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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727474/a-primer-on-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-fat-malabsorption-and-fatty-acid-abnormalities
#1
Samer Alkaade, Ashley A Vareedayah
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is characterized by a deficiency of exocrine pancreatic enzymes, resulting in deficits in digestion of all macronutrients, with deficiencies in digestion of fats being the most clinically relevant. The leading cause of EPI is chronic pancreatitis. However, many other causes and conditions may be implicated, including cystic fibrosis, pancreatic duct obstruction, gastric and pancreatic surgery, diabetes mellitus and other conditions. Physical and biochemical causes of EPI include decreased production and secretion of lipase, increased lipase destruction, pancreatic duct obstruction, decreased lipase stimulation and degradation, as well as gastrointestinal motility disorders...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#2
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708332/oxidative-stress-and-cellular-and-tissue-damage-in-organogenic-outbred-mouse-embryos-after-moderate-perigestational-alcohol-intake
#3
Tamara A Coll, Gabriela Chaufan, Leticia Pérez-Tito, Martín R Ventureira, Cristian M A Sobarzo, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Elisa Cebral
Perigestational alcohol consumption by CF-1 mouse, from before mating up to the period of embryo organogenesis, leads to retarded early embryo development and neural tube defects. Here, we addressed if perigestational alcohol ingestion up to Day 10 of pregnancy induces oxidative stress and changes in macromolecules and organ tissues of early organogenic embryos. Adult CF-1 female mice were administered 10% ethanol in their drinking water for 17 days prior to mating and until Day 10 of gestation, whereas control females were administered ethanol-free water...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708089/effects-of-consuming-xylitol-on-gut-microbiota-and-lipid-metabolism-in-mice
#4
Takashi Uebanso, Saki Kano, Ayumi Yoshimoto, Chisato Naito, Takaaki Shimohata, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akira Takahashi
The sugar alcohol xylitol inhibits the growth of some bacterial species including Streptococcus mutans. It is used as a food additive to prevent caries. We previously showed that 1.5-4.0 g/kg body weight/day xylitol as part of a high-fat diet (HFD) improved lipid metabolism in rats. However, the effects of lower daily doses of dietary xylitol on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism are unclear. We examined the effect of 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol intake on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in mice...
July 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696785/exendin-4-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-downregulates-hepatic-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#5
Mona M Allam, Walaa B El Gazzar
CONTEXT: Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist has been shown to have curative effects on hepatic steatosis in murine models. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of Exendin-4 on hepatic receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mRNA expression in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rat model induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: NASH was induced by high-fat diet intake, and Exendin-4 was given in two different doses...
July 11, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687643/cancer-incidence-attributable-to-lifestyle-and-environmental-factors-in-alberta-in-2012-summary-of-results
#6
Anne Grundy, Abbey E Poirier, Farah Khandwala, Xin Grevers, Christine M Friedenreich, Darren R Brenner
BACKGROUND: Estimates of the proportion of cancer cases that can be attributed to modifiable risk factors are not available for Canada and, more specifically, Alberta. The purpose of this study was to estimate the total proportion of cancer cases in Alberta in 2012 that could be attributed to a set of 24 modifiable lifestyle and environmental risk factors. METHODS: We estimated summary population attributable risk estimates for 24 risk factors (smoking [both passive and active], overweight and obesity, inadequate physical activity, diet [inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, inadequate fibre intake, excess red and processed meat consumption, salt consumption, inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake], alcohol, hormones [oral contraceptives and hormone therapy], infections [Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, human papillomavirus, Helicobacter pylori], air pollution, natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation, radon and water disinfection by-products) by combining population attributable risk estimates for each of the 24 factors that had been previously estimated...
July 7, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687533/mobile-health-technology-using-a-wearable-sensorband-for-female-college-students-with-problem-drinking-an-acceptability-and-feasibility-study
#7
Noelle Regina Leonard, Michelle Silverman, Dawa Phuti Sherpa, Madeline A Naegle, Hyorim Kim, Donna L Coffman, Marcy Ferdschneider
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of mobile app interventions have been developed for problem drinking among college students; however, few studies have examined the integration of a mobile app with continuous physiological monitoring and alerting of affective states related to drinking behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of Mind the Moment (MtM), a theoretically based intervention for female college students with problem drinking that combines brief, in-person counseling with ecological momentary intervention (EMI) on a mobile app integrated with a wearable sensorband...
July 7, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687200/ceftriaxone-reduces-alcohol-intake-in-outbred-rats-while-upregulating-xct-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#8
Bethany A Stennett, Jan C Frankowski, Joanna Peris, Lori A Knackstedt
Alcohol addiction is a chronic disease characterized by an inability to regulate drinking. A critical brain region involved in alcohol consumption is the nucleus accumbens (NA). Glutamate transmission in this region regulates alcohol consumption and relapse to alcohol-seeking. Across multiple alcohol-administration rodent models, basal extracellular glutamate levels are increased in the NA during early withdrawal. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and system xC-, containing the subunit xCT, regulate NA glutamate levels...
July 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684134/exercise-training-reduces-alcohol-consumption-but-does-not-affect-hpa-axis-activity-in-heavy-drinkers
#9
Kalliopi Georgakouli, Eirini Manthou, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Anastasia Ziaka, Ioannis G Fatouros, Georgios Mastorakos, Yiannis Koutedakis, Yannis Theodorakis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that physical exercise could have potential beneficial effects in substance abusers, which are based on both physiological and psychological theories. Although a few studies have examined the effect of exercise on alcohol intake and fitness in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), there is a gap in the literature concerning the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that could be affected by physical exercise in this population. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine physiological and biochemical responses to exercise after an 8-week supervised exercise training (ET) intervention in heavy drinkers...
July 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681511/a-new-generation-of-mtorc1-inhibitor-attenuates-alcohol-intake-and-reward-in-mice
#10
Nadege Morisot, Christopher J Novotny, Kevan M Shokat, Dorit Ron
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic condition associated with devastating socioeconomic consequences. Yet, pharmacotherapies to treat behavioral phenotypes such as uncontrolled heavy drinking are limited. Studies in rodents suggest that the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in mechanisms underlying alcohol drinking behaviors as well as alcohol seeking and relapse. These preclinical evidence suggest that mTORC1 may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of AUD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potential use of newly developed mTORC1 inhibitors, RapaLink-1 and MLN0128, in preclinical mouse models of AUD...
July 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678821/a-casein-hydrolysate-based-formulation-attenuates-obesity-and-associated-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-leiden-mice
#11
Marieke H Schoemaker, Robert Kleemann, Martine C Morrison, Joanne Verheij, Kanita Salic, Eric A F van Tol, Teake Kooistra, Peter Y Wielinga
BACKGROUND: Obesity frequently associates with the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) seems to be an important driver of these manifestations. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a combination of an extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHC), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG) (together referred to as nutritional ingredients, NI) on the development of obesity, metabolic risk factors, WAT inflammation, NAFLD and atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed LDLr-/-...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675777/effects-of-myricetin-containing-ethanol-solution-on-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#12
Hsueh-Chin Chao, Pei-Feng Tsai, Sheng-Chi Lee, Yeong-Shenn Lin, Ming-Chang Wu
Myricetin is a natural flavonol widely occurring in wines. Many beneficial effects of myricetin in alcoholic beverages have been reported before, but never including anti-obesity. In the present study, we fed obese male Sprague-Dawley rats with ethanol solutions containing various concentrations of myricetin and found that myricetin may maintain the food intake while reduce the weight-gain, feed efficiency, level of blood lipids, adipocyte size, and weight and size of the perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues (P < 0...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675116/acute-alcohol-effects-on-explicit-and-implicit-motivation-to-drink-alcohol-in-socially-drinking-adolescents
#13
Elisabeth Jünger, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Corinde E Wiers, Christian Sommer, Maria Garbusow, Nadine Bernhardt, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation...
July 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673526/health-care-cost-trajectories-in-the-year-prior-to-and-following-intake-into-veterans-health-administration-outpatient-substance-use-disorders-treatment
#14
Hildi J Hagedorn, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Ann Bangerter, Maxine L Stitzer, Daniel Kivlahan
Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses incur significantly higher overall health care costs compared to the average annual costs of VHA patients. Because SUDs are relapsing/remitting chronic illnesses, it is important to understand how service costs shift over time in relation to active SUD treatment episodes in order to identify strategies which may enhance treatment outcomes and thereby reduce costs. The primary aim of the current study was to examine VHA health care costs derived from VHA administrative data for 330 Veterans during the years prior to and following patient entry into outpatient SUD treatment in two VHA facilities...
August 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673442/when-habits-are-dangerous-alcohol-expectancies-and-habitual-decision-making-predict-relapse-in-alcohol-dependence
#15
Miriam Sebold, Stephan Nebe, Maria Garbusow, Matthias Guggenmos, Daniel J Schad, Anne Beck, Soeren Kuitunen-Paul, Christian Sommer, Robin Frank, Peter Neu, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael A Rapp, Michael N Smolka, Quentin J M Huys, Florian Schlagenhauf, Andreas Heinz
BACKGROUND: Addiction is supposedly characterized by a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision making, thus facilitating automatic drug intake. The two-step task allows distinguishing between these mechanisms by computationally modeling goal-directed and habitual behavior as model-based and model-free control. In addicted patients, decision making may also strongly depend upon drug-associated expectations. Therefore, we investigated model-based versus model-free decision making and its neural correlates as well as alcohol expectancies in alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls and assessed treatment outcome in patients...
May 22, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664351/would-brief-alcohol-intervention-be-helpful-in-facial-trauma-patients-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Kai H Lee, Andrew Hughes
Facial trauma is commonly associated with excessive consumption of alcohol and is often associated with interpersonal violence or motor vehicle accidents. Alcohol-related trauma presentation to hospitals causes a major service burden, and there have been efforts to reduce such trauma load with educational programs and social support. Brief alcohol intervention (BAI) in an acute setting (emergency department or trauma centre) has been shown as an effective means to reduce future alcohol intake and the incidence of future alcohol-related injuries, especially in the period immediately following injuries...
June 30, 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647435/dietary-habits-in-parkinson-s-disease-adherence-to-mediterranean-diet
#17
Erica Cassani, Michela Barichella, Valentina Ferri, Giovanna Pinelli, Laura Iorio, Carlotta Bolliri, Serena Caronni, Samanta A Faierman, Antonia Mottolese, Chiara Pusani, Fatemeh Monajemi, Marianna Pasqua, Alessandro Lubisco, Emanuele Cereda, Gianni Pezzoli
INTRODUCTION: Our objective is to describe the dietary habits, food preferences and adherence to Mediterranean diet (MeDi) of a large sample of Italian Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients compared to a group of controls. METHODS: Dietary habits of 600 PD patients from throughout Italy and 600 controls matched by gender, age, education, physical activity level and geographical residence, were collected using the ON-GP Food Frequency Questionnaire. Then, we compared patients by disease duration and the presence of swallowing disturbances...
June 15, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646834/beverage-osmolality-as-a-marker-for-maintaining-appropriate-body-hydration
#18
Anna Sadowska1, Franciszek Świderski, Rita Rakowska, Bożena Waszkiewicz-Robak, Małgorzata Żebrowska-Krasuska, Ewa Dybkowska
Background: Osmolalities can be useful markers for determining whether given beverages are suited for maintaining an adequate hydration of the body. Losing 2% of body water relative to body mass reduces the efficiency of body function when undertaking physical effort by around 20%. Deficiencies in water intakes approaching 5-8% of body mass, double the impairment to the body’s physical and mental functioning, whereas at a level of 10% the body becomes incapable of performing any sort of physical effort...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645738/human-germline-hedgehog-pathway-mutations-predispose-to-fatty-liver
#19
Maria J Guillen Sacoto, Ariel F Martinez, Yu Abe, Paul Kruszka, Karin Weiss, Joshua L Everson, Ramon Bataller, David E Kleiner, Jerrold M Ward, Kathleen K Sulik, Robert J Lipinski, Benjamin D Solomon, Maximilian Muenke
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease. Activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in the progression of NAFLD and proposed as a therapeutic target; however, the effects of Hh signaling inhibition have not been studied in humans with germline mutations affecting this pathway. METHODS: Patients with holoprosencephaly (HPE), a disorder associated with germline mutations disrupting Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, were clinically evaluated for NAFLD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638432/mechanical-stimulation-of-the-ht7-acupuncture-point-to-reduce-ethanol-self-administration-in-rats
#20
Suk-Yun Kang, O Sang Kwon, Ji-Young Moon, Seong Jin Cho, Kwang-Ho Choi, Junbeom Kim, Seong-Hun Ahn, Yeonhee Ryu
BACKGROUND: Alcoholism, which is a disabling addiction disorder, is a major public health problem worldwide. The present study was designed to determine whether the application of acupuncture at the Shenmen (HT7) point suppresses voluntary alcohol consumption in addicted rats and whether this suppressive effect is potentiated by the administration of naltrexone. METHODS: Rats were initially trained to self-administer a sucrose solution by operating a lever. A mechanical acupuncture instrument (MAI) for objective mechanical stimulation was used on rats whose baseline response had been determined...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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