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Scott Jones, Nicole J Moreland, Marta Zancolli, Jeremy Raynes, Jacelyn M S Loh, Pierre R Smeesters, Shiranee Sriskandan, Jonathan R Carapetis, John D Fraser, David Goldblatt
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for an estimated 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. Protection against GAS infection is thought to be mediated by phagocytosis, enhanced by bacteria-specific antibody. There are no licenced GAS vaccines, despite many promising candidates in preclinical and early stage clinical development, the most advanced of which are based on the GAS M-protein. Vaccine progress has been hindered, in part, by the lack of a standardised functional assay suitable for vaccine evaluation...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
Minjeong Gu, Keunchang Cho, Seong Ho Kang
The migration behavior of organic fluorescent dyes (i.e., crystal violet, methyl violet base, methyl violet B base, rhodamine 6G, and rhodamine B base) in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) was investigated by focusing on the physicochemical properties of various organic solvents [ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol, dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] in background electrolyte (BGE). Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and UV/Vis detectors were employed to observe both the migration time of organic dyes and the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in NACE, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Vassilis Tangoulis, Nikolia Lalioti, John Parthenios, Nikos Boukos, Ondřej Malina, Jiří Tuček, Radek Zbořil
While synthetic methods for the grafting of nanoparticles or photoactive molecules onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed in the last years, a very limited number of reports have appeared on the grafting of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) onto CNTs. There are many potential causes, mainly focused on the fact that the attachment of molecules on surfaces remains not trivial and their magnetic properties are significantly affected upon attachment. Nevertheless, implementation of this particular type of hybrid material in demanding fields such as spintronic devices makes of utmost importance the investigation of new synthetic protocols for effective grafting...
May 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Yi Xia, Cong Zhang, Jiexin Wang, Dan Wang, Xiaofei Zeng, Jian-Feng Chen
The controllable synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles is of fundamental and technological interest. In this article, highly transparent aqueous nanodispersion of ZrO2 with controllable crystalline phase, high concentration and long-term stability was facilely prepared without any modification via the reaction of inexpensive inorganic zirconium salt and sodium hydroxide in water under an acid surrounding, combined with hydrothermal treatment. The as-prepared transparent nanodispersion had an average particle size of 7 nm, a high stability of 18 months and a high solid content of 35 wt...
May 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Long Ma, Jia-Xin Dong, Wen-Rong Fu, Xue-Yi Li, Jing Chen, Yi Liu
In this work, the effects of two non-ionic, non-hydroxyl organic solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl formamide (DMF) on the morphology and function of isolated rat hepatic mitochondria were investigated and compared. Mitochondrial ultrastructures impaired by DMSO and DMF were clearly observed by transmission electron microscopy. Spectroscopic and polarographic results demonstrated that organic solvents induced mitochondrial swelling, enhanced the permeation to H+ /K+ , collapsed the potential inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and increased the IMM fluidity...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Daniel Lundberg, Dorota Warmińska, Anna Fuchs, Ingmar Persson
The structures of the N,N-dimethylformamide (dmf), N,N-dimethylacetamide (dma), and N,N-dimethylpropionamide (dmp) solvated strontium and barium ions have been determined in solution using large angle X-ray scattering and EXAFS spectroscopy. The strontium ion has a mean coordination number (CN) between 6.2 and 6.8, and the barium ion has a mean CN between 7.1 and 7.8 in these amide solvents. The non-integer numbers indicates that equilibria between different coordination numbers and geometries exist in these systems...
May 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fabiana Pandolfi, Isabella Chiarotto, Marta Feroci
The electrochemical reduction of 2-(2,2-dibromovinyl)naphthalene in a DMF solution (Pt cathode) yields selectively 2-ethynylnaphthalene or 2-(bromoethynyl)naphthalene in high yields, depending on the electrolysis conditions. In particular, by simply changing the working potential and the supporting electrolyte, the reaction can be directed towards the synthesis of the terminal alkyne (Et4 NBF4 ) or the bromoalkyne (NaClO4 ). This study allowed to establish that 2-(bromoethynyl)naphthalene can be converted into 2-ethynylnaphthalene by cathodic reduction...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Felipe von Glehn, Rafael P C Dias-Carneiro, Adriel S Moraes, Alessandro S Farias, Veronica A P G Silva, Francisco T M Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo B G Silva, Fabricio de Carvalho, Elaine Rahal, Clare Baecher-Allan, Leonilda M B Santos
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of action of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and its metabolite, monomethyl fumarate (MMF), for the treatment of multiple sclerosis are not completely elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To discuss the role of DMF/MMF-induced hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2 /GPR109A) pathway activation in the immune response and treatment of MS. METHODS: A narrative (traditional) review of the current literature. RESULTS: Studies have shown that binding of DMF/MMF to HCA2 on dendritic cells inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and in MS murine models...
April 25, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Pierre Thuéry, Youssef Atoini, Jack Harrowfield
cis-1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid ( c-chdcH2 ) was reacted with uranyl nitrate under (solvo-)hydrothermal conditions in the presence of different possible counterions. Two neutral complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry were obtained, [UO2 ( c-chdc)(DMF)] (1) and [UO2 ( c-chdc)(H2 O)] (2), which crystallize as two-dimensional coordination polymers and do not include the additional cations present in solution. In contrast, the complex [NH4 ][PPh4 ][(UO2 )8 ( c-chdc)9 (H2 O)6 ]·3H2 O (3) crystallized in the presence of PPh4 Br, ammonium cations being generated in situ from acetonitrile hydrolysis...
May 15, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Xinyu Wang, Xu Yao, Qiang Huang, Yuxin Li, Guanghui An, Guang-Ming Li
A series of isomorphic lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), namely [La(dcbba)(DMF)2]n·0.5DMF [Ln = La (1), Eu (2) and Tb (3); H3dcbba = 4-(3, 5-dicarboxylatobenzyloxy)benzoic acid; DMF = N,N'-Dimethylformamide] have been designed and synthesized by the solvothermal reactions of H3dcbba and La(NO3)3·6H2O. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the complexes 1-3 exhibit a (3,6)-connected open framework structure with binuclear [Ln2(COO)6] n secondary building units as 6-connected nodes and H3dcbba ligands as 3-connected nodes...
May 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jichao Zhu, Qian Di, Xixia Zhao, Xiaotong Wu, Xiaokun Fan, Qian Li, Weidong Song, Zewei Quan
We report a facile method to realize the selective synthesis of Cs x Pb y Br z -based perovskites, including CsPbBr3 , Cs4 PbBr6 and CsPb2 Br5 . The use of an appropriate amount of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent is experimentally determined to play a critical role in the controlled formation of various perovskite products. With continuously increasing DMF concentration, first CsPbBr3 nanocrystals with tunable size can be achieved, and then the production of Cs4 PbBr6 and CsPb2 Br5 perovskite analogues is successively realized...
May 14, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Seyed Milad Vahabi, Mostean Bahreinipour, Mojtaba Shamsaie Zafarghandi
The SAVI has gained widespread use for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) brachytherapy. Treatments with SAVI produce inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to proximity to the tissue-air interface and variable cavity contents, causing inaccuracy in the dose calculation. In this study, a model of SAVI with sources of 169 Yb developed recently was defined and simulations with MCNP4C code of Monte Carlo were performed through different scenarios to assess the effects of these heterogeneities on the dose distribution...
May 13, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Qingming Wang, Yingzi Tan, Nianhua Wang, Zhixiang Lu, Wenling Wang
A fluorescence probe based on thiosemicarbazide has been synthesized and well characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, Elemental analysis, Electrospray ionization mass spectra. The probe 1 functions as a multitarget ion sensor, detect biologically and ecologically important Cd2+ , PO4 3- and Cr3+ . Meanwhile, probe 1 displays selectivity for Cd2+ over other metal ions and anions in DMF by emission spectrum. Interestingly, probe 1 has been explored to recognize PO4 3- in CH3 OH-H2 O (v:v = 1:9). The binding stoichiometry of probe 1 with Cd2+ and PO4 3- are 2:1 and 1:1, respectively, which are confirmed by Electrospray ionization mass spectra...
May 7, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Abeer N Al-Romaizan, Mahmoud A Hussein
A new candidate laser dye based 1,4-bis[β-(2-naphthothisolyl) vinyl] benzene (BNTVB) were prepared, and characterized in various organic solvents. The center polarity is less sensitive than electronic absorption. A red shift was noticed in the fluorescence spectra (ca. 40 nm) with increment in the solvent's polarity, this means that BNTVB's polarity appreciates upon excitation. The dipole moment of ground state (μg ) and the excited singlet state dipole moment (μe ) are determined from Kawski - Chamma and Bakshiev-Viallet equations using the disparity of Stokes shift with solvent polarity function of ε (dielectric constant) and n (refractive index) of the solvent...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
Linlin Zhong, Huifang Liu, Monica Samal, Kyusik Yun
A novel spindle-shaped graphene oxide (GO) was performed by the self-assembly of graphene oxide in the DMF. Loading uniform ZnO nanoparticles on spindle-shaped GO is used to study antibacterial property. In the ZnO/GO composites, spindle-shaped GO possessed special structure that was crumpled together with a length of ~1.0 μm and a mean diameter of 100 nm, and spherical ZnO particles with a diameter of 50 nm were fully characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Mirjam Seitz, Sonja Kilo, Elisabeth Eckert, Johannes Müller, Hans Drexler, Thomas Göen
This study was performed to assess the relation between occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide after an 8 h work shift in the acrylic fibre industry and its three biological markers N-methylformamide (NMFtotal ), N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteine (AMCC), and N-methylcarbamoyl adduct at haemoglobin (MCVal). External DMF exposure of 220 workers was determined during the whole shift. A standardised questionnaire was used to obtain information about the worker's general health status, medical treatment, smoking habits, protective measures, and possible symptoms caused by DMF exposure...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Yahia N Mabkhot, Mohammed M Alharbi, Salim S Al-Showiman, Hazem A Ghabbour, Nabila A Kheder, Saied M Soliman, Wolfgang Frey
BACKGROUND: The synthesis of new thiazole derivatives is very important because of their diverse biological activities. Also , many drugs containing thiazole ring in their skeletons are available in the market such as Abafungin, Acotiamide, Alagebrium, Amiphenazole, Brecanavir, Carumonam, Cefepime, and Cefmatilen. RESULTS: Ethyl cyanoacetate reacted with phenylisothiocyanate, chloroacetone, in two different basic mediums to afford the thiazole derivative 6, which reacted with dimethylformamide- dimethyl acetal in the presence of DMF to afford the unexpected thiazole derivative 11...
May 11, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Ping Cui, Ji-Jing Li, Jie Dong, Bin Zhao
One novel metal-organic framework {[Ni6 (OH)4 (BTB)8/3 (H2 O)6 ]·4H2 O·9DMF} n (DMF = dimethylformamide) based on 1,3,5-benzenetribenzoic acid (H3 BTB) was successfully synthesized under basic condition at room temperature, featuring a unique twofold interpenetrated pcu-type net with [Ni6 (OH)4 (COO)8 (H2 O)6 ] cluster as building block. Its gas-adsorption behaviors were investigated and modified by utilizing metalII -doped procedure, which was certified to be a highly effective pathway in enhancing CO2 uptake capacity...
May 10, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Manuela Cerina, Venu Narayanan, Anna Delank, Patrick Meuth, Stephanie Graebenitz, Kerstin Göbel, Alexander M Herrmann, Stefanie Albrecht, Thiemo Daldrup, Thomas Seidenbecher, Ali Gorji, Tanja Kuhlmann, Heinz Wiendl, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Erwin J Speckmann, Hans-Christian Pape, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
Alterations in cortical cellular organization, network functionality, as well as cognitive and locomotor deficits were recently suggested to be pathological hallmarks in multiple sclerosis and corresponding animal models as they might occur following demyelination. To investigate functional changes following demyelination in a well-defined, topographically organized neuronal network, in vitro and in vivo, we focused on the primary auditory cortex (A1) of mice in the cuprizone model of general de- and remyelination...
May 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Tahmeena Khan, Iqbal Azad, Rumana Ahmad, Saman Raza, Shalini Dixit, Seema Joshi, Abdul Rahman Khan
Mixed-ligand metal (II) (M=Cu, Fe, Co and Zn) complexes containing 2-butanone thiosemicarbazone and 1, 10-phenanthroline have been synthesized and characterized by melting point, FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, UV-spectrophotometry and molar conductance measurements. All the complexes were soluble in DMSO and DMF. They were thermally stable with high melting points. The computational studies of the complexes were also performed to assess toxicity potential, bioactivity score prediction and drug likeliness assessment based on various drug filters...
2018: EXCLI Journal
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