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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449198/systematic-review-of-sex-work-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-examining-combination-prevention-approaches
#1
George Awungafac, Therese Delvaux, Bea Vuylsteke
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections is disproportionately high among sex workers (SW). We aimed to update the evidence on the effectiveness of SW interventions in sub-Saharan Africa and to provide more insights into combination prevention. METHODS: Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines in a search of PUBMED and POPLINE for peer-reviewed literature published between January 1, 2000 and July 22, 2016 (registration number on PROSPERO: CRD42016042529)...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424263/the-kielin-chordin-like-protein-kcp-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#2
Abdul Soofi, Katherine I Wolf, Margo P Emont, Nathan Qi, Gabriel Martinez-Santibanez, Edward Grimley, Wesam Ostwani, Gregory R Dressler
Obesity and its associated complications, such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-beta superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissue differentiation. The Kielin/chordin-like Protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-beta superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-beta and activin signals while enhancing bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, KCP's effects on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423504/variations-in-the-bitterness-perception-related-genes-tas2r38-and-ca6-modify-the-risk-for-colorectal-cancer-in-koreans
#3
Jeong-Hwa Choi, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Bitterness perception is known to be an important factor in individuals' dietary behaviors and is also associated with the sensing of nutritious/noxious molecules for subsequent metabolic responses in multiple organs. Therefore, the genetic variation in bitterness sensing may be associated with diet-related diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the influence of variations in the bitterness-sensing genes taste receptor type 2 member 38 (TAS2R38) and carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) on the consumption of food, tobacco and alcohol and the risk of CRC in Koreans...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420652/alcohol-intake-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-african-american-women-from-the-amber-consortium
#4
Lindsay A Williams, Andrew F Olshan, Chi-Chen Hong, Elisa V Bandera, Lynn Rosenberg, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Kathryn L Lunetta, Susan E McCann, Charles Poole, Laurence N Kolonel, Julie R Palmer, Christine B Ambrosone, Melissa A Troester
Background: Alcohol is a recognized risk factor for invasive breast cancer, but few studies involve African American women.Methods: The current analysis included 22,338 women (5,108 cases of invasive breast cancer) from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. The association between number of alcoholic drinks per week (dpw) and breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders, and stratifying by breast cancer subtype.Results: Approximately 35% of controls were current drinkers at interview...
April 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418943/loss-of-control-over-alcohol-seeking-in-rats-depends-on-individual-vulnerability-and-duration-of-alcohol-consumption-experience
#5
Marcia Spoelder, Sylvana Pol, Boris S G Janssen, Annemarie M Baars, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Heidi M B Lesscher
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by excessive alcohol use and persistent alcohol seeking despite knowledge of its negative consequences. Importantly, AUD typically develops after chronic excessive alcohol use in a subgroup of individuals who drink alcohol, suggesting that AUD results from an interaction between individual vulnerability and prolonged alcohol exposure. The present study assessed the contribution of prolonged exposure to alcohol and individual levels of alcohol intake to the development of loss of control over alcohol seeking in a conditioned suppression model...
April 17, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417164/individual-differences-in-voluntary-alcohol-intake-in-rats-relationship-with-impulsivity-decision-making-and-pavlovian-conditioned-approach
#6
Marcia Spoelder, Jacques P Flores Dourojeanni, Kathy C G de Git, Annemarie M Baars, Heidi M B Lesscher, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been associated with suboptimal decision making, exaggerated impulsivity, and aberrant responses to reward-paired cues, but the relationship between AUD and these behaviors is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess decision making, impulsivity, and Pavlovian-conditioned approach in rats that voluntarily consume low (LD) or high (HD) amounts of alcohol. METHODS: LD and HD were tested in the rat gambling task (rGT) or the delayed reward task (DRT)...
April 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412926/acute-symptomatic-seizures-in-geriatric-patients-with-multiple-risk-factors-a-diagnostic-challenge
#7
Ralf Landwehr, Robert Liszka
Acute symptomatic seizures and epileptic disorders are frequent health problems of elderly patients. An early and reliable distinction of the seizure etiology is important to ensure adequate treatment, and to prevent unwarranted diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The most common causes of acute symptomatic seizures - acute cerebrovascular disorders, metabolic disorders, traumatic brain injury, meningo-encephalitis, cerebral tumors, and withdrawal of alcohol and other central agents - are well-defined and seem to permit straightforward diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
April 13, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411894/the-effects-of-dietary-factors-on-blood-pressure
#8
REVIEW
Lawrence J Appel
Evidence supports that multiple dietary factors affect blood pressure (BP). Dietary changes that effectively lower BP are weight loss, reduced sodium intake, increased potassium intake, moderation of alcohol intake, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style and vegetarian dietary patterns. In view of the increasing levels of BP in children and adults and the continuing epidemic of BP-related cardiovascular and renal diseases, efforts to reduce BP in both nonhypertensive and hypertensive individuals are warranted...
May 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410563/wernicke-s-encephalopathy-following-reduced-food-intake-due-to-depressive-disorders
#9
Donato Melchionda, Tommaso Martino, Elena Carapelle, Alessandra Lalla, Daniela Cologno, Carlo Avolio
Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an unexpected common neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency often due to alcohol abuse, but WE-not alcohol related is also frequent. A prolonged reduction of food intake can cause WE. This condition can arise in depression disorders, especially in the early stages of these psychiatric syndromes. WE is characterized by the triad of signs: ataxia, ocular dysfunctions and confusional state. However, they rarely appear together and this makes the diagnosis particularly difficult, especially when there is not a history of alcohol abuse...
April 14, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#10
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390969/environmental-enrichment-reduces-chronic-psychosocial-stress-induced-anxiety-and-ethanol-related-behaviors-in-mice
#11
Amine Bahi
Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse...
April 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390775/deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-alcohol-use-disorder-patients-effects-on-dopamine-transporter-availability-and-alcohol-intake
#12
Giovanni Addolorato, Mariangela Antonelli, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Gabriele A Vassallo, Claudia Tarli, Luisa Sestito, Antonio Mirijello, Anna Ferrulli, Daniele A Pizzuto, Giovanni Camardese, Antonio Miceli, Marco Diana, Alessandro Giordano, Antonio Gasbarrini, Daniela Di Giuda
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may affect neuro-adaptations associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD), potentially influencing craving and alcohol intake. We investigated alcohol intake and dopamine transporter (DAT) availability by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in the striatum of AUD patients before and after deep rTMS. Fourteen patients underwent baseline clinical and SPECT assessment. Eleven out of fourteen patients were randomized into two groups for the REAL (n...
April 5, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384095/age-specific-indicators-of-a-healthy-lifestyle-and-postmenopausal-breast-cancer
#13
Kathleen M McClain, Lauren E McCullough, Patrick T Bradshaw, Sumitra Shantakumar, Mary Beth Terry, Alfred I Neugut, Marilie D Gammon
INTRODUCTION: Modifiable lifestyle factors have been consistently associated with breast cancer, and risk may vary by menopausal status. However, whether these associations vary according to age among postmenopausal women remains unresolved. METHODS: Using postmenopausal women from a population-based case-control study (990 cases and 1006 frequency-matched controls), we conducted multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lifestyle factors (lifetime alcohol intake, body mass index [BMI] in the year before diagnosis, lifetime recreational physical activity [RPA], and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use) in association with breast cancer stratified by age (<65 vs...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382402/a-cohort-study-on-helicobacter-pylori-infection-associated-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Tae Jun Kim, Dong Hyun Sinn, Yang Won Min, Hee Jung Son, Jae J Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Sun-Young Baek, Soo Hyun Ahn, Hyuk Lee, Seungho Ryu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested a link between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), yet large-scale longitudinal studies are lacking to elucidate this association. METHODS: A cohort study of 17,028 adults without NAFLD at baseline, who participated in a repeated health screening examination including an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G antibody test, was conducted to evaluate the association between H...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381286/no-evidence-of-a-role-of-the-%C3%AE-4-subunit-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-in-alcohol-related-behaviors
#15
Helen M Kamens, Constanza Silva, Riley McCarthy, Ryan J Cox, Marissa A Ehringer
BACKGROUND: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have gained attention in the last several years as mediators of alcohol-related behaviors. The genes that code for the α5, α3, and β4 subunits (Chrna5, Chrna3, and Chrnb4, respectively) map adjacent to each other on human chromosome 15/mouse chromosome 9. Genetic variants in this region have been associated with alcohol phenotypes and mice that overexpress these three subunits have reduced ethanol intake. In the present experiments, we examined the role of the Chrnb4 gene in three ethanol behaviors: consumption, ataxia, and sedation...
April 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377390/translating-the-who-25%C3%A3-25-goals-into-a-uk-context-the-promise-modelling-study
#16
Linda J Cobiac, Peter Scarborough
OBJECTIVE: Model the impact of targets for obesity, diabetes, raised blood pressure, tobacco use, salt intake, physical inactivity and harmful alcohol use, as outlined in the Global Non-Communicable Disease Action Plan 2013-2020, on mortality and morbidity in the UK population. DESIGN: Dynamic population modelling study. SETTING: UK population. PARTICIPANTS: Not available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and morbidity (years lived with disability) from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are averted or delayed...
April 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365196/female-sprague-dawley-rats-display-greater-appetitive-and-consummatory-responses-to-alcohol
#17
Steven J Nieto, Therese A Kosten
The narrowing of the gender gap in alcohol drinking patterns is a concern because women are more susceptible to adverse health consequences of alcohol use. Animal models of alcohol-seeking and -consuming are useful to delineate sex differences to test for effective sex-specific pharmacological treatments. We investigated potential sex differences in appetitive and consummatory responses to alcohol. Appetitive behaviors included numbers of head entries into the dipper access area and active lever presses. Consummatory behaviors included number of reinforcers delivered and consumed...
March 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363981/alcohol-dependence-disrupts-amygdalar-l-type-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-mechanisms
#18
Florence P Varodayan, Giordano de Guglielmo, Marian L Logrip, Olivier George, Marisa Roberto
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) are implicated in several psychiatric disorders that are co-morbid with alcoholism and involve amygdala dysfunction. Within the amygdala, the central nucleus (CeA) is critical in acute alcohol's reinforcing actions, and its dysregulation in human alcoholics drives their negative emotional state and motivation to drink. Here we investigated the specific role of CeA LTCCs in the effects of acute alcohol at the molecular, cellular physiology and behavioral levels, and their potential neuroadaptation in alcohol-dependent rats...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360985/relationship-between-alcohol-consumption-and-prostatic-hyperplasia-according-to-facial-flushing-after-drinking-in-korean-men
#19
Hak Sun Jang, Jong Sung Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Jin-Gyu Jung, Seok-Joon Yoon, HyunJu Yang, Hyun Chul Joung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether facial flushing after drinking influences the relationship between alcohol consumption and prostatic hyperplasia among Korean men. METHODS: The subjects were 957 Korean men (180 non-drinkers, 389 with drinking-related facial flushing, 388 without facial flushing) in the 40-69 age group, who underwent prostate ultrasound at the health promotion center of Chungnam National University Hospital between 2008 and 2014...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360431/chilli-consumption-and-the-incidence-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-a-chinese-adult-population
#20
Z Shi, M Riley, A W Taylor, A Page
BACKGROUND: The frequency of spicy food intake has recently been associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association between chilli intake and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Chinese adult population. METHODS: Adults aged 20-75 years in the China Health and Nutrition Survey were followed between 1991 and 2011. Dietary data were collected during home visits using a 3-day food record in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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