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Reducing alcohol intake

Theresa A Hastert, Emily White
PURPOSE: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published eight recommendations regarding body weight, physical activity, and dietary behaviors aimed at reducing cancer incidence worldwide. In this paper, we assess whether meeting the WCRF/AICR recommendations is associated with lower colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence; evaluate whether particular recommendations are most strongly associated with lower CRC incidence; and assess whether associations differ by sex...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Janet M de Jesus, Scott Kahan, Robert H Eckel
Nutrition therapy is effective at controlling cardiovascular disease risk factors and therefore reducing cardiovascular disease risk. Physicians should play an active role in providing nutrition interventions for patients who would benefit from cardiovascular disease risk reduction or refer them to other professionals as needed. The evidence on nutrition interventions for blood pressure and lipid control, including overall dietary patterns, dietary fat and macronutrients, dietary cholesterol, sodium, and alcohol intake, is discussed...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
(no author information available yet)
Although total abstinence is not necessary, high alcohol intake reduces fertility rates.
September 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
Amanda Bye, Jill Shawe, Judith Stephenson, Debra Bick, Nataliya Brima, Nadia Micali
OBJECTIVE: Being underweight at pregnancy commencement is associated with a range of adverse maternal and infant outcomes, as is being overweight or obese, yet it is an aspect of maternal health which has been relatively neglected by healthcare professionals and researchers. We aimed to investigate differences in pre-pregnancy and pregnancy healthy lifestyle advice routinely offered by relevant healthcare professionals, including midwives and GPs, to women across three different BMI categories - underweight, normal, and overweight or obese...
September 23, 2016: Midwifery
Ruth Heisey, June C Carroll
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the best evidence on strategies to identify and manage women with a family history of breast cancer. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A PubMed search was conducted using the search terms breast cancer, guidelines, risk, family history, management, and magnetic resonance imaging screening from 2000 to 2016. Most evidence is level II. MAIN MESSAGE: Taking a good family history is essential when assessing breast cancer risk in order to identify women suitable for referral to a genetic counselor for possible genetic testing...
October 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
J T Gass, J T McGonigal, L J Chandler
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by periods of heavy alcohol consumption and unsuccessful attempts at abstinence. Relapse is one of the most problematic aspects in the treatment of alcoholism and is triggered by ethanol-associated cues. Extinction-based cue exposure therapies have proven ineffective in the treatment of alcoholism. However, positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 with CDPPB enhances the extinction learning of alcohol-seeking behavior. The current study investigated the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior...
October 7, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Chelsea Anderson, Ginger L Milne, Dale P Sandler, Hazel B Nichols
Higher levels of oxidative stress, as measured by F2-isoprostanes, have been associated with chronic diseases such as CVD and some cancers. Improvements in diet and physical activity may help reduce oxidative stress; however, previous studies regarding associations between lifestyle factors and F2-isoprostane concentrations have been inconsistent. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether physical activity and intakes of fruits/vegetables, antioxidant nutrients, dietary fat subgroups and alcohol are associated with concentrations of F2-isoprostane and the major F2-isoprostane metabolite...
October 11, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Il Gyu Kong, So Young Kim, Min-Su Kim, Bumjung Park, Jin-Hwan Kim, Hyo Geun Choi
BACKGROUND: Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. METHODS: A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012...
2016: PloS One
Xiao Jiao Cheng, Jia Cheng Lin, Shui Ping Tu
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. SUMMARY: Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer...
September 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
Fariba Samadian, Nooshin Dalili, Ali Jamalian
Hypertension is the most important, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. High salt intake may predispose children to develop hypertension later. A modest reduction in population salt intake worldwide would result in a major improvement in public health. Regarding smoking as another risk factor, there are various strategies that can be used to promote smoking cessation. Physicians are in an excellent position to help their patients stop smoking. Targeted weight loss interventions in population subgroups might be more effective for the prevention of hypertension than a general-population approach...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
Emily L Newman, Georgia Gunner, Polly Huynh, Darrel Gachette, Stephen J Moss, Trevor G Smart, Uwe Rudolph, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABRA2, the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2-subunit in humans. Deficient GABAergic functioning is linked to impulse control disorders, intermittent explosive disorder, and to drug abuse and dependence, yet it remains unclear whether α2-containing GABAA receptor sensitivity to endogenous ligands is involved in excessive alcohol drinking. METHODS: Male wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6J and point-mutated mice rendered insensitive to GABAergic modulation by benzodiazepines (BZD; H101R), allopregnanolone (ALLO) or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC; Q241M), or high concentrations of ethanol (EtOH) (S270H/L277A) at α2-containing GABAA receptors were assessed for their binge-like, moderate, or escalated chronic drinking using drinking in the dark, continuous access (CA) and intermittent access (IA) to alcohol protocols, respectively...
September 26, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
R Fabiani
Epidemiological studies suggest that olive oil intake is associated to a reduced risk of cancer. Recently, the chemopreventive activity of olive oil has been attributed to its unique phenolic compounds represented by phenolic alcohols, hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol: 3,4-DHPEA) and tyrosol (p-hydroxyphenylethanol: p-HPEA), and their secoiridoid derivatives 3,4-DHPEA-EA (oleuropein aglycon), p-HPEA-EA (ligstroside aglycon), 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA (oleocanthal), and oleuropein. Several studies have demonstrated that these compounds are able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in different tumor cell lines...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Maria E Pagano, Christina M Delos-Reyes, Sherry Wasilow, Kathleen M Svala, Steven P Kurtz
Minors entering treatment for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders tend to smoke at high rates, and many have comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clear-air laws force patients to refrain from smoking on the premises of AOD treatment facilities, which may hinder the progress of treatment-seeking populations who smoke and struggle with ADHD comorbidity in particular. This study explores clinical characteristics associated with smoking among youths presenting for residential treatment, clinical characteristics associated with smoking cessation, and the impact of smoking cessation with ADHD comorbidity on AOD treatment response...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Ashlee Van't Veer, Karen L Smith, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon, Anita J Bechtholt
INTRODUCTION: Studies in laboratory animals and humans indicate that endogenous opioids play an important role in regulating the rewarding value of various drugs, including ethanol (EtOH). Indeed, opioid antagonists are currently a front-line treatment for alcoholism in humans. Although roles for mu- and delta-opioid receptors have been characterized, the contribution of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) is less clear. There is evidence that changes in KOR system function can decrease or increase EtOH drinking, depending on test conditions...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Yang Hee Kim, Jae Yong Shim, Min Seok Seo, Hyung Ji Yim, Mi Ra Cho
BACKGROUND: The results of previous studies on the association between blood mercury (Hg) and bone mineral density (BMD) are inconsistent. We therefore used a large-scale nationwide representative sample of Korean men to investigate the relationship between these two parameters. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to evaluate the relationship between blood Hg and BMD and the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in 1,190 men over 50 years of age...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Emmanuel Darcq, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Vincent Warnault, Jerome Jeanblanc, Frank M Longo, Stephen M Massa, Dorit Ron
UNLABELLED: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) keeps alcohol intake in moderation. For example, activation of the BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the DLS reduces intake in rats that consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Here, we tested whether long-term excessive consumption of alcohol produces neuroadaptations in BDNF signaling in the rat DLS. We found that BDNF was no longer able to gate alcohol self-administration after a history of repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and withdrawal...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rafaella de Andrade Silva, Flávia Monteiro França Malta, Maria Flora Ferreira Sampaio Carvalho Correia, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo Burgos
Background: Different surgical techniques to combat obesity combine malabsorption with restrictive procedures and can lead to metabolic problems, such as micronutrient deficiencies. Aim: Assess vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies associated with the lifestyle of obese individuals having been submitted to different bariatric techniques. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the electronic charts of patients submitted to bariatric surgery involving adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at the São João Hospital Center in the city of Porto, Portugal, between 2005 and 2010...
2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Shashank Tandon, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion-mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol-induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water-deprived rats before and after an ethanol-induced (1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Kristen M Beavers, Iris Leng, Stephen R Rapp, Michael E Miller, Denise K Houston, Anthony P Marsh, Don G Hire, Laura D Baker, George A Bray, George L Blackburn, Andrea L Hergenroeder, John M Jakicic, Karen C Johnson, Mary T Korytkowski, Brent Van Dorsten, Stephen B Kritchevsky
OBJECTIVES: To test whether average long-term glucose exposure is associated with cognitive and physical function in middle-aged and younger-old adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Data obtained as part of the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial (NCT00017953) and Look AHEAD Movement and Memory ancillary study (NCT01410097). PARTICIPANTS: Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged 45 to 76 at baseline (N = 879)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Timo Brockmeyer, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are recurrent episodes of binge eating. Despite negative psychological and physical consequences, BN/BED patients show uncontrollable approach tendencies towards food. This cognitive bias occurs at an early stage of information processing. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) directly targets such biases and has been shown to be effective in treating several mental disorders. In alcohol addiction, automatic action tendencies towards alcohol cues and relapse rates were successfully reduced by a specific form of CBM, termed approach bias modification...
September 26, 2016: Trials
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