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Functional brain surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049855/intra-arterial-transplantation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-hbmmscs-improves-behavioral-deficits-and-alters-gene-expression-in-rodent-stroke-model
#1
Vibhuti, Rehan Khan, Alpana Sharma, Suman Jain, Sujata Mohanty, Kameshwar Prasad
Stroke is a multi-factorial polygenic disease and is a major cause of death and adult disability. Administration of bone marrow stem cells protects ischemic rat brain by facilitating recovery of neurological functions. But the molecular mechanism of stem cells action and their effect on gene expression is not well explored. In this study, we have transplanted 1× 10(6) human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAo) adult male Wistar rats through intracarotid artery route at 24 hours after surgery...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049144/the-etiology-of-neuronal-development-in-craniosynostosis-a-working-hypothesis
#2
Eric D Brooks, Joel S Beckett, Jenny Yang, Andrew T Timberlake, Alexander H Sun, Carolyn Chuang, John A Persing
Craniosynostosis is one of the most common craniofacial conditions treated by neurologic and plastic surgeons. In addition to disfigurement, children with craniosynostosis experience significant cognitive dysfunction later in life. Surgery is performed in infancy to correct skull deformity; however, the field is at a crossroads regarding the best approach for correction. Since the cause of brain dysfunction in these patients has remained uncertain, the role and type of surgery might have in attenuating the later-observed cognitive deficits through impact on the brain has been unclear...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040828/neuropsychological-functioning-and-brain-energetics-of-drug-resistant-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#3
Camila Moreira Osório, Alexandra Latini, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Maria Emília Rodrigues de Oliveira Thais, Helena Dresch Vascouto, Aline Pertile Remor, Mark William Lopes, Marcelo Neves Linhares, Juliana Ben, Roberta de Paula Martins, Rui Daniel Prediger, Alexandre Ademar Hoeller, Hans Joachim Markowitsch, Peter Wolf, Kátia Lin, Roger Walz
Interictal hypometabolism is commonly measured by 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) in the temporal lobe of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE-HS). Left temporal lobe interictal FDG-PET hypometabolism has been associated with verbal memory impairment, while right temporal lobe FDG-PET hypometabolism is associated with nonverbal memory impairment. The biochemical mechanisms involved in these findings remain unknown. In comparison to healthy controls (n=21), surgically treated patients with MTLE-HS (n=32, left side=17) had significant lower scores in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT retention and delayed), Logical Memory II (LMII), Boston Naming test (BNT), Letter Fluency and Category Fluency...
October 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039075/venous-thromboembolism-and-intracranial-hemorrhage-after-craniotomy-for-primary-malignant-brain-tumors-a-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-analysis
#4
Joeky T Senders, Nicole H Goldhaber, David J Cote, Ivo S Muskens, Hassan Y Dawood, Filip Y F L De Vos, William B Gormley, Timothy R Smith, Marike L D Broekman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), frequently complicates the postoperative course of primary malignant brain tumor patients. Thromboprophylactic anticoagulation is commonly used to prevent VTE at the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We extracted all patients who underwent craniotomy for a primary malignant brain tumor from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) registry (2005-2015) to perform a time-to-event analysis and identify relevant predictors of DVT, PE, and ICH within 30 days after surgery...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034164/aberrant-brain-functional-connectivity-in-newborns-with-congenital-heart-disease-before-cardiac-surgery
#5
Josepheen De Asis-Cruz, Mary T Donofrio, Gilbert Vezina, Catherine Limperopoulos
Newborns with congenital heart disease (CHD) requiring open heart surgery are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities. Recent quantitative MRI studies have reported disrupted growth, microstructure, and metabolism in fetuses and newborns with complex CHD. To date, no study has examined whether functional brain connectivity is altered in this high-risk population after birth, before surgery. Our objective was to compare whole-brain functional connectivity of resting state networks in healthy, term newborns (n = 82) and in term neonates with CHD before surgery (n = 30) using graph theory and network-based statistics...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034126/development-and-characterization-of-methylene-blue-oleate-salt-loaded-polymeric-nanoparticles-and-their-potential-application-as-a-treatment-for-glioblastoma
#6
J M Castañeda-Gill, A P Ranjan, J K Vishwanatha
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive, grade IV brain tumor that develops from astrocytes located within the cerebrum, resulting in poor prognosis and survival rates following an accepted treatment regimen of surgery, radiation, and temozolomide. Thus, development of new therapeutics is necessary. During the last two decades, methylene blue (MB) has received increased attention as a potential neurotherapeutic due to its duality in brain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. While MB is capable of easily permeating the blood-brain barrier, its therapeutic concentrations in GBM are known to induce off-target cytotoxicity and thus, another mode of drug delivery must be considered...
August 2017: Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031866/connectivity-changes-after-laser-ablation-resting-state-fmri
#7
Varina L Boerwinkle, Aditya Vedantam, Sandi Lam, Angus A Wilfong, Daniel J Curry
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is emerging as a useful tool in the multimodal assessment of patients with epilepsy. In pediatric patients who cannot perform task-based fMRI, rsfMRI may present an adjunct and alternative. Although changes in brain activation during task-based fMRI have been described after surgery for epilepsy, there is limited data on the role of postoperative rsfMRI. In this short review, we discuss the role of postoperative rsfMRI after laser ablation of seizure foci...
September 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030850/functional-analysis-of-micrornas-in-neurogenesis-during-mouse-cortical-development
#8
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxia Zeng, Li Zeng
The advantage of using in utero electroporation is that it can study the gene function during neurodevelopment in vivo. Using functional analysis of a microRNA (miRNA) gene as an example, this protocol describes a set of techniques that are crucial for the success of neurogenesis studies, including mice time mating, plasmid preparation, utero electroporation following miRNA injection into mice embryonic brain ventricle, labeling of proliferating cells with EDU (ethynyldeoxyuridine), cryosectioning, immunofluorescence staining, and confocal microscopic analysis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030123/results-and-complications-of-flexor-digitorum-superficialis-to-profundus-transfer-in-brain-injured-patients-a-review-of-26-patients
#9
E Peraut, L Taïeb, C Jourdan, F Coroian, I Laffont, M Chammas, B Coulet
INTRODUCTION: In hemiplegic patients with a spastic clenched fist deformity, one of the goals of surgery is to address the hygiene, nursing and appearance problems. Transfer of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), initially described by Braun and colleagues, opens the non-functional hand in these patients. The primary objective of our study was to confirm the effectiveness of this technique for correcting these deformities. The secondary objectives were to demonstrate potential functional gains and to identify potential complications...
October 10, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029335/cortical-reorganization-in-dual-innervation-by-single-peripheral-nerve
#10
Mou-Xiong Zheng, Yun-Dong Shen, Xu-Yun Hua, Ao-Lin Hou, Yi Zhu, Wen-Dong Xu
BACKGROUND: Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and repair is related with cortical reorganization. However, the mechanism of innervating dual targets by 1 donor nerve is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cortical reorganization when the phrenic nerve simultaneously innervates the diaphragm and biceps. METHODS: Total brachial plexus (C5-T1) injury rats were repaired by phrenic nerve-musculocutaneous nerve transfer with end-to-side (n = 15) or end-to-end (n = 15) neurorrhaphy...
September 21, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027853/intraoperative-test-stimulation-versus-stereotactic-accuracy-as-a-surgical-end-point-a-comparison-of-essential-tremor-outcomes-after-ventral-intermediate-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation
#11
Tsinsue Chen, Zaman Mirzadeh, Kristina M Chapple, Margaret Lambert, Virgilio G H Evidente, Guillermo Moguel-Cobos, Srivadee Oravivattanakul, Padma Mahant, Francisco A Ponce
OBJECTIVE Ventral intermediate nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor is traditionally performed with intraoperative test stimulation and conscious sedation, without general anesthesia (GA). Recently, the authors reported retrospective data on 17 patients undergoing DBS after induction of GA with standardized anatomical coordinates on T1-weighted MRI sequences used for indirect targeting. Here, they compare prospectively collected data from essential tremor patients undergoing DBS both with GA and without GA (non-GA)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023958/stroke-induced-chronic-systolic-dysfunction-driven-by-sympathetic-overactivity
#12
Michael Bieber, Rudolf A Werner, Edit Tanai, Ulrich Hofmann, Takahiro Higuchi, Kai Schuh, Peter U Heuschmann, Stefan Frantz, Oliver Ritter, Peter Kraft, Christoph Kleinschnitz
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac diseases are established risk factors for ischemic stroke incidence and severity. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that brain ischemia can cause cardiac dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying this neurogenic heart disease are incompletely understood. While it is established that ischemic stroke is associated with cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial damage, elevated cardiac enzymes and plasma catecholamines in the acute phase, nothing is known about the delayed consequences of ischemic stroke on cardiovascular function...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017898/a-hierarchical-structure-for-human-behavior-classification-using-stn-local-field-potentials
#13
Hosein M Golshan, Adam O Hebb, Sara J Hanrahan, Joshua Nedrud, Mohammad H Mahoor
BACKGROUND: Classification of human behavior from brain signals has potential application in developing closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems. This paper presents a human behavior classification using local field potential (LFP) signals recorded from subthalamic nuclei (STN). METHOD: A hierarchical classification structure is developed to perform the behavior classification from LFP signals through a multi-level framework (coarse to fine). At each level, the time-frequency representations of all six contacts of the DBS leads are combined through an MKL-based SVM classifier to classify five tasks (speech, finger movement, mouth movement, arm movement, and random segments)...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994385/-physical-rehabilitation-train-the-brain
#14
Bruno Bonnechère
Since centuries, scientists, clinicians and philosophers have been debating about the interactions between the body and the mind. Researches and advances in neurophysiology over the last decades have challenged many principles and theories, mainly based on empirical observations, generally well accepted in clinical practice. These new findings, achieved through functional "magnetic resonance imaging", awake brain surgery and allow new techniques and opportunities in physical rehabilitation. More than ever the body and the brain must be considered and treated as a functional entity, the distinction between body and soul developed by Platon should no longer be applied...
October 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993242/a-distinct-microrna-expression-profile-is-associated-with-%C3%AE-11-c-methyl-l-tryptophan-amt-pet-uptake-in-epileptogenic-cortical-tubers-resected-from-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#15
Shruti Bagla, Daniela Cukovic, Eishi Asano, Sandeep Sood, Aimee Luat, Harry T Chugani, Diane C Chugani, Alan A Dombkowski
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is characterized by hamartomatous lesions in various organs and arises due to mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. TSC mutations lead to a range of neurological manifestations including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and brain lesions that include cortical tubers. There is evidence that seizures arise at or near cortical tubers, but it is unknown why some tubers are epileptogenic while others are not. We have previously reported increased tryptophan metabolism measured with α[(11)C]-methyl-l-tryptophan (AMT) positron emission tomography (PET) in epileptogenic tubers in approximately two-thirds of patients with tuberous sclerosis and intractable epilepsy...
October 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990533/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-leads-to-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction
#16
Bin Wang, Siyuan Li, Xipeng Cao, Xinghui Dou, Jingzhu Li, Ling Wang, Mingshan Wang, Yanlin Bi
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has received considerable attention as one of the main postoperative complications. The underlying mechanism of POCD in elderly subjects has not been fully elucidated to date. The central nervous system (CNS) is isolated from the bloodstream by the blood brain barrier (BBB) that consists of endothelial cells, capillary blood vessels and the tight junctions. The tight junctions carry out significant biological functions that are associated with the CNS and the blood circulation...
October 9, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987762/protective-outcomes-of-low-dose-doxycycline-on-renal-function-of-wistar-rats-subjected-to-acute-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Aline L Cortes, Sabrina R Gonsalez, Lilimar S Rioja, Simone S C Oliveira, André L S Santos, Minolfa C Prieto, Paulo A Melo, Lucienne S Lara
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute renal failure. Doxycycline (Dc) belongs to the tetracycline-class of antibiotics with demonstrated beneficial molecular effects in the brain and heart, mainly through matrix metalloproteinases inhibition (MMP). However, Dc protection of renal function has not been demonstrated. We determined whether low doses of Dc would prevent decreases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and maintain tubular Na(+) handling in Wistar rats subjected to kidney I/R...
October 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987196/overview-of-neuroradiology
#18
Elna-Marie Larsson, Johan Wikström
Neuroradiology with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential for the initial evaluation of patients with a clinical suspicion of brain and spine disorders. Morphologic imaging is required to obtain a probable diagnosis to support the treatment decisions in pre- and perinatal disorders, vascular diseases, traumatic injuries, metabolic disorders, epilepsy, infection/inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, degenerative spinal disease, and tumors of the central nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987193/brain-tumors-other-treatment-modalities
#19
Andreas Peyrl, Josa Frischer, Johannes A Hainfellner, Matthias Preusser, Karin Dieckmann, Christine Marosi
Management of tumors of the central nervous system is challenging for clinicians for various reasons, including complex diagnostic procedures, limited penetration of drugs into brain tissue, and the prerequisite to preserve brain function in any case of therapeutic intervention. Therapeutic success is dependent on the efforts, skills, and cooperation of involved specialists and disciplines. Knowledge and ability to apply adequate therapeutic modalities in an interdisciplinary approach in due time are crucial, necessitating coordination of diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions by means of multidisciplinary brain tumor boards...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987192/bioimaging-and-surgery-of-brain-tumors
#20
Georg Widhalm, Tatjana Traub-Weidinger, Johannes A Hainfellner, Michal Bienkowski, Stefan Wolfsberger, Thomas Czech
Bioimaging of brain tumors using nuclear medicine techniques complements computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), thus allowing more accurate diagnosis in clinically ambiguous situations. Special tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) have been developed which allow monitoring and planning of therapy. PET data may provide also presurgical evidence with regard to the presence of clinically relevant molecular brain tumor biomarkers. Combined PET/CT and PET/MR hybrid imaging systems will further enhance bioimaging-based brain tumor analysis...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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