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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649606/elevated-5hmc-levels-characterize-dna-of-the-cerebellum-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Reinhard Stöger, Paula J Scaife, Freya Shephard, Lisa Chakrabarti
5-methylcytosine and the oxidation product 5-hydroxymethylcytosine are two prominent epigenetic variants of the cytosine base in nuclear DNA of mammalian brains. We measured levels of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in DNA from post-mortem cerebella of individuals with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. 5-methylcytosine levels showed no significant differences between Parkinson's disease and control DNA sample sets. In contrast, median 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels were almost twice as high (p < 0...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648566/disrupted-implicit-motor-sequence-learning-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-revealed-with-ambidextrous-serial-reaction-time-task
#2
Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Grzegorz Przemysław Siwek, Anna Tereszko, Weronika Janeczko, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Marcin Siwek, Dominika Dudek
BACKGROUND: Impairment of implicit motor sequence learning was shown in schizophrenia (SZ) and, most recently, in bipolar disorder (BD), and was connected to cerebellar abnormalities. The goal of this study was to compare implicit motor sequence learning in BD and SZ. METHODS: We examined 33 patients with BD, 33 patients with SZ and 31 healthy controls with a use of ambidextrous Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT), which allows exploring asymmetries in performance depending on the hand used...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648497/selective-optogenetic-control-of-purkinje-cells-in-monkey-cerebellum
#3
Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo, Gregory D Horwitz
Purkinje cells of the primate cerebellum play critical but poorly understood roles in the execution of coordinated, accurate movements. Elucidating these roles has been hampered by a lack of techniques for manipulating spiking activity in these cells selectively-a problem common to most cell types in non-transgenic animals. To overcome this obstacle, we constructed AAV vectors carrying the channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) gene under the control of a 1 kb L7/Pcp2 promoter. We injected these vectors into the cerebellar cortex of rhesus macaques and tested vector efficacy in three ways...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647997/-endovascular-management-and-classification-of-the-dissecting-aneurysms-of-the-vertebral-artery
#4
Y Z Zang, Z G Wang, C W Wang, X Ding, X F Wang, L L Wang
Objective: To summarize the classifications and optimize endovascular treatment of the dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery (DAVA). Methods: The clinical information of 39 cases of DAVA treated with endovascular methods in our department between January 2007 and September 2016 were analyzed retrospectively.According to the location of the aneurysm in relation to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), the aneurysms were classified into three types: type pre-PICA, located proximally to the PICA; type in-PICA, located at the PICA origin; and type post-PICA located distally to the PICA...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647700/molecular-proteomic-characterization-of-a-pediatric-medulloblastoma-xenograft
#5
George T Tsangaris, Konstantinos Dimas, Angeliki Malamou, Angeliki Katsafadou, Chrissa Papathanasiou, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Constantinos E Vorgias, Maria Gazouli, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos
BACKGROUND/AIM: Medulloblastoma (MBL), an archetypal primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum, is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy representing approximately 20% of all childhood brain tumors. Herein, we report on a new xenotransplantable tumor cell line, derived from a 6-year-old female patient with cerebellar medulloblastoma, and the completele proteome molecular characterization of subsequent tumors from MBL xenotrasplanted mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumors were grown in nude mice as subcutaneous xenografts (MBLX) composed of small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm...
July 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647130/fever-induced-paroxysmal-weakness-and-encephalopathy-a-new-phenotype-of-atp1a3-mutation
#6
Sho T Yano, Kenneth Silver, Richard Young, Suzanne D DeBrosse, Roseànne S Ebel, Kathryn J Swoboda, Gyula Acsadi
BACKGROUND: We identified a group of patients with ATP1A3 mutations at residue 756 who display a new phenotype, distinct from alternating hemiplegia of childhood, rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss syndromes. METHODS: Four patients with c.2267G>A (R756H) mutations from two families and two patients with c.2267G>T (R756L) mutations from one family are described and compared with the previously reported patients with mutations resulting in R756H and R756C protein variants...
April 29, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647093/hypertrophic-olivary-degeneration-after-cerebellar-hemorrhage
#7
Gregory Walker, Kaustubh Limaye, Brian T Jankowitz, Ashutosh P Jadhav
We present a striking example of hypertrophic olivary degeneration after cerebellar hemorrhage. This case highlights some important teaching points: unique response of the inferior olivary nucleus to de-afferentation, anatomy of Mollaret's triangle and clinical manifestations of disruption in Mollaret's triangle. The purpose of this teaching case is to highlight a rare but important post-stroke complication.
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646959/is-chickenpox-so-bad-what-do-we-know-about-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-and-what-does-it-tell-us-about-the-future
#8
Anne A Gershon
Varicella and zoster continue to cause significant morbidity and even mortality in children and adults. Complications include bacterial superinfection, central nervous system manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia, and pain syndromes especially post herpetic neuralgia. Many developed countries but not all, are now administering live attenuated varicella vaccine routinely, with a decrease in the incidence of disease, providing personal and herd immunity. There is some controversy, however, in some countries concerning whether a decrease in the circulation of wild type virus will result in loss of immunity to VZV in persons who have already had varicella...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646240/delineating-function-and-connectivity-of-optokinetic-hubs-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-brainstem
#9
Ria Maxine Ruehl, Carolin Hinkel, Thomas Bauermann, Peter Zu Eulenburg
Optokinetic eye movements are crucial for keeping a stable image on the retina during movements of the head. These eye movements can be differentiated into a cortically generated response (optokinetic look nystagmus) and the highly reflexive optokinetic stare nystagmus, which is controlled by circuits in the brainstem and cerebellum. The contributions of these infratentorial networks and their functional connectivity with the cortical eye fields are still poorly understood in humans. To map ocular motor centres in the cerebellum and brainstem, we studied stare nystagmus using small-field optokinetic stimuli in the horizontal and vertical directions in 22 healthy subjects...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645295/identification-of-the-flotillin-1-2-heterocomplex-as-a-target-of-autoantibodies-in-bona-fide-multiple-sclerosis
#10
S Hahn, G Trendelenburg, M Scharf, Y Denno, S Brakopp, B Teegen, C Probst, K P Wandinger, M Buttmann, A Haarmann, F Szabados, M Vom Dahl, T Kümpfel, P Eichhorn, H Gold, F Paul, S Jarius, N Melzer, W Stöcker, L Komorowski
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies, in particular those against aquaporin-4 and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), aid as biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of demyelination. Here, we report on discovery of autoantibodies against flotillin in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The target antigen was identified by histo-immunoprecipitation using the patients' sera and cryosections of rat or pig cerebellum combined with mass spectrometrical analysis...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644064/frequent-vomiting-attacks-in-a-patient-with-lhermitte-duclos-disease-a-rare-pathophysiology-of-cerebellar-lesions
#11
Chika Somagawa, Tomonori Ono, Ryoko Honda, Hiroshi Baba, Takeshi Hiu, Ryujiro Ushijima, Keisuke Toda, Kei Sato, Masahiro Ito, Keisuke Tsutsumi
Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) is a neurological disease caused by a hamartomatous lesion in the cerebellum. Clinically, LDD is commonly associated with progressive space-occupying lesion effects in the posterior fossa, increasing intracranial pressure, occlusive hydrocephalus, and focal neurological deficits of adjacent structures. The authors report the case of a 10-year-old boy with LDD who had been suffering from vomiting attacks (VAs). These VAs had been brief in duration but extremely frequent, and they had been resistant to antiemetic drugs since the early postnatal period...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643955/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-normal-appearing-white-matter-in-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-and-multiple-sclerosis
#12
S-H Kim, K Kwak, J-W Hyun, A Joung, S H Lee, Y-H Choi, J-M Lee, H J Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were investigated and compared amongst patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) by applying tract-based spatial statistics to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was performed with a 3-T scanner in 93 patients with NMOSD, 53 patients with MS and 43 HCs. Voxel-wise statistical analyses of the DTI data were performed using tract-based spatial statistics...
July 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643197/ampk-is-activated-early-in-cerebellar-granule-cells-undergoing-apoptosis-and-influences-vadc1-phosphorylation-status-and-activity
#13
A Bobba, E Casalino, G Amadoro, V A Petragallo, A Atlante
The neurodegeneration of cerebellar granule cells, after low potassium induced apoptosis, is known to be temporally divided into an early and a late phase. Voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) protein, changing from the closed inactive state to the active open state, is central to the switch between the early and late phase. It is also known that: (i) VDAC1 can undergo phosphorylation events and (ii) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the sensor of cellular stress, may have a role in neuronal homeostasis...
June 22, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642179/analysis-of-outcomes-of-multidisciplinary-management-of-gliosarcoma-a-single-centre-study-2000-2013
#14
Abhinav Jain, Jason Correia, Patrick Schweder, Adele McMahon, Joseph Merola, Robert Aspoas
BACKGROUND: Gliosarcoma is a rare CNS tumour with a reported incidence of ∼2-8% of all gliomas. We reviewed the outcomes of patients treated at our institution over a 14-year period from 2000-2013 to characterize overall and progression free survival as well as to elucidate the additive effect of chemo-radiotherapy. METHODS: For the duration of 01/01/2000 to 31/12/2013, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of all patients treated at our institution with a histopathological diagnosis of Gliosarcoma...
June 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640114/injury-of-the-dentato-rubro-thalamic-tract-in-patients-with-cerebellar-infarct-case-report
#15
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
RATIONALE: Several studies using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) have reported on injury in the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) in patients with brain injury. However, there is no study of injury in the DRTT following cerebellar infarct. We report on patients with injury in the DRTT following cerebellar infarct, demonstrated on DTT. PATIENT CONCERNS: Three patients with cerebellar infarct were enrolled in this study. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired at 3 weeks (patient 1) and 2 weeks (patients 2 and 3) after onset and the DRTT was reconstructed...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639422/medaka-and-zebrafish-contactin1-mutants-as-a-model-for-understanding-neural-circuits-for-motor-coordination
#16
Miki Takeuchi, Chikako Inoue, Akiko Goshima, Yusuke Nagao, Koichi Shimizu, Hiroki Miyamoto, Takashi Shimizu, Hisashi Hashimoto, Shigenobu Yonemura, Atsuo Kawahara, Yutaka Hirata, Masayuki Yoshida, Masahiko Hibi
A spontaneous medaka ro mutant shows abnormal wobbling and rolling swimming behaviors. By positional cloning, we mapped the ro locus to a region containing the gene encoding Contactin1b (Cntn1b), which is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-superfamily domain-containing membrane-anchored protein. The ro mutant had a deletion in the cntn1b gene that introduced a premature stop codon. Furthermore, cntn1b mutants generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system and trans-heterozygotes of the CRISPR mutant allele and ro had abnormal swimming behavior, indicating that the cntn1b gene was responsible for the ro-mutant phenotype...
June 22, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639357/cerebellar-projections-to-the-ventral-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-the-cat
#17
Hiroyuki Nakamura
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) is a retinorecipient part of the ventral thalamus and in cats, it consists of medial (M), medial intermediate (IM), lateral intermediate (IL), lateral (L), and dorsal (D) subdivisions. These subdivisions can be differentiated not only by their cytoarchitecture, but also by their connectivity and putative functions. The LGNv may play a role in visuomotor gating, in that there is evidence of cerebellar afferent projections to the intermediate subdivisions. The cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) and lateral (LC) nuclei are known to project to IM and IL, but the specifics of these projections are unclear...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638945/surgical-treatment-of-unruptured-distal-basilar-artery-aneurysm-durability-and-risk-factors-for-neurological-worsening
#18
Hidetoshi Matsukawa, Hiroyasu Kamiyama, Takanori Miyazaki, Yu Kinoshita, Toshiyuki Tsuboi, Kosumo Noda, Nakao Ota, Norihiro Saito, Rihee Takeda, Sadahisa Tokuda, Rokuya Tanikawa
BACKGROUND: Distal basilar artery aneurysms (DBAs) consist of basilar apex and basilar artery-superior cerebellar artery bifurcation (BA-SCA) aneurysms. The authors aimed to investigate clinical and radiological differences between two locations and to evaluate the 12-month surgical outcome in unruptured DBAs. METHODS: Fifty-six consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment (37 basilar apex and 19 BA-SCA aneurysms) between April 2012 and February 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
June 21, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638854/autoimmune-episodic-ataxia-in-patients-with-anti-caspr2-antibody-associated-encephalitis
#19
Bastien Joubert, Florent Gobert, Laure Thomas, Margaux Saint-Martin, Virginie Desestret, Philippe Convers, Véronique Rogemond, Géraldine Picard, François Ducray, Dimitri Psimaras, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Jean-Yves Delattre, Jérôme Honnorat
OBJECTIVE: To report paroxysmal episodes of cerebellar ataxia in a patient with anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody-related autoimmune encephalitis and to search for similar paroxysmal ataxia in a cohort of patients with anti-CASPR2 antibody-associated autoimmune encephalitis. METHODS: We report a patient with paroxysmal episodes of cerebellar ataxia observed during autoimmune encephalitis with anti-CASPR2 antibodies. In addition, clinical analysis was performed in a retrospective cohort of 37 patients with anti-CASPR2 antibodies to search for transient episodes of ataxia...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#20
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
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