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Reducing alcohol intake

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109166/a-novel-dual-amylin-and-calcitonin-receptor-agonist-dacra-kbp-089-induces-weight-loss-through-a-reduction-in-fat-but-not-lean-mass-while-improving-food-preference
#1
Sofie Gydesen, Sara Toftegaard Hjuler, Zenia Freving, Kim Vietz Andreassen, Nina Sonne, Lars I Hellgren, Morten Asser Karsdal, Kim Henriksen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges - hence, development of weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities is key. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of the dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on bodyweight, glucose homeostasis, and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue, food preference was investigated...
January 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107511/environmental-enrichment-blunts-ethanol-consumption-after-restraint-stress-in-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Priscila Marianno, Karina Possa Abrahao, Rosana Camarini
Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h) or continuous (24 h) EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress) to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103293/synergistic-interaction-of-light-alcohol-administration-in-the-presence-of-mild-iron-overload-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-injury-involvement-of-triosephosphate-isomerase-nitration-and-inactivation
#3
Wanxia Gao, Jie Zhao, Zhonghong Gao, Hailing Li
It is well known that iron overload promotes alcoholic liver injury, but the doses of iron or alcohol used in studies are usually able to induce liver injury independently. Little attention has been paid to the coexistence of low alcohol consumption and mild iron overload when either of them is insufficient to cause obvious liver damage, although this situation is very common among some people. We studied the interactive effects and the underlining mechanism of mild doses of iron and alcohol on liver injury in a mouse model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097521/alcohol-consumption-and-dementia-risk-a-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#4
Wei Xu, Huifu Wang, Yu Wan, Chenchen Tan, Jieqiong Li, Lan Tan, Jin-Tai Yu
It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose-response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091532/development-of-the-neuroimmune-modulator-ibudilast-for-the-treatment-of-alcoholism-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-human-laboratory-trial
#5
Lara A Ray, Spencer Bujarski, Steve Shoptaw, Daniel Jo Roche, Keith Heinzerling, Karen Miotto
Current directions in medication development for alcohol use disorder (AUD) emphasize the need to identify novel molecular targets and efficiently screen new compounds aimed at those targets. Ibudilast (IBUD) is a neuroimmune modulator that inhibits phosphodiesterases -4 and -10 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor and was recently found to reduce alcohol intake in rats by approximately 50%. To advance medications development for AUD, the present study consists of a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled laboratory study of IBUD in non-treatment seeking individuals with current (ie, past month) mild-to-severe AUD...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086850/the-prevalence-trend-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-and-risk-factors-in-korean-adults-results-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2013
#6
Binh Thang Tran, Bo Yoon Jeong, Jin-Kyoung Oh
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the clinical markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. MS prevalence in Korea increased between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s; however, no data on the recent trends of MS prevalence are available. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MS, the five components of MS, and the related risk factors in Korean adults by using recent data. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 were used...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067938/health-status-of-homeless-persons-a-pilot-study-in-the-padua-municipal-dorm
#7
S Levorato, G Bocci, G Troiano, G Messina, N Nante
OBJECTIVES: Homeless persons can be considered a vulnerable group and several studies showed in this group an higher prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases, a lower mental health status, and a higher abuse of alcohol. The aim of our study was to investigate the health status of homeless in Padua, Italy, administering a questionnaire composed by SF-36 and EQ-5D. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study from 15 December 2015 to 15 February 2016. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled in our study 73 homeless persons welcomed in the municipal dorm of Padua...
January 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067302/effects-of-alcohol-abstinence-on-glucose-metabolism-in-japanese-men-with-elevated-fasting-glucose-a-pilot-study
#8
Takashi Funayama, Yoshifumi Tamura, Kageumi Takeno, Minako Kawaguchi, Saori Kakehi, Takahiro Watanabe, Yasuhiko Furukawa, Hideyoshi Kaga, Risako Yamamoto, Akio Kanazawa, Yoshio Fujitani, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
It has been demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption provides protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, several other reports suggested that moderate alcohol intake may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in non-obese Japanese. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 1-week alcohol abstinence on hepatic insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in non-obese Japanese men. We recruited 8 non-obese Japanese men with mildly elevated FPG and drinking habits alcohol (mean frequency; 5...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059570/understanding-associations-between-information-seeking-and-scanning-and-health-risk-behaviors-an-early-test-of-the-structural-influence-model
#9
Elisabeth Bigsby, Shelly R Hovick
This study examined proposed direct and mediating relationships in the Structural Influence Model (SIM) of Communication within the chronic disease context. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (N = 14,472), we tested the potential mediating roles of information seeking, information scanning, and social capital between social determinants of health and four chronic disease risk behaviors: exercise level, fruit and vegetable intake, cigarette smoking, and excessive alcohol use...
January 6, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057167/moderate-dose-regular-lifelong-alcohol-intake-changes-the-intestinal-flora-protects-against-aging-and-keeps-spatial-memory-in-the-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-samp8-model
#10
Chikako Shimizu, Yasuhiro Oki, Yutaka Mitani, Youichi Tsuchiya, Toshitaka Nabeshima
PURPOSE: Heavy and long-term alcohol consumption increase the risk of alcohol-related diseases. Epidemiological studies show moderate drinking reduces the risk of mortality, cardiovascular diseases, and brain infarction in the J-shaped or U-shaped curve effect. However, why moderate drinkers may be healthy and non-drinkers may be ill in diverse populations remains controversial. Herein, we examined the relationship between moderate/lifelong alcohol intake and aging, especially aging-related cognitive functions in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055135/a-combination-of-naltrexone-varenicline-retards-the-expression-of-a-genetic-predisposition-toward-high-alcohol-drinking
#11
Janice C Froehlich, Stephen M Fischer, Emily R Nicholson, Julian E Dilley, Nicholas J Filosa, Teal N Smith, Logan C Rademacher
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether naltrexone (NTX) or varenicline (VAR), alone or in combination, can retard the phenotypic expression of a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high alcohol intake when drug treatment is initiated prior to, or concomitantly with, the onset of alcohol drinking. METHODS: Alcohol-naïve P rats were treated daily with NTX (15.0 mg/kg BW), VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW), a combination of NTX (15.0 mg/kg BW) + VAR (1...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055129/long-term-ethanol-exposure-decreases-the-endotoxin-induced-hepatic-acute-phase-response-in-rats
#12
Emilie Glavind, Hendrik Vilstrup, Henning Grønbaek, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Nils Erik Magnusson, Karen Louise Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Long-term excess alcohol intake predisposes to infectious diseases. The hepatic acute phase response is a component of the innate immune system and is part of the first line of defense against invading pathogens, which may be compromised by alcohol. We aimed to investigate whether an induced acute phase response is impaired in long-term ethanol-fed rats. METHODS: For six weeks, rats were either fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing (36% as calories) liquid diet ad libitum or calorically pair-fed...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054572/relationship-between-urinary-sodium-with-blood-pressure-and-hypertension-among-a-kazakh-community-population-in-xinjiang-china
#13
W Han, Y Hu, Y Tang, F Xue, L Hou, S Liang, B Zhang, W Wang, K Asaiti, H Pang, Z Wang, Y Wang, M Zhang, J Jiang
Urinary sodium levels are reported to be associated with blood pressure in clinical trials and epidemiology studies. Nevertheless, the public health message of reducing sodium intake in free-living community populations remains under debate. Based on an ongoing prospective study initiated in 2012 with a community-based design in Xinjiang, China, 1668 adults (⩾30 years old) were assessed in the current study for associations between urinary sodium and blood pressure and hypertension in a free-living population of Kazakh people...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053201/evidence-that-supports-the-prescription-of-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diets-a-narrative-review
#14
Timothy David Noakes, Johann Windt
Low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are a highly contentious current topic in nutrition. This narrative review aims to provide clinicians with a broad overview of the effects of LCHF diets on body weight, glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors while addressing some common concerns and misconceptions. Blood total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations show a variable, highly individual response to LCHF diets, and should be monitored in patients adhering to this diet. In contrast, available evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that LCHF diets consistently improve all other markers of cardiovascular risk-lowering elevated blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, ApoB and saturated fat (especially palmitoleic acid) concentrations, reducing small dense LDL particle numbers, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure and body weight while increasing low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reversing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
January 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017600/ulk1-protects-against-ethanol-induced-neuronal-stress-and-cognition-related-behavioral-deficits
#15
Akiko Sumitomo, Keisho Ueta, Sayaka Mauchi, Kazuko Hirai, Kouta Horike, Takatoshi Hikida, Takeshi Sakurai, Akira Sawa, Toshifumi Tomoda
Alcoholism is a psychiatric condition that develops through neuroadaptations in response to neuronal stresses caused by chronic ethanol intake. Neurons can adapt to ethanol-induced metabolic changes by activating cellular protective mechanisms, including autophagy. Here we show that expression of Ulk1, a gene critical to the regulation of autophagy, was affected in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Consequently, overall levels of Ulk1 activity in the PFC were downregulated, leading to accumulation of p62, a protein that serves as a target for autophagic degradation...
December 23, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013091/effects-of-ly466195-a-selective-kainate-receptor-antagonist-on-ethanol-preference-and-drinking-in-rats
#16
Duncan Van Nest, Nicole S Hernandez, Henry R Kranzler, R Christopher Pierce, Heath D Schmidt
There is evidence that variation in the gene encoding a kainate receptor subunit contributes to alcohol dependence risk. Further, there is suggestive evidence that alcohol consumption is mediated, in part, by kainate receptors. In this study, we used a novel kainate receptor antagonist, LY466195, to examine the potential role of kainate receptors in alcohol drinking behavior using a rodent model of voluntary ethanol consumption. Male Sprague Dawley and Long Evans rats were given access to 20% ethanol using the intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm...
December 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000843/wheat-bran-autolytic-peptides-containing-a-branched-chain-amino-acid-attenuate-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-via-the-suppression-of-oxidative-stress-and-the-upregulation-of-ampk-acc-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#17
Takumi Kawaguchi, Takato Ueno, Yoichi Nogata, Masako Hayakawa, Hironori Koga, Takuji Torimura
Whole-wheat intake is known to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the active component remains unclear. Recently, we identified bioactive peptides [leucine-arginine-proline (LRP) and leucine-glutamine‑proline (LQP)] from wheat bran autolytic hydrolysate. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of LRP and LQP on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a mouse model. We also evaluated the effects of these peptides on oxidative stress and on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, two major pathogenic factors of NASH...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998722/intermittent-access-to-a-nutritionally-complete-high-fat-diet-attenuates-alcohol-drinking-in-rats
#18
Sunil Sirohi, Arriel Van Cleef, Jon F Davis
Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats...
December 18, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987315/partial-protection-by-dietary-antioxidants-against-ethanol-induced-osteopenia-and-changes-in-bone-morphology-in-female-mice
#19
Alexander W Alund, Kelly E Mercer, Casey F Pulliam, Larry J Suva, Jin-Ran Chen, Thomas M Badger, Martin J J Ronis
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol consumption leads to increased fracture risk and an elevated risk of osteoporosis by decreasing bone accrual through increasing osteoclast activity and decreasing osteoblast activity. We have shown that this mechanism involves the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases. It was hypothesized that different dietary antioxidants, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC; 1.2 mg/kg/d), and α-tocopherol (Vit.E; 60 mg/kg/d) would be able to attenuate the NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS effects on bone due to chronic alcohol intake...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984095/acute-oral-18-methoxycoronaridine-18-mc-decreases-both-alcohol-intake-and-iv-nicotine-self-administration-in-rats
#20
Amir H Rezvani, Marty C Cauley, Susan Slade, Corinne Wells, Stanley Glick, Jed E Rose, Edward D Levin
The ibogaine derivative 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) has been found to decrease self-administration of morphine, nicotine and alcohol in rats after systemic injection. However oral dosing is the preferred route clinically. The current study evaluated the effect of oral 18-MC dosing in rats on alcohol and nicotine self-administration. For the nicotine study, young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with IV jugular infusion catheters and trained for nicotine self-administration in 45min. sessions...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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