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Functional brain surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534952/effects-of-exercise-on-mature-or-precursor-brain%C3%A2-derived-neurotrophic-factor-pathways-in-ovariectomized-rats
#1
Joon-Ki Park, Young-Pyo Hong, Sam-Jun Lee
Ovariectomy (OVX) is a method used to block estrogen in female rats that induces hippocampal dysfunction and affects brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathways. The majority of previous studies investigating OVX focused on BDNF expression in the hippocampus and cognitive function. The present study focused on the pathways of each BDNF type, precursor (proBDNF) and mature (mBDNF), and the effects of regular exercise in the hippocampus of ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague‑Dawely rats were used and OVX surgery was performed...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533746/intraoperative-frontal-alpha-band-power-correlates-with-preoperative-neurocognitive-function-in-older-adults
#2
Charles M Giattino, Jacob E Gardner, Faris M Sbahi, Kenneth C Roberts, Mary Cooter, Eugene Moretti, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Joseph P Mathew, Marty G Woldorff, Miles Berger
Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus suggested that anesthesia and surgery place severe stress on the aging brain, and that patients with less ability to withstand this stress will be at increased risk for developing postoperative delirium and POCD...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529055/intraoperative-mapping-and-monitoring-of-the-pyramidal-tract-using-endoscopic-depth-electrodes
#3
Yukinori Akiyama, Shunya Ohtaki, Katsuya Komatsu, Kentaro Toyama, Rei Enatsu, Takeshi Mikami, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate motor function during neuroendoscopic resectioning of deep-seated brain tumors using endoscopically guided depth electrodes. METHODS: For 12 cases of thalamic tumors including high-grade gliomas, germinomas, and malignant lymphomas, depth electrodes were inserted using endoscopic guides between the tumor and the pyramidal tract in the thalamus. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were continuously recorded during neuroendoscopic resectioning of the tumors...
May 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526642/-asleep-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Tsinsue Chen, Zaman Mirzadeh, Francisco A Ponce
OBJECTIVE: Although performing deep brain stimulation (DBS) with the patient under general anesthesia without microelectrode recording (MER) or intraoperative test stimulation (ITS) for movement disorders ("asleep" DBS) has become increasingly popular, its feasibility is based on the untested assumption that stereotactic accuracy correlates with positive clinical outcomes. To investigate outcomes after asleep DBS without MER or neurophysiological testing, we reviewed the medical literature on the topic...
May 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525411/beta-blockers-and-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-eastern-association-for-the-surgery-of-trauma-guideline
#5
Aziz S Alali, Kaushik Mukherjee, Victoria A McCredie, Eyal Golan, Prakesh S Shah, James M Bardes, Susan E Hamblin, Elliott R Haut, James C Jackson, Kosar Khwaja, Nimitt J Patel, Satish R Raj, Laura D Wilson, Avery B Nathens, Mayur B Patel
OBJECTIVE: To determine if beta-(β)-blockers improve outcomes after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). BACKGROUND: There have been no new inpatient pharmacologic therapies to improve TBI outcomes in a half-century. Treatment of TBI patients with β-blockers offers a potentially beneficial approach. METHODS: Using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, eligible articles for our systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO CRD42016048547) included adult (age ≥ 16 years) blunt trauma patients admitted with TBI...
May 18, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524762/exosomes-promote-restoration-after-an-experimental-animal-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Laura Otero-Ortega, Mari Carmen Gómez de Frutos, Fernando Laso-García, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Juan Antonio López, Jesús Vázquez, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Exosomes are gaining importance because they show great promise in therapeutic applications for several diseases. Particularly in stroke, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy work as paracrine effectors responsible for promoting neurovascular remodeling and functional recovery. Adult male rats were subjected to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by intrastriatal injection of collagenase type IV; 24 h after surgery, MSC-derived exosomes were administered through the tail vein. The rats were euthanized at 7 or 28 days after treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522183/operating-environment-for-awake-brain-surgery-choice-of-tests
#7
REVIEW
M Wager, P Rigoard, C Bouyer, V Baudiffier, V Stal, B Bataille, R Gil, F Du Boisgueheneuc
INTRODUCTION: The indication for awake brain surgery depends on a prerequisite, i.e. recognition that the brain area concerned is truly eloquent, and identification of one or more functions that must be preserved. These functions are determined preoperatively in collaboration with the patient, and neuropsychological tests considered to be the most relevant are performed in the operating room according to each team's technical preferences. OPERATING ENVIRONMENT: The neurosurgeon must choose transfer equipment considered to be relevant...
May 15, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522182/hodotopy-neuroplasticity-and-diffuse-gliomas
#8
H Duffau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The historical approach in neurooncology is used to mainly investigate the tumor, with very few considerations regarding the brain itself. Nonetheless, to select the best personalized therapeutic management for each patient with a diffuse glioma, i.e. to optimize the "onco-functional balance", the brain reaction induced by glioma growth and migration should be studied. Indeed, due to strong interactions between the glioma and the brain, cerebral adaptive phenomena often occur in order to maintain neurological and cognitive functions, as well as to compensate glioma spreading...
May 15, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516343/therapeutic-dormancy-to-delay-postsurgical-glioma-recurrence-the-past-present-and-promise-of-focal-hypothermia
#9
REVIEW
Didier Wion
Surgery precedes both radiotherapy and chemotherapy as the first-line therapy for glioma. However, despite multimodal treatment, most glioma patients die from local recurrence in the resection margin. Glioma surgery is inherently lesional, and the response of brain tissue to surgery includes hemostasis, angiogenesis, reactive gliosis and inflammation. Unfortunately, these processes are also associated with tumorigenic side-effects. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that the response to a surgery-related brain injury is hijacked by residual glioma cells and participates in the local regeneration of tumor tissues at the resection margin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515267/presurgical-thalamic-hubness-predicts-surgical-outcome-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Xiaosong He, Gaelle E Doucet, Dorian Pustina, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the presurgical brain functional architecture presented in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using graph theoretical measures of resting-state fMRI data and to test its association with surgical outcome. METHODS: Fifty-six unilateral patients with TLE, who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and were classified as obtaining a seizure-free (Engel class I, n = 35) vs not seizure-free (Engel classes II-IV, n = 21) outcome at 1 year after surgery, and 28 matched healthy controls were enrolled...
May 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510745/neural-network-imaging-to-characterize-brain-injury-in-cardiac-procedures-the-emerging-utility-of-connectomics
#11
B Indja, J P Fanning, J J Maller, J F Fraser, P G Bannon, M Vallely, S M Grieve
Cognitive dysfunction is a poorly understood but potentially devastating complication of cardiac surgery. Clinically meaningful assessment of cognitive changes after surgery is problematic because of the absence of a means to obtain reproducible, objective, and quantitative measures of the neural disturbances that cause altered brain function. By using both structural and functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging data to construct a map of the inter-regional connections within the brain, connectomics has the potential to increase the specificity and sensitivity of perioperative neurological assessment, permitting rational individualized assessment and improvement of surgical techniques...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506488/perioperative-functional-neuroimaging-of-gliomas-in-eloquent-brain-areas
#12
C Mellerio, S Charron, S Lion, P Roca, G Kuchcinski, L Legrand, M Edjlali, O Naggara, J-F Meder, J Pallud, C Oppenheim
Surgical resection of gliomas involving eloquent brain areas must be maximal in order to improve patients' survival, and safe to prevent postoperative impairments. Therefore, the precise spatial relationship between the lesion and eloquent brain areas needs to be established. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging are robust methods with increasing indications in neurosurgery for past decade. The aim of this review article is not only to pinpoint the major limitations of these methods in order to avoid erroneous conclusions, but also to detail practical aspects associated with the main paradigms routinely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to discuss recent validation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging results with direct electrical stimulation during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506484/a-surgical-approach-to-the-anatomo-functional-structure-of-language
#13
REVIEW
E Mandonnet
INTRODUCTION: Language is the most widely mapped cognitive function during brain surgery. Intraoperative language functional mapping using direct electrical stimulation under awake conditions is currently the gold standard technique for establishing the causal link between an area and a deficit that would be caused by its resection. It is also a powerful tool to investigate the anatomical correlates of current neuropsychological models of language. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to reexamine the anatomo-functional structure of language that could be inferred from data obtained in direct electrical stimulation studies during awake surgery...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506482/technical-principles-of-direct-bipolar-electrostimulation-for-cortical-and-subcortical-mapping-in-awake-craniotomy
#14
J Pallud, E Mandonnet, R Corns, E Dezamis, E Parraga, M Zanello, G Spena
INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative application of electrical current to the brain is a standard technique during brain surgery for inferring the function of the underlying brain. The purpose of intraoperative functional mapping is to reliably identify cortical areas and subcortical pathways involved in eloquent functions, especially motor, sensory, language and cognitive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of this article is to review the rationale and the electrophysiological principles of the use of direct bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506481/peri-and-intraoperative-cognitive-and-language-assessment-for-surgical-resection-in-brain-eloquent-structures
#15
G Herbet, O Rigaux-Viodé, S Moritz-Gasser
Neuropsychological care of patients suffering from an infiltrative glioma and candidates for a neurosurgery under awake condition with intraoperative functional mapping is a critical and mandatory stage in therapeutic management. It enables to estimate the functional impact of the tumor and, consequently, the efficacy of functional reorganization typically observed in these patients, not only to better predict surgery outcomes and select appropriate tasks for intraoperative functional mapping, but also to plan efficient and individualized postoperative cognitive rehabilitation strategies...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506157/motor-and-sensory-cortical-changes-after-contralateral-cervical-seventh-nerve-root-cc7-transfer-in-patients-with-brachial-plexus-injuries
#16
Ryosuke Kakinoki, Scott F M Duncan, Ryosuke Ikeguchi, Souichi Ohta, Manabu Nankaku, Hiroshi Sakai, Takashi Noguchi, Yukitoshi Kaizawa, Masao Akagi
BACKGROUND: Previous animal studies demonstrated that the sensory and motor functions in ipsilesional upper limbs that had been reconstructed by CC7 transfer eventually associated with the contralesional brain cortices that had originally mediated the functions of the ipsilesional upper limbs before brachial plexus injury (BPI). Our hypothesis was that the same findings would be seen in humans. METHODS: Four patients with total BPI treated with CC7 transfer were included...
June 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506000/therapeutic-effects-of-oral-dimethyl-fumarate-on-stroke-induced-by-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-an-animal-experimental-study
#17
Anahid Safari, Mehdi Fazeli, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Nader Tanideh, Peyman Jafari, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immune-modulatory and neuro-protective characteristics that can be used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of DMF on histological and functional recovery of rats after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. METHODS: 22 Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 275-300 g were randomized into three groups by block randomization. In the sham group (n = 7), the neck was opened, but neither MCA was occluded, nor any drug was administered...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502562/grade-1-spetzler-and-martin-cerebral-ruptured-arteriovenous-malformations-treated-by-microsurgery-poor-functional-outcome-is-related-to-injury-from-haemorrhage
#18
R Aboukaïs, M Quidet, M Baroncini, P Bourgeois, X Leclerc, M Vinchon, J-P Lejeune
INTRODUCTION: Ruptured arteriovenous malformations (rAVM) are life-threatening diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of patients with grade 1 SPM rAVM after microsurgical treatment. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We retrospectively included 64 consecutive operated patients with a grade 1 SPM rAVM in our institution between 2002 and 2012. Complications related to the surgical procedure were recorded. All patients were re-evaluated 3months after treatment using the modified Rankin Scale score (mRS)...
May 11, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494345/weight-gain-after-stn-dbs-the-role-of-reward-sensitivity-and-impulsivity
#19
Marilena Aiello, Roberto Eleopra, Francesco Foroni, Sara Rinaldo, Raffaella I Rumiati
Weight gain has been reported after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS), a widely used treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). This nucleus has been repeatedly found to be linked both to reward and to inhibitory control, two key aspects in the control of food intake. In this study, we assessed whether weight gain experienced by patients with PD after STN-DBS, might be due to an alteration of reward and inhibitory functions. Eighteen patients with PD were compared to eighteen healthy controls and tested three times: before surgery, in ON medication and after surgery, respectively five days after the implantation in ON medication/OFF stimulation and at least three months after surgery in ON medication/ON stimulation...
April 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493605/adverse-effects-of-obesity-on-cognitive-functions-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder-results-from-the-global-mood-and-brain-science-initiative
#20
Roger S McIntyre, Rodrigo B Mansur, Yena Lee, Letícia Japiassú, Kun Chen, Rui Lu, Weicong Lu, Xiaodong Chen, Ting Li, Guiyun Xu, Kangguang Lin
BACKGROUND: The burden of illness associated with bipolar disorder (BD) warrants early pre-emption/prevention. Prediction models limited to psychiatric phenomenology have insufficient predictive power. Herein, we aimed to evaluate whether the presence of overweight/obesity is associated with greater cognitive decline in individuals at high risk (HR) or ultra high risk (UHR) for BD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the moderational role of body mass index (BMI) on measures of cognitive function...
March 2017: Bipolar Disorders
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