects-pollen-germination-pollen-tube-growth-and-gametophyte-senescence
#16
Xiao Yang, Qinying Zhang, Kun Zhao, Qiong Luo, Shuguang Bao, Huabin Liu, Shuzhen Men
Genes essential for gametophyte development and fertilization have been identified and studied in detail; however, genes that fine-tune these processes are largely unknown. Here, we characterized an unknown Arabidopsis gene, GTP-BINDING PROTEIN RELATED1 (GPR1). GPR1 is specifically expressed in ovule, pollen, and pollen tube. Enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged GPR1 localizes to both nucleus and cytoplasm, and it also presents in punctate and ring-like structures. gpr1 mutants exhibit no defect in gametogenesis and seed setting, except that their pollen grains are pale in color...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635548/th-17-regulatory-cytokines-il-21-il-23-and-il-6-enhance-neutrophil-production-of-il-17-cytokines-during-asthma
#17
Rabih Halwani, Asma Sultana, Alejandro Vazquez-Tello, Amer Jamhawi, Abeer A Al-Masri, Saleh Al-Muhsen
BACKGROUND: In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635326/encapsulins-molecular-biology-of-the-shell
#18
Robert J Nichols, Caleb Cassidy-Amstutz, Thawatchai Chaijarasphong, David F Savage
Compartmentalization is both a fundamental principle of cellular organization and an emerging theme in prokaryotic biology. Work in the past few decades has shown that protein-based organelles called microcompartments enhance the function of encapsulated cargo proteins. More recently, the repertoire of known prokaryotic organelles has expanded beyond microcompartments to include a new class of smaller proteinaceous compartments, termed nanocompartments (also known as encapsulins). Nanocompartments are icosahedral capsids that are smaller and less complex than microcompartments...
June 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635129/micrornas-involved-in-auxin-signalling-modulate-male-sterility-under-high-temperature-stress-in-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum
#19
Yuanhao Ding, Yizan Ma, Nian Liu, Jiao Xu, Qin Hu, Yaoyao Li, Yuanlong Wu, Sai Xie, Longfu Zhu, Ling Min, Xianlong Zhang
Male sterility caused by long-term high temperature (HT) stress occurs widely in crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, play an important role in the plant response to various abiotic stresses. To dissect the working principle of miRNAs in male sterility under HT stress in cotton, a total of 112 known miRNAs, 270 novel miRNAs and 347 target genes were identified from anthers of HT-insensitive (84021) and HT-sensitive (H05) cotton cultivars under normal temperature (NT) and HT conditions through small RNA and degradome sequencing...
June 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634847/carbon-nanotubes-embedded-in-embryoid-bodies-direct-cardiac-differentiation
#20
Samad Ahadian, Shukuyo Yamada, Mehdi Estili, Xiaobin Liang, Ramin Banan Sadeghian, Ken Nakajima, Hitoshi Shiku, Tomokazu Matsue, Ali Khademhosseini
We embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) for modulating mechanical and electrical cues of the stem cell niche. The CNTs increased the mechanical integrity and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Measured currents for the unmodified EBs (hereafter, EBs) and the EBs-0.25 mg/mL CNTs were 0.79 and 26.3 mA, respectively, at voltage of 5 V. The EBs had a Young's modulus of 20.9 ± 6.5 kPa, whereas the Young's modulus of the EB-0.1 mg/mL CNTs was 35.2 ± 5.6 kPa. The EB-CNTs also showed lower proliferation and greater differentiation rates compared with the EBs as determined by the expression of pluripotency genes and the analysis of EB sizes...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
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