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Lei Chen, Michaela Fakiola, Karen Staines, Colin Butter, Jim Kaufman
γδ T cells recognize a wide variety of ligands in mammals, among them members of the butyrophilin (BTN) family. Nothing is known about γδ T cell ligands in chickens, despite there being many such cells in blood and lymphoid tissues, as well as in mucosal surfaces. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of chickens was discovered because of polymorphic BG genes, part of the BTN family. All but two BG genes are located in the BG region, oriented head-to-tail so that unequal crossing-over has led to copy number variation (CNV) as well as hybrid (chimeric) genes, making it difficult to identify true alleles...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Celia Oreja-Guevara
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease that has a high impact on patients׳ quality of life. The majority of diagnosed patients are women of childbearing age, making pregnancy-related issues (conception, contraception, childbirth, lactation) a key concern. MS typically stabilizes during pregnancy, particularly in the last trimester. Evidence suggests that the disease does not affect fertility, delivery, fetal health or pregnancy itself and does not cause birth defects. There is no increase in spontaneous abortions although a decreased birth weight has been reported...
November 2014: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
J Nicholas, B Morgan-Followell, D Pitt, M K Racke, A Boster
The therapeutic landscape for multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing. Currently, there are eight FDA approved disease modifying therapies for MS including: IFN-β-1a (Avonex, Rebif), IFN-β-1b (Betaseron, Extavia), glatiramer acetate (Copaxone), mitoxantrone (Novantrone), natalizumab (Tysabri), and fingolimod (Gilenya). This review will highlight the experience to date and key clinical trials of the newest FDA approved agents, natalizumab and fingolimod. It will also review available efficacy and safety data on several promising therapies under active investigation including four monoclonal antibody therapies: alemtuzumab, daclizumab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab and three oral agents: BG12, laquinimod, and teriflunomide...
2012: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
Volker Limmroth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2013: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Joohyun Kim, Timothy A Keiderling
Formation of beta-hairpins for a series of peptides having the same general sequence, RYVEV-XG-KKILQ-NH(2), where the i + 1th residue, X, at the beta-turn is varied (Aib or B in BG12, (D)Pro or (D)P in (D)PG12, (L)Pro or P in PG12, and Asn or N in NG12) was studied by means of all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Trajectories of the tryptophan zipper beta-hairpin peptide, TZ2 (SWTWE-NG-KWTWK), were also run under similar conditions to provide a comparison with results for a like-sized peptide with a different characteristic folding mechanism...
July 1, 2010: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
S R Gordon
Enhancement of the diaminobenzidine (DAB) reaction product for light photomicroscopy was investigated using commercially available glass interference filters FITC-495, BG38, and BG12. The oxidized DAB transmission curve between 400-700 nm revealed a broad peak extending mostly through the yellow to red portions of the visible light spectrum, indicating that no single color predominates. Absorption spectra from the interference filters showed that FITC-495 gave total absorbance from 495-650 nm, with a smaller peak at 675 nm; BG38 transmitted at least a percentage of every wavelength up to 700 nm, whereas BG12 absorbed all light above 490 nm...
June 1988: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
T I Doran, R Baff, P Jacobs, E Pacia
Human sebaceous cells, isolated from adult human skin, were cultured on either bovine type I collagen or mitomycin-C-treated 3T3 fibroblasts. Sebaceous cells, termed "sebocytes", were determined to be epithelial in nature by positive staining with monoclonal antikeratin antibodies BG2 and BG12. However, sebocyte colonies were also negative for keratins found in differentiated cells of keratinocyte colonies, as defined by monoclonal antikeratin antibodies CC2 and CC6. Sebocytes did not produce cornified envelopes in vitro and could only be induced to produce small quantities (less than 5%) of envelopes with a calcium ionophore...
March 1991: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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