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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437430/cerebellar-volume-as-imaging-outcome-in-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Matilde Inglese, Maria Petracca, Enricomaria Mormina, Anat Achiron, Rebecca Straus-Farber, Shmuel Miron, Michelle Fabian, Stephen Krieger, Aaron Miller, Fred Lublin, Maria Pia Sormani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess whether cerebellar volumes changes could represent a sensitive outcome measure in primary-progressive MS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Changes in cerebellar volumes over one-year follow-up, estimated in 26 primary-progressive MS patients and 20 controls with Freesurfer longitudinal pipeline, were assessed using Wilcoxon test and tested for their correlation with disability worsening by a logistic regression. Clinical worsening was defined as EDSS score increase or change of >20% for 25-foot walk test or 9-hole peg test scores at follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#2
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435670/type-1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-signaling-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Masanobu Kano, Takaki Watanabe
The cerebellum is a brain structure involved in coordination, control, and learning of movements, as well as certain aspects of cognitive function. Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons from the cerebellar cortex and therefore play crucial roles in the overall function of the cerebellum. The type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) is a key "hub" molecule that is critically involved in the regulation of synaptic wiring, excitability, synaptic response, and synaptic plasticity of Purkinje cells. In this review, we aim to highlight how mGluR1 controls these events in Purkinje cells...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434958/microsurgical-resection-following-failed-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-of-papillary-tumor-of-the-pineal-gland
#4
Anil Nanda, Piyush Kalakoti, Devi Prasad Patra, Tanmoy Maiti, Hai Sun
Primary papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR) are rare entities with distinct histopathological characteristics. Most common surgical approaches include the supra-cerebellar infratentorial corridor or the occipital interhemispheric approach. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is an acceptable treatment modality for parenchymal tumors of the pineal gland, and often used as a primary treatment modality for asymptomatic and indolent lesions, and as an adjunct to surgical resection. In this presentation, we describe the surgical nuances of posterior interhemispheric approach in an elderly male with a previously failed empirical GKRS...
April 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434864/sensorimotor-representations-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-in-larval-zebrafish-are-dense-spatially-organized-and-non-temporally-patterned
#5
Laura D Knogler, Daniil A Markov, Elena I Dragomir, Vilim Štih, Ruben Portugues
A fundamental question in neurobiology is how animals integrate external sensory information from their environment with self-generated motor and sensory signals in order to guide motor behavior and adaptation. The cerebellum is a vertebrate hindbrain region where all of these signals converge and that has been implicated in the acquisition, coordination, and calibration of motor activity. Theories of cerebellar function postulate that granule cells encode a variety of sensorimotor signals in the cerebellar input layer...
April 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433244/reliability-in-cerebellar-size-assessment-by-2d-cranial-ultrasonography-in-neonates
#6
María Carmen Bravo, Eva Valverde
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar size appears to be correlated with the long-term outcome of preterm infants. Two-dimensional cranial ultrasonography (2D-cUS) is the first-line, routine tool to characterize newborn cerebral structures. Information regarding the accuracy of 2D-cUS for assessing cerebellar size is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability of cerebellar size using 2D-cUS. METHODS: Fifty infants were prospectively scanned for a variety of clinical indications...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433092/behavioral-and-neural-sustained-attention-deficits-in-disruptive-mood-dysregulation-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
David Pagliaccio, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Nancy E Adleman, Alexa Curhan, Susan Zhang, Kenneth E Towbin, Melissa A Brotman, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD), characterized by severe irritability, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid. This is the first study to characterize neural and behavioral similarities and differences in attentional functioning across these disorders. METHOD: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers, 31 patients with DMDD, and 25 patients with ADHD (8 to 18 years old) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging attention task...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432340/phenome-wide-association-study-for-cyp2a6-alleles-rs113288603-is-associated-with-hearing-loss-symptoms-in-elderly-smokers
#8
Renato Polimanti, Kevin P Jensen, Joel Gelernter
To identify novel phenotypic associations related to Cytochrome P450 Family 2 Subfamily A Member 6 (CYP2A6), we investigated the human phenome in a total of 11,271 individuals. Initially, we conducted a phenome-wide association study in 3,401 nicotine-exposed elderly subjects considering 358 phenotypic traits. We identified a significant association between CYP2A6 rs113288603 and hearing loss symptoms (p = 5.75 × 10(-5)). No association was observed in a sample of 3,245 nicotine-unexposed individuals from the same discovery cohort, consistent with the conclusion that the finding is related to CYP2A6 involvement in nicotine metabolism...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431742/the-sleeping-cerebellum
#9
REVIEW
Cathrin B Canto, Yoshiyuki Onuki, Bastiaan Bruinsma, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Chris I De Zeeuw
We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders...
April 18, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431735/characterization-of-an-amyloid-only-transgenic-b6c3-tg-appswe-psen1de9-85dbo-mmjax-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
G S Finnie, R Gunnarsson, J Manavis, P C Blumbergs, K A Mander, S Edwards, C Van den Heuvel, J W Finnie
The spatiotemporal pattern of cerebral amyloid deposition, detectable as light microscopically recognizable aggregates in an 'amyloid only' transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/Mmjax, is reported for the first time in this strain. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were used to detect amyloid deposition immunohistochemically in brains collected from these mice at 3-12 months of age. Amyloid aggregates (20-200 μm) were first found in serial, whole coronal sections of brain at 4 months of age and these increased progressively, plateauing at 11-12 months...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431631/neuroimaging-findings-in-joubert-syndrome-with-c5orf42-gene-mutations-a-milder-form-of-molar-tooth-sign-and-vermian-hypoplasia
#11
Mikako Enokizono, Noriko Aida, Tetsu Niwa, Hitoshi Osaka, Takuya Naruto, Kenji Kurosawa, Chihiro Ohba, Toshifumi Suzuki, Hirotomo Saitsu, Tomohide Goto, Naomichi Matsumoto
PURPOSE: Little is known regarding neuroimaging-genotype correlations in Joubert syndrome (JBTS). To elucidate one of these correlations, we investigated the neuroimaging findings of JBTS patients with C5orf42 mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neuroimaging findings in five JBTS patients with C5orf42 mutations were retrospectively assessed with regard to the infratentorial and supratentorial structures on T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE), T2-weighted images, and color-coded fractional anisotropy (FA) maps; the findings were compared to those in four JBTS patients with mutations in other genes (including three with AHI1 and one with TMEM67 mutations)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431612/xeroderma-pigmentosum-complementation-group-f-a-rare-cause-of-cerebellar-ataxia-with-chorea
#12
G Carré, C Marelli, M Anheim, C Geny, M Renaud, H R Rezvani, M Koenig, C Guissart, C Tranchant
The complementation group F of Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-F) is rare in the Caucasian population, and usually devoid of neurological symptoms. We report two cases, both Caucasian, who exhibited progressive cerebellar ataxia, chorea, a mild subcortical frontal cognitive impairment, and in one case severe polyneuropathy. Brain MRI demonstrated cerebellar (2/2) and cortical (1/2) atrophy. Both patients had only mild sunburn sensitivity and no skin cancer. Mini-exome sequencing approach revealed in ERCC4, two heterozygous mutations, one of which was never described (c...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#13
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431287/age-and-gender-effects-of-11-c-itmm-binding-to-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-type-1-in-healthy-human-participants
#14
Muneyuki Sakata, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishibashi, Kei Wagatsuma, Kenji Ishii, Ming-Rong Zhang, Kiichi Ishiwata
We examined possible age- and gender-related changes in binding of the selective antagonist N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4-(11)C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ((11)C-ITMM) to metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 in healthy human brains. Dynamic (11)C-ITMM positron emission tomography scans (90 min) with serial arterial blood sampling were performed in 15 young and 24 older healthy adult volunteers. The total distribution volume (VT) of several brain regions was estimated with 2-tissue compartment model analysis...
March 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430290/frequency-and-topography-of-small-cerebrovascular-lesions-in-vascular-and-in-mixed-dementia-a-post-mortem-7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-with-neuropathological-correlates
#15
Jacques De Reuck, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Vincent Deramecourt, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charlotte Cordonnier, Florence Pasquier, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429352/difference-in-resting-state-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-between-bipolar-depression-and-unipolar-depression-patients
#16
H-L Yu, W-B Liu, T Wang, P-Y Huang, L-Y Jie, J-Z Sun, C Wang, W Qian, M Xuan, Q-Q Gu, H Liu, F-L Zhang, M-M Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference in fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of localized brain activities in the resting-state between bipolar depression and unipolar depression patients and to find biological markers that differentiate the two groups of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with bipolar depression, 15 patients with unipolar depression, and 16 healthy control subjects that were matched in age and years of education were subjected to 3...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429218/modification-of-calcium-activated-chloride-currents-in-cerebellar-purkinje-neurons
#17
E A Vikhareva, V L Zamoyski, V V Grigoriev
The whole-cell voltage clamp technique was employed to record the total ionic currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons. When intrapipette solution contained 120 mM KCl, replacement of the standard external physiological saline with Na-free solution resulted in appearance of inward tail current after the end of the depolarizing pulse. When intrapipette potassium ions were replaced for cesium ones, the tail currents were observed even in the presence of normal Na(+) concentration (140 mM) in the external solution...
April 21, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427354/unique-case-report-of-a-chromomycosis-and-listeria-in-soft-tissue-and-cerebellar-abscesses-after-kidney-transplantation
#18
J Tourret, N Benabdellah, S Drouin, F Charlotte, J Rottembourg, N Arzouk, A Fekkar, B Barrou
BACKGROUND: Chromomycosis is a rare mycotic infection encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. The disease presents as a slowly-evolving nodule that can become infected with bacteria. Here, we describe a unique association of abscesses caused by a chromomycosis and Listeria monocytogenes in a kidney transplant recipient, and didactically expose how the appropriate diagnosis was reached. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year old male originating from the Caribbean presented a scalp lesion which was surgically removed in his hometown where it was misdiagnosed as a sporotrichosis on histology, 3 years after he received a kidney transplant...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427119/-genetic-analysis-of-posterior-cranial-fossa-morphology-in-families-of-chiari-malformation-type-%C3%A2
#19
X X Yuan, Y Li, S F Sha, W X Sun, Y Qiu, Z Liu, W G Zhu, Z Z Zhu
Objective: To explore genetic characteristic of posterior cranial fossa morphology in families of Chiari malformation type Ⅰ (CMI). Methods: From April 2010 to May 2016, a total of 47 cases of CMI families (CMI group) and their 94 parents (CMI-P group)collected were retrospectively reviewed in Department of Spinal Surgery, Drum Tower Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University.Another cohort of 50 asymptomatic adults was enrolled to serve as the control group.Patients with skull fracture or other diseases which can lead to secondary CMI were excluded...
April 18, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425471/nonspecific-synaptic-plasticity-improves-the-recognition-of-sparse-patterns-degraded-by-local-noise
#20
Karen Safaryan, Reinoud Maex, Neil Davey, Rod Adams, Volker Steuber
Many forms of synaptic plasticity require the local production of volatile or rapidly diffusing substances such as nitric oxide. The nonspecific plasticity these neuromodulators may induce at neighboring non-active synapses is thought to be detrimental for the specificity of memory storage. We show here that memory retrieval may benefit from this non-specific plasticity when the applied sparse binary input patterns are degraded by local noise. Simulations of a biophysically realistic model of a cerebellar Purkinje cell in a pattern recognition task show that, in the absence of noise, leakage of plasticity to adjacent synapses degrades the recognition of sparse static patterns...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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