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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917696/brain-mapping-in-multiple-sclerosis-lessons-learned-about-the-human-brain
#1
REVIEW
Massimo Filippi, Paolo Preziosa, Maria A Rocca
The application of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has certainly helped to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for clinical disability and cognitive impairment in this condition. The numerous studies performed in MS patients have also provided many lessons on the structure-function relationships in the human brain, which could be applied to healthy subjects and to patients affected by other neurological conditions...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917625/reduced-neuroprotective-potential-of-the-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-secretome-with-ex-vivo-expansion-age-and-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Pamela Sarkar, Juliana Redondo, Kevin Kemp, Mark Ginty, Alastair Wilkins, Neil J Scolding, Claire M Rice
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials using ex vivo expansion of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are in progress for several neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Given that environment alters MSC function, we examined whether in vitro expansion, increasing donor age and progressive MS affect the neuroprotective properties of the MSC secretome. METHODS: Comparative analyses of neuronal survival in the presence of MSC-conditioned medium (MSCcm) isolated from control subjects (C-MSCcm) and those with MS (MS-MSCcm) were performed following (1) trophic factor withdrawal and (2) nitric oxide-induced neurotoxicity...
September 13, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917371/cannabinoids-for-spasticity-due-to-multiple-sclerosis-or-paraplegia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#3
REVIEW
Victoria P da Rovare, Gabriel P A Magalhães, Guilherme D A Jardini, Matheus L Beraldo, Mariel O Gameiro, Arnav Agarwal, Gustavo José Luvizutto, Lucas Paula-Ramos, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Luciane Dias de Oliveira, Rodrigo Bazan, Regina El Dib
OBJECTIVES: Spasticity remains highly prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. To summarize the effects of cannabinoids compared with usual care, placebo for spasticity due to multiple sclerosis (MS) or paraplegia. METHODS: Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS to March 2017 were performed to identify randomized controlled trials. The primary outcomes were spasticity and spasm frequency. The criteria were any patient with MS and spasticity affecting upper or lower limbs or both, and that had a confirmed diagnosis of MS based on validated criteria, or however defined by the authors of the included studies...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917260/roles-of-sigma-1-receptors-on-mitochondrial-functions-relevant-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Tzu-Yu Weng, Shang-Yi Anne Tsai, Tsung-Ping Su
The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone that resides mainly at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (called the MAMs) and acts as a dynamic pluripotent modulator in living systems. At the MAM, the Sig-1R is known to play a role in regulating the Ca(2+) signaling between ER and mitochondria and in maintaining the structural integrity of the MAM. The MAM serves as bridges between ER and mitochondria regulating multiple functions such as Ca(2+) transfer, energy exchange, lipid synthesis and transports, and protein folding that are pivotal to cell survival and defense...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916537/reversibility-of-the-effects-of-natalizumab-on-peripheral-immune-cell-dynamics-in-ms-patients
#5
Tatiana Plavina, Kumar Kandadi Muralidharan, Geoffrey Kuesters, Daniel Mikol, Karleyton Evans, Meena Subramanyam, Ivan Nestorov, Yi Chen, Qunming Dong, Pei-Ran Ho, Diogo Amarante, Alison Adams, Jerome De Sèze, Robert Fox, Ralf Gold, Douglas Jeffery, Ludwig Kappos, Xavier Montalban, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Hans-Peter Hartung, Bruce A C Cree
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the reversibility of natalizumab-mediated changes in pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) following therapy interruption. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data were collected in the Safety and Efficacy of Natalizumab in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (AFFIRM) (every 12 weeks for 116 weeks) and Randomized Treatment Interruption of Natalizumab (RESTORE) (every 4 weeks for 28 weeks) studies...
September 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915963/hepcidin-and-metallothioneins-as-molecular-base-for-sex-dependent-differences-in-clinical-course-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-chronic-iron-overload
#6
Božena Ćurko-Cofek, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Vesna Barac-Latas
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterised by inflammatory and degenerative changes. It is considered that disease arises from the influence of environmental factors on genetically susceptible individuals. Recent researches, using magnetic resonance imaging, connected iron deposits in different brain regions with demyelinating process in multiple sclerosis patients. Although iron is an essential trace element important for many biological functions it could be harmful because iron excess can induce the production of reactive oxygen species, development of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation which leads to demyelination...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915856/exercise-prescription-for-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-potential-benefits-and-practical-recommendations
#7
Farzin Halabchi, Zahra Alizadeh, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Maryam Abolhasani
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) can result in significant mental and physical symptoms, specially muscle weakness, abnormal walking mechanics, balance problems, spasticity, fatigue, cognitive impairment and depression. Patients with MS frequently decrease physical activity due to the fear from worsening the symptoms and this can result in reconditioning. Physicians now believe that regular exercise training is a potential solution for limiting the reconditioning process and achieving an optimal level of patient activities, functions and many physical and mental symptoms without any concern about triggering the onset or exacerbation of disease symptoms or relapse...
September 16, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915632/decitabine-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-a-novel-tet2-dependent-mechanism-and-exerts-potent-protective-effect-in-mouse-auto-and-allo-immunity-models
#8
Xue Wang, Jun Wang, Yong Yu, Tonghui Ma, Ping Chen, Bing Zhou, Ran Tao
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the dysregulated immune response including innate and adaptive immune responses. Increasing evidence has proven the importance of epigenetic modification in the progression of MS. Recent studies revealed that low-dose decitabine (Dec, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine), which incorporates into replicating DNA and inhibits DNA methylation, could prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) development by increasing the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915343/identifying-preferred-format-and-source-of-exercise-information-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-that-can-be-delivered-by-health-care-providers
#9
Yvonne C Learmonth, Brynn C Adamson, Julia M Balto, Chung-Yi Chiu, Isabel M Molina-Guzman, Marcia Finlayson, Barry J Riskin, Robert W Motl
BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of the benefits of exercise in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the MS population does not engage in sufficient amounts of exercise to accrue health benefits. There has been little qualitative inquiry to establish the preferred format and source for receiving exercise information from health-care providers among persons with MS. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the desired and preferred format and source of exercise information for persons with MS that can be delivered through health-care providers...
October 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914886/multiple-sclerosis-concussion-during-adolescence-linked-to-increased-risk-of-ms
#10
Peter Sidaway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914885/multiple-sclerosis-intrathecal-inflammation-mediates-mood-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Mitesh Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914804/the-role-of-erk-signaling-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#12
Katharina Birkner, Beatrice Wasser, Julia Loos, Alexander Plotnikov, Rony Seger, Frauke Zipp, Esther Witsch, Stefan Bittner
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling plays a crucial role in regulating immune cell function and has been implicated in autoimmune disorders. To date, all commercially available inhibitors of ERK target upstream components, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/ERK kinase (MEKs), but not ERK itself. Here, we directly inhibit nuclear ERK translocation by a novel pharmacological approach (Glu-Pro-Glu (EPE) peptide), leading to an increase in cytosolic ERK phosphorylation during T helper (Th)17 cell differentiation...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914581/circulating-lymphocyte-levels-and-relationship-with-infection-status-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-treated-with-daclizumab-beta
#13
Gavin Giovannoni, Heinz Wiendl, Benjamin Turner, Kimberly Umans, Oksana Mokliatchouk, Wanda Castro-Borrero, Steven J Greenberg, Peter McCroskery, Giorgio Giannattasio
BACKGROUND: Reversible lymphocyte count reductions have occurred following daclizumab beta treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To analyse total and differential lymphocyte levels and relationship with infection status. METHODS: In DECIDE, blood samples were collected at 12-week intervals from daclizumab beta- ( n = 919) or intramuscular interferon beta-1a-treated ( n = 922) patients. Infections/serious infections were assessed proximate to grade 2/3 lymphopenia or low CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell counts...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914385/multiple-sclerosis-and-rehabilitation-an-overview-of-the-different-rehabilitation-settings
#14
Andrea Tacchino, Giampaolo Brichetto, Paola Zaratin, Mario Alberto Battaglia, Michela Ponzio
To date, a lack of accurate information about how the different rehabilitation settings are actually delivered to people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is still present. Here, we described how PwMS use the different rehabilitation settings in Italy. An observational retrospective study was designed and data collected through an anonymous questionnaire distributed attending MS clinical centers, rehabilitation units, or among PwMS affiliated to the Italian MS Society. We considered as settings: out-patient ambulatory therapy (OUT), hospitalized therapy (HOSP, in-patient and out-patient hospitalized therapy), and home-based therapy (HOME)...
September 15, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914372/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatic-diseases
#15
Danli Zhong, Chanyuan Wu, Xiaofeng Zeng, Qian Wang
Rheumatic diseases refer to many diseases with a loss of immune self-tolerance, leading to a chronic inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement in multiple organs or tissues. The cause of rheumatic diseases remains to be elucidated, though both environmental and genetic factors are required for the development of rheumatic diseases. Over the past decades, emerging studies suggested that alteration of intestinal microbiota, known as gut dysbiosis, contributed to the occurrence or development of a range of rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic sclerosis, and Sjogren's syndrome, through profoundly affecting the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914229/clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-beta-interferon-and-glatiramer-acetate-for-treating-multiple-sclerosis-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation
#16
G J Melendez-Torres, Peter Auguste, Xavier Armoiry, Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Rachel Court, Jason Madan, Alan Kan, Stephanie Lin, Carl Counsell, Jacoby Patterson, Jeremy Rodrigues, Olga Ciccarelli, Hannah Fraser, Aileen Clarke
BACKGROUND: At the time of publication of the most recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance [technology appraisal (TA) 32] in 2002 on beta-interferon (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA) for multiple sclerosis, there was insufficient evidence of their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To undertake (1) systematic reviews of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IFN-β and GA in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) compared with best supportive care (BSC) and each other, investigating annualised relapse rate (ARR) and time to disability progression confirmed at 3 months and 6 months and (2) cost-effectiveness assessments of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for CIS and RRMS compared with BSC and each other...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914166/repeated-iron-soot-exposure-and-nose-to-brain-transport-of-inhaled-ultrafine-particles
#17
Laurie E Hopkins, Emilia A Laing, Janice L Peake, Dale Uyeminami, Savannah M Mack, Xueting Li, Suzette Smiley-Jewell, Kent E Pinkerton
Particulate exposure has been implicated in the development of a number of neurological maladies such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Only a few studies have focused on the olfactory pathway as a portal through which combustion-generated particles may enter the brain. The primary objective of this study was to define the deposition, uptake, and transport of inhaled ultrafine iron-soot particles in the nasal cavities of mice to determine whether combustion-generated nanoparticles reach the olfactory bulb via the olfactory epithelium and nerve fascicles...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913826/modeling-tolerance-development-for-the-effect-on-heart-rate-of-the-selective-s1p1-receptor-modulator-ponesimod
#18
Dominik Lott, Thorsten Lehr, Jasper Dingemanse, Andreas Krause
Ponesimod is a selective sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P1 ) receptor modulator currently under investigation for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. S1P receptor modulators reduce heart rate following treatment initiation. This effect disappears with repeated dosing, enabling development of innovative up-titration regimens to optimize patient safety. There are currently no published pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models describing the heart rate reduction of S1P receptor modulators in humans. The model developed here provides quantification of this effect for ponesimod...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913819/emergency-neurologic-life-support-spinal-cord-compression
#19
Kristine H O'Phelan
There are many causes of acute myelopathy including multiple sclerosis, systemic disease, and acute spinal cord compression (SCC). SCC should be among the first potential causes considered given the significant permanent loss of neurologic function commonly associated with SCC. This impairment can occur over a short period of time, and may be avoided through rapid and acute surgical intervention. Patients with SCC typically present with a combination of motor and sensory dysfunction that has a distribution referable to a spinal level...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913785/evolution-of-patient-reported-outcomes-and-their-role-in-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-trials
#20
REVIEW
Cindy J Nowinski, Deborah M Miller, David Cella
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are playing an increasing role in multiple sclerosis (MS) research and practice, and are essential for understanding the effects that MS and MS treatments have on patients' lives. PROs are captured directly from patients and include symptoms, function, health status, and health-related quality of life. In this article, we review different categories (e.g., generic, targeted, preference-based) of PRO measures and considerations in selecting a measure. The PROs included in MS clinical research have evolved over time, as have the measures used to assess them...
September 14, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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