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Reducing alcohol intake

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329413/physical-activity-muscular-strength-and-polypharmacy-among-older-multimorbid-persons-results-from-the-kora-age-study
#1
K A Volaklis, B Thorand, A Peters, M Halle, M Heier, B Strasser, U Amann, K H Ladwig, H Schulz, W Koenig, C Meisinger
The purpose of this study was to examine if physical activity (PA) and muscular strength (MS) are related to polypharmacy. Our cross-sectional analysis was based on 711 patients with multimorbidity (ΜΜΒ), aged 65-94 years, who participated in the KORA-Age study. Participants underwent a face to face interview and extensive physical examinations including anthropometric measurements, registration of chronic diseases, determination of health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, etc), collection of blood samples and measurement of hand-grip strength...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322866/decreased-anxiety-voluntary-ethanol-intake-and-ethanol-induced-cpp-acquisition-following-activation-of-the-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-8-mglur8
#2
Amine Bahi
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are important modulators of excitatory neurotransmission, and have been implicated in addiction to alcohol and anxiety-related behaviors. However, the behavioral consequence and contribution of individual subtypes are not known yet. This study determined the effects of mGluR8 activation on anxiety-like behavior, voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward. To this aim, anxiety and spontaneous behavior were measured in C57BL/6J mice using the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field (OF) and light-dark box (LDB) tests after systemic injection of the selective mGluR8 agonist (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine ((S)-3,4-DCPG)...
March 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320796/effect-of-alcohol-consumption-and-psychosocial-stressors-on-preterm-and-small-for-gestational-age-births-in-hiv-infected-women-in-south-africa-a-cohort-study
#3
Ayesha Sania, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Allison Zerbe, Agnes Ronan, Landon Myer, Elaine J Abrams
OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial stressors such as depression and stress, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use have been linked to preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in general populations. The prevalence of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse is high in many HIV-infected (HIV+) populations. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse on birth outcomes in HIV-infected women. METHODS: Antenatal depression and non-specific psychological distress, periconception IPV and alcohol consumption were measured during the second trimester among HIV+ women initiating antiretroviral treatment with efavirenz + emtricitibine + tenofovir in Cape Town, South Africa...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320597/racial-or-ethnic-and-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-adherence-to-national-dietary-guidance-in-a-large-cohort-of-us-pregnant-women
#4
Lisa M Bodnar, Hyagriv N Simhan, Corette B Parker, Heather Meier, Brian M Mercer, William A Grobman, David M Haas, Deborah A Wing, Matthew K Hoffman, Samuel Parry, Robert M Silver, George R Saade, Ronald Wapner, Jay D Iams, Pathik D Wadhwa, Michal Elovitz, Alan M Peaceman, Sean Esplin, Shannon Barnes, Uma M Reddy
BACKGROUND: The significance of periconceptional nutrition for optimizing offspring and maternal health and reducing social inequalities warrants greater understanding of diet quality among US women. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate racial or ethnic and education inequalities in periconceptional diet quality and sources of energy and micronutrients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: Monitoring Mothers-to-Be cohort...
March 14, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314735/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-relationship-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Leon A Adams, Quentin M Anstee, Herbert Tilg, Giovanni Targher
Key physiological functions of the liver, including glucose and lipid metabolism, become disturbed in the setting of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may be associated with a systemic inflammatory 'milieu' initiated in part by liver-secreted cytokines and molecules. Consequently, the pathophysiological effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver with a large body of clinical evidence demonstrating NAFLD to be independently associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293621/development-of-the-physical-activity-and-your-nutrition-for-cancer-pync-smartphone-app-for-preventing-breast-cancer-in-women
#6
Steven S Coughlin, Gina M Besenyi, Deborah Bowen, Gianluca De Leo
BACKGROUND: In the U.S., breast cancer accounts for more cancer deaths in women than any site other than lung cancer. Based upon attributable risks, about 30-35% of breast cancers could potentially be prevented by addressing obesity, physical inactivity, increased alcohol consumption, and carcinogenic exposures such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We need methods of reducing women's risks of this disease that are attractive and easy to use, widely accessible to diverse women, and able to be easily amended to account for new research...
2017: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289436/lifestyle-factors-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Adrian Heald, John Pendlebury, Simon Anderson, Vinesh Narayan, Mark Guy, Martin Gibson, Peter Haddad, Mark Livingston
BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic disease is more common in patients with schizophrenia than the general population. AIM: The purpose of the study was to assess lifestyle factors, including diet and exercise, in patients with schizophrenia and estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a representative group of outpatients with schizophrenia in Salford, UK. An interview supplemented by questionnaires was used to assess diet, physical activity, and cigarette and alcohol use...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278218/predictors-of-and-reasons-for-attempts-to-reduce-alcohol-intake-a-population-survey-of-adults-in-england
#8
Emma Beard, Jamie Brown, Eileen Kaner, Robert West, Susan Michie
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the predictors among high-risk drinkers in England of attempts to reduce alcohol consumption, the reasons given for these attempts and the association between the various reasons and alcohol consumption. METHOD: Data came from 2,800 high-risk drinkers taking part in the Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS) between March 2014 and November 2016 who were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were asked questions regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, attempts to cut down and reasons for doing so...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277185/changes-in-the-incentive-value-of-food-after-naltrexone-treatment-depend-on-a-differential-preference-for-a-palatable-food-in-male-rats
#9
Mariana Alvarado-Bañuelos, Eliana Barrios De Tomasi, Jorge Juárez
INTRODUCTION: Opioid antagonist treatments such as naltrexone (NTX) and naloxone reduce consummatory behavior of palatable food (PF) and other incentives. Meanwhile, a significant increase in alcohol consumption has been observed when it is offered immediately after ending NTX treatment, an effect apparently produced by increased opioidergic activity caused by up-regulation of opioid receptors. OBJECTIVE: On this basis we assessed changes in the consumption of PF after opioid antagonist treatment in rats with different preferences for that food...
March 23, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274821/the-galanin-3-receptor-antagonist-snap-37889-suppresses-alcohol-drinking-and-morphine-self-administration-in-mice
#10
Karlene J Scheller, Spencer J Williams, Andrew J Lawrence, Elvan Djouma
The neuropeptide, galanin, is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is involved in a range of different functions including nociception, neurogenesis, hormone release, reproduction, cognitive function and appetite. Given the overlap between galanin expression and reward circuitry in the brain, galanin has been targeted for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid dependency. Furthermore, the galanin-3 receptor (GAL3) specifically regulates emotional states and plays a role in motivation, reward and drug-seeking behaviour...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273984/study-of-risk-factors-for-development-of-voice-disorders-and-its-impact-on-the-quality-of-life-of-school-teachers-in-mangalore-india
#11
Arati Alva, Megna Machado, Kiran Bhojwani, Suja Sreedharan
INTRODUCTION: School teachers are most prone to the development and detrimental effects of voice disorders as a consequence of their work. The risk factors for development of dysphonia in teachers are multifactorial. AIM: The primary aim of our study was to investigate the various risk factors that influence the onset and progression of voice disorders in school teachers in the Indian context. We wanted to assess the effect of voice problems on the physical, psychosocial and functional aspect of a teacher's life...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270566/orbitofrontal-neuroadaptations-and-cross-species-synaptic-biomarkers-in-heavy-drinking-macaques
#12
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Joachim D Uys, John J Woodward, Patrick K Randall, Lauren E Ball, Robert W Williams, Byron C Jones, Lu Lu, Kathleen A Grant, Patrick J Mulholland
Cognitive impairments, uncontrolled drinking, and neuropathological cortical changes characterize alcohol use disorder. Dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a critical cortical sub-region that controls learning, decision-making, and prediction of reward outcomes, contributes to executive cognitive function deficits in alcoholics. Electrophysiological and quantitative synaptomics techniques were used to test the hypothesis that heavy drinking produces neuroadaptations in the macaque OFC. Integrative bioinformatics and reverse genetic approaches were used to identify and validate synaptic proteins with novel links to heavy drinking in BXD mice...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270194/factors-associated-with-alcohol-reduction-in-harmful-and-hazardous-drinkers-following-alcohol-brief-intervention-in-scotland-a-qualitative-enquiry
#13
Jean M McQueen, Claire Ballinger, Tracey E Howe
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Brief Intervention (ABI) uses a motivational counselling approach to support individuals to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. There is growing evidence on ABI's use within various health care settings, although how they work and which components enhance success is largely unknown. This paper reports on the qualitative part of a mixed methods study. It explores enablers and barriers associated with alcohol reduction following an ABI. It focuses on alcohol's place within participants' lives and their personal perspectives on reducing consumption...
March 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263712/synergistic-blockade-of-alcohol-escalation-drinking-in-mice-by-a-combination-of-novel-kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-mesyl-salvinorin-b-and-naltrexone
#14
Yan Zhou, Rachel Saylor Cowley, Konrad Ben, Thomas E Prisinzano, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Mesyl Salvinorin B (MSB) is a potent selective kappa opioid receptor (KOP-r) agonist that has potential for development as an anti-psychostimulant agent with fewer side-effects (e.g., sedation, depression and dysphoria) than classic KOP-r agonists. However, no such study has been done on alcohol. We investigated whether MSB alone or in combination with naltrexone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) altered voluntary alcohol drinking in both male and female mice. Mice, subjected to 3 weeks of chronic escalation drinking (CED) in a two-bottle choice paradigm with 24-h access every other day, developed rapid escalation of alcohol intake and high preference...
March 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261117/psychotropic-medication-and-substance-use-during-pregnancy-by-women-with-severe-mental-illness
#15
Kate J Brameld, Assen Jablensky, Jenny Griffith, John Dean, Vera A Morgan
BACKGROUND: Sociodemographic factors, alcohol and drug intake, and maternal health are known to be associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy for women with severe mental illness in addition to their use of psychotropic medication. In this study, we describe the demographic characteristics of women hospitalized for severe mental illness along with their use of medication and other drugs during the pregnancy period. METHODS: A clinical case note review of women with psychosis who were hospitalized at the State Psychiatric Hospital in Western Australia during 1966-1996, gave birth between 1980 and 1992, and received psychiatric treatment during the pregnancy period...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260600/trends-in-population-blood-pressure-and-determinant-factors-for-population-blood-pressure
#16
Ulla Overgaard Andersen
Strategies to reduce the burden of blood pressure attributable diseases require knowledge of secular trend in PBP and its determinants. The issues were investigated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The design of CCHS is a repeated measures study. Such designs are uniquely suited to studying changes of an outcome and what risk factors may be associated with that outcome. Repeated measures studies are very well suited for trend analysis by using mixed effect analyses. SBP decreased about 2 mmHg in 25 years...
March 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254199/diet-quality-is-lower-and-energy-intake-is-higher-on-weekends-compared-with-weekdays-in-midlife-women-a-1-year-cohort-study
#17
Lisa Jahns, Zach Conrad, LuAnn K Johnson, Angela J Scheett, Kim S Stote, Susan K Raatz
BACKGROUND: Differences in energy and macronutrient intakes by weekday and weekend have been reported, but there are few data on differences in food group consumption and indices of diet quality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe dietary intake by day and on weekends compared with weekdays. DESIGN: This study utilized a longitudinal cohort design with self-reported dietary intake collected using the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool...
February 26, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253914/non-pharmacological-interventions-designed-to-reduce-health-risks-due-to-unhealthy-eating-behaviour-and-linked-risky-or-excessive-drinking-in-adults-aged-18-25%C3%A2-years-a-systematic-review-protocol
#18
Stephanie Scott, Kathryn Parkinson, Eileen Kaner, Shannon Robalino, Martine Stead, Christine Power, Niamh Fitzgerald, Wendy Wrieden, Ashley Adamson
BACKGROUND: Excess body weight and heavy alcohol consumption are two of the greatest contributors to global disease. Alcohol use peaks in early adulthood. Alcohol consumption can also exacerbate weight gain. A high body mass index and heavy drinking are independently associated with liver disease but, in combination, they produce an intensified risk of damage, with individuals from lower socio-economic status groups disproportionately affected. METHODS: We will conduct searches in MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, ASSIA, Web of Knowledge (WoK), Scopus, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS, CENTRAL and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses for studies that assess targeted preventative interventions of any length of time or duration of follow-up that are focused on reducing unhealthy eating behaviour and linked risky alcohol use in 18-25-year-olds...
March 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245885/olive-oil-bioactive-compounds-increase-body-weight-and-improve-gut-health-and-integrity-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#19
Enric Gisbert, Karl B Andree, José C Quintela, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
An olive oil bioactive extract (OBE) rich in bioactive compounds like polyphenols, triterpenic acids, long-chain fatty alcohols, unsaturated hydrocarbons, tocopherols and sterols was tested (0, 0·08, 0·17, 0·42 and 0·73 % OBE) in diets fed to sea bream (Sparus aurata) (initial weight: 5·4 (sd 1·2) g) during a 90-d trial (four replicates). Fish fed diets containing 0·17 and 0·42 % OBE were 5 % heavier (61·1 (sd 1·6) and 60·3 (sd 1·1) g, respectively) than those of the control group (57·0 (sd 0·7) g), although feed conversion ratio and specific feed intake did not vary...
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244519/a-diet-containing-a-high-versus-low-daidzein-level-does-not-protect-against-liver-steatosis-in-the-obese-zucker-rat-model
#20
Andrea Bell, Soheila Korourian, Huawei Zeng, Joshua Phelps, Reza Hakkak
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obesity increases the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through adipokine dysregulation and inflammation. Previously, we have reported that a high-isoflavone soy protein isolate (HISPI) diet is associated with significantly heavier body weights and reduced liver steatosis in obese Zucker rats (OZR) compared to a casein diet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether daidzein, a soy isoflavone in HISPI, is responsible for increased body weight gain or reduced liver steatosis...
February 28, 2017: Food & Function
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