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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938143/contribution-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-assessment-of-brain-connectivity-and-networks
#1
REVIEW
Mark Hallett, Riccardo Di Iorio, Paolo Maria Rossini, Jung E Park, Robert Chen, Pablo Celnik, Antonio P Strafella, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Ugawa
The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937325/revascularization-of-the-upper-posterior-circulation-with-the-anterior-temporal-artery-an-anatomical-feasibility-study
#2
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T Lawton, Dylan Griswold, Pooneh Mokhtari, Andre Payman, Halima Tabani, Sonia Yousef, Arnau Benet
OBJECTIVE In various disease processes, including unclippable aneurysms, a bypass to the upper posterior circulation (UPC) including the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) may be needed. Various revascularization options exist, but the role of intracranial (IC) donors has not been scrutinized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical feasibility of utilizing the anterior temporal artery (ATA) for revascularization of the UPC. METHODS ATA-SCA and ATA-PCA bypasses were performed on 14 cadaver specimens...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934619/distinct-brain-metabolic-patterns-separately-associated-with-cognition-motor-function-and-aging-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#3
Ji Hyun Ko, Audrey Katako, Maram Aljuaid, Andrew L Goertzen, Andrew Borys, Douglas E Hobson, Seok Min Kim, Chong Sik Lee
We explored whether patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) show a distinct spatial metabolic pattern that characterizes cognitive deficits in addition to motor dysfunction. Eighteen patients with PDD underwent 3 separate positron emission tomography sessions with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for glucose metabolism), fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (for dopamine transporter density) and Pittsburgh compound-B (for beta-amyloid load). We confirmed in PDD versus normal controls, overall hypometabolism in the posterior and prefrontal brain regions accompanied with hypermetabolism in subcortical structures and the cerebellar vermis...
August 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934388/loss-of-slc25a46-causes-neurodegeneration-by-affecting-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-energy-production-in-mice
#4
Zhuo Li, Yanyan Peng, Robert B Hufnagel, Yueh-Chiang Hu, Chuntao Zhao, Luis F Queme, Zaza Khuchua, Ashley M Driver, Fei Dong, Q Richard Lu, Diana M Lindquist, Michael P Jankowski, Rolf W Stottmann, Winston W Y Kao, Taosheng Huang
Recently, we identified biallelic mutations of SLC25A46 in patients with multiple neuropathies. Functional studies revealed that SLC25A46 may play an important role in mitochondrial dynamics by mediating mitochondrial fission. However, the cellular basis and pathogenic mechanism of the SLC25A46-related neuropathies are not fully understood. Thus, we generated a Slc25a46 knock-out mouse model. Mice lacking SLC25A46 displayed severe ataxia, mainly caused by degeneration of Purkinje cells. Increased numbers of small, unmyelinated and degenerated optic nerves as well as loss of retinal ganglion cells indicated optic atrophy...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934387/mutations-in-tgm6-induce-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-sca35
#5
Debasmita Tripathy, Beatrice Vignoli, Nandini Ramesh, Maria Jose Polanco, Marie Coutelier, Christopher D Stephen, Marco Canossa, Marie-Lorraine Monin, Pascale Aeschlimann, Shannon Turberville, Daniel Aeschlimann, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Alexandra Durr, Udai B Pandey, Maria Pennuto, Manuela Basso
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 35 (SCA35) is a rare autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the TGM6 gene, which codes for transglutaminase 6 (TG6). Mutations in TG6 induce cerebellar degeneration by an unknown mechanism. We identified seven patients bearing new mutations in TGM6. To gain insights into the molecular basis of mutant TG6-induced neurotoxicity, we analyzed all the seven new TG6 mutants and the five TG6 mutants previously linked to SCA35. We found that the wild-type (TG6-WT) protein mainly localized to the nucleus and perinuclear area, whereas five TG6 mutations showed nuclear depletion, increased accumulation in the perinuclear area, insolubility and loss of enzymatic function...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934196/spatiotemporal-network-coding-of-physiological-mossy-fiber-inputs-by-the-cerebellar-granular-layer
#6
Shyam Kumar Sudhakar, Sungho Hong, Ivan Raikov, Rodrigo Publio, Claus Lang, Thomas Close, Daqing Guo, Mario Negrello, Erik De Schutter
The granular layer, which mainly consists of granule and Golgi cells, is the first stage of the cerebellar cortex and processes spatiotemporal information transmitted by mossy fiber inputs with a wide variety of firing patterns. To study its dynamics at multiple time scales in response to inputs approximating real spatiotemporal patterns, we constructed a large-scale 3D network model of the granular layer. Patterned mossy fiber activity induces rhythmic Golgi cell activity that is synchronized by shared parallel fiber input and by gap junctions...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934119/integrity-of-cerebellar-fastigial-nucleus-intrinsic-neurons-is-critical-for-the-global-ischemic-preconditioning
#7
Eugene V Golanov, Angelique S Regnier-Golanov, Gavin W Britz
Excitation of intrinsic neurons of cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) renders brain tolerant to local and global ischemia. This effect reaches a maximum 72 h after the stimulation and lasts over 10 days. Comparable neuroprotection is observed following sublethal global brain ischemia, a phenomenon known as preconditioning. We hypothesized that FN may participate in the mechanisms of ischemic preconditioning as a part of the intrinsic neuroprotective mechanism. To explore potential significance of FN neurons in brain ischemic tolerance we lesioned intrinsic FN neurons with excitotoxin ibotenic acid five days before exposure to 20 min four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) global ischemia while analyzing neuronal damage in Cornu Ammoni area 1 (CA1) hippocampal area one week later...
September 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933964/identification-of-novel-spg11-mutations-in-a-cohort-of-chinese-families-with-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#8
Juan Du, Ya-Cen Hu, Bei-Sha Tang, Hong Jiang, Lu Shen
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurological diseases. To date, studies about Chinese ARHSP have been small and limited to single case. To fill this gap, we have scanned the whole exons of KIAA1840, ZFYVE26, SPG7 and CYP7B1 genes in a group of 36 unrelated ARHSP families, which is the first study conducted to investigate the mutation frequency of these ARHSP types in China. Finally, SPG11 mutations are found in 33.33% (12/36) of ARHSP patients in our study, and no mutation was identified in SPG15, SPG5 or SPG7 genes...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933672/cognitive-impairment-and-the-regional-distribution-of-cerebellar-lesions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Sean M Tobyne, Wilson B Ochoa, J Daniel Bireley, Victoria Mj Smith, Jeroen Jg Geurts, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Eric C Klawiter
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar lesions are often reported in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and have been associated with impaired motor function and cognitive status. However, prior research has primarily focused on summary measures of cerebellar involvement (e.g. total lesion load, gray/white matter volume) and not on the effect of lesion load within specific regions of cerebellar white matter. OBJECTIVE: Spatially map the probability of cerebellar white matter lesion (CWML) occurrence in RRMS and explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and lesion (CWML) location within the cerebellum...
September 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933202/giant-vertebrobasilar-aneurysm-a-rare-cause-of-central-sleep-apnoea
#10
Mark Daniel Haley, Duncan Bruce Henry Henderson, Mark Nowell, William M Adams, Peter C Whitfield
We report a case of central sleep apnoea (CSA) due to a giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm with brainstem compression. A flow diverter stent was deployed with coil embolization of the right vertebral artery distal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to occlude the aneurysm. The patient's symptoms improved following therapy.
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932407/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-grip-force-control-in-patients-with-cerebellar-degeneration
#11
Liane John, Michael Küper, Thomas Hulst, Dagmar Timmann, Joachim Hermsdörfer
BACKGROUND: The control of grip forces when moving a hand held object is impaired in patients with cerebellar degeneration. We asked the question whether after-effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the lateral cerebellum or M1 improved grip force control in cerebellar patients. METHODS: Grip force control while holding an object during cyclic arm movements was assessed in patients with pure cerebellar degeneration (n = 14, mean age 50...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931838/cerebellar-anatomical-alterations-and-attention-to-eyes-in-autism
#12
Charles Laidi, Jennifer Boisgontier, M Mallar Chakravarty, Sevan Hotier, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Jean-Franc Ois Mangin, Gabriel A Devenyi, Richard Delorme, Federico Bolognani, Christian Czech, Céline Bouquet, Elie Toledano, Manuel Bouvard, Doriane Gras, Julie Petit, Marina Mishchenko, Alexandru Gaman, Isabelle Scheid, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla, Josselin Houenou
The cerebellum is implicated in social cognition and is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of our study was to explore cerebellar morphology in adults with ASD and its relationship to eye contact, as measured by fixation time allocated on the eye region using an eye-tracking device. Two-hundred ninety-four subjects with ASD and controls were included in our study and underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. Global segmentation and cortical parcellation of the cerebellum were performed...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931264/assessment-of-the-accuracy-and-errors-of-head-up-display-by-an-optical-neuronavigation-system-in-brain-tumor-surgery
#13
Kenichiro Asano, Kosuke Katayama, Kiyohide Kakuta, Kanae Oyama, Hiroki Ohkuma
BACKGROUND: A head-up display (HUD) in which navigational information is projected into the microscope view may enable surgeons to perform operations more efficiently. Projecting depictions of both tumor and important intracranial structures on the HUD may facilitate safe surgery. OBJECTIVE: To investigate accuracy and errors regarding important intracranial structures, errors due to brain shifts, and preservation rates for important intracranial structures. METHODS: A total of 184 surgeries in 172 patients were performed using this operation system...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931249/v3-vertebral-artery-to-anterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-bypass-with-saphenous-vein-graft-for-vertebrobasilar-ischemia-3-dimensional-operative-video
#14
Arnau Benet, Xuequan Feng, Michael T Lawton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#15
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928632/neurophysiology-of-the-celiac-brain-disentangling-gut-brain-connections
#16
REVIEW
Manuela Pennisi, Alessia Bramanti, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giuseppe Lanza
Celiac disease (CD) can be considered a complex multi-organ disorder with highly variable extra-intestinal, including neurological, involvement. Cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, headache, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric diseases are complications frequently reported. These manifestations may be present at the onset of the typical disease or become clinically evident during its course. However, CD subjects with subclinical neurological involvement have also been described, as well as patients with clear central and/or peripheral nervous system and intestinal histopathological disease features in the absence of typical CD manifestations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928603/functional-capacity-and-motor-performance-of-upper-limbs-in-individuals-with-cerebellar-disorders-a-pilot-study
#17
Vivian Farahte Giangiardi, Sandra Maria Sbeghen F de Freitas, Flávia P de Paiva Silva, Renata Morales Banjai, Sandra Regina Alouche
In simple daily activities carried out by the upper limbs, the cerebellum is responsible for the adaptations required for the accurate movement based on previous experiences and external references. This paper aims to characterize the performance of the upper limbs after a cerebellar disease. We evaluated the digital and handgrip strength, dexterity, and function of the upper limbs. The motor performance of the upper limbs was assessed through the use of a digitizing tablet by performing aiming movements with the upper limb most affected by cerebellar disease and the paired limb of the healthy group...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928414/disruption-to-schizophrenia-associated-gene-fez1-in-the-hippocampus-of-hdac11-knockout-mice
#18
Dale T Bryant, Christian Landles, Aikaterini S Papadopoulou, Agnesska C Benjamin, Joshua K Duckworth, Thomas Rosahl, Caroline L Benn, Gillian P Bates
Histone Deacetylase 11 (HDAC11) is highly expressed in the central nervous system where it has been reported to have roles in neural differentiation. In contrast with previous studies showing nuclear and cytoplasmic localisation, we observed synaptic enrichment of HDAC11. Knockout mouse models for HDACs 1-9 have been important for guiding the development of isoform specific HDAC inhibitors as effective therapeutics. Given the close relationship between HDAC11 and neural cells in vitro, we examined neural tissue in a previously uncharacterised Hdac11 knockout mouse (Hdac11 (KO/KO))...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928404/granule-cells-control-recovery-from-classical-conditioned-fear-responses-in-the-zebrafish-cerebellum
#19
Koji Matsuda, Masayuki Yoshida, Koichi Kawakami, Masahiko Hibi, Takashi Shimizu
Although previous studies show that the cerebellum is involved in classical fear conditioning, it is not clear which components in the cerebellum control it or how. We addressed this issue using a delayed fear-conditioning paradigm with late-stage zebrafish larvae, with the light extinguishment as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus (US). The US induced bradycardia in the restrained larvae. After paired-associate conditioning with the CS and US, a substantial population of the larvae displayed CS-evoked bradycardia responses...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928285/correction-distinct-roles-of-neuroepithelial-like-and-radial-glia-like-progenitor-cells-in-cerebellar-regeneration
#20
Jan Kaslin, Volker Kroehne, Julia Ganz, Stefan Hans, Michael Brand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Development
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