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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611360/learning-and-timing-of-voluntary-blink-responses-match-eyeblink-conditioning
#1
Anders Rasmussen, Dan-Anders Jirenhed
Can humans produce well-timed blink responses to a neutral stimulus voluntarily, without receiving any blink-eliciting, unconditional, stimulus? And if they can, to what degree does classical eyeblink conditioning depend on volition? Here we show that voluntary blink responses learned in two paradigms that did not involve any unconditional blink-eliciting stimuli, display timing that is as good, or better than, the timing of blink responses learned in a standard eyeblink conditioning paradigm. The exceptional timing accuracy likely stems from the fact that, in contrast to previous studies, we challenged our participants to blink in a timed manner, and not merely to blink so as to avoid the corneal air puff...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610951/filling-the-gap-evidence-for-a-spatial-differentiation-in-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#2
Mauro F Larra, Andreas Behrje, Johannes B Finke, Terry D Blumenthal, Hartmut Schächinger
Trace eyeblink conditioning is used as a translational model of declarative memory but restricted to the temporal domain. Potential spatial aspects have never been experimentally addressed. We employed a spatiotemporal trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm in which a spatial dimension (application side of the unconditioned stimulus) was differentially coded by tone frequency of the conditioned stimulus and recorded conditioned reactions from both eyes. We found more and stronger conditioned reactions at the side predicted by the conditioned stimulus but only in aware participants...
June 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591570/compromised-survival-of-cerebellar-molecular-layer-interneurons-lacking-gdnf-receptors-gfr%C3%AE-1-or-ret-impairs-normal-cerebellar-motor-learning
#3
Maria Christina Sergaki, Juan Carlos López-Ramos, Stefanos Stagkourakis, Agnès Gruart, Christian Broberger, José María Delgado-García, Carlos F Ibáñez
The role of neurotrophic factors as endogenous survival proteins for brain neurons remains contentious. In the cerebellum, the signals controlling survival of molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) are unknown, and direct evidence for the requirement of a full complement of MLIs for normal cerebellar function and motor learning has been lacking. Here, we show that Purkinje cells (PCs), the target of MLIs, express the neurotrophic factor GDNF during MLI development and survival of MLIs depends on GDNF receptors GFRα1 and RET...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575003/establishment-and-transfer-of-classical-eyeblink-conditioning-using-electrical-microstimulation-of-the-hippocampus-as-the-conditioned-stimulus
#4
Juan Yao, Bing Wu, Guang-Yan Wu, Xuan Li, Jian-Ning Ye, Jian-Feng Sui
The present experiment was designed to determine whether classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) can be established by using electrical microstimulation of the hippocampus as a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an air-puff unconditioned stimulus (US). We intended to examine whether EBC transfer could occur when a CS was shifted between microstimulation of the hippocampus as a CS (Hip-CS) and tone as a CS (tone-CS) and to compare the difference in transfer effectiveness between delay EBC (dEBC) and trace EBC (tEBC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545908/influence-of-postnatal-glucocorticoids-on-hippocampal-dependent-learning-varies-with-elevation-patterns-and-administration-methods
#5
Dragana I Claflin, Kevin D Schmidt, Zachary D Vallandingham, Michal Kraszpulski, Michael B Hennessy
Recent interest in the lasting effects of early-life stress has expanded to include effects on cognitive performance. An increase in circulating glucocorticoids is induced by stress exposure and glucocorticoid effects on the hippocampus likely underlie many of the cognitive consequences. Here we review studies showing that corticosterone administered to young rats at the conclusion of the stress-hyporesponsiveness period affects later performance in hippocampally-mediated trace eyeblink conditioning. The nature and even direction of these effects varies with the elevation patterns (level, duration, temporal fluctuation) achieved by different administration methods...
May 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542383/performance-in-eyeblink-conditioning-is-age-and-sex-dependent
#6
Karolina Löwgren, Rasmus Bååth, Anders Rasmussen, Henk-Jan Boele, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw, Germund Hesslow
A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533379/learned-response-sequences-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#7
Dan-Anders Jirenhed, Anders Rasmussen, Fredrik Johansson, Germund Hesslow
Associative learning in the cerebellum has previously focused on single movements. In eyeblink conditioning, for instance, a subject learns to blink at the right time in response to a conditional stimulus (CS), such as a tone that is repeatedly followed by an unconditional corneal stimulus (US). During conditioning, the CS and US are transmitted by mossy/parallel fibers and climbing fibers to cerebellar Purkinje cells that acquire a precisely timed pause response that drives the overt blink response. The timing of this conditional Purkinje cell response is determined by the CS-US interval and is independent of temporal patterns in the input signal...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533182/biased-visceral-perception-through-fear-learning-biased-intensity-judgements-of-visceral-sensations-after-learning-to-fear-visceral-stimuli-a-drift-diffusion-approach
#8
Jonas Zaman, Victoria J Madden, Julie Iven, Katja Wiech, Nathalie Weltens, Huynh Giao Ly, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with non-painful esophageal balloon distensions of two different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised pre-acquisition, acquisition and post-acquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522379/the-coding-question
#9
REVIEW
C R Gallistel
Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512010/cerebellar-learning-modulates-surface-expression-of-a-voltage-gated-ion-channel-in-cerebellar-cortex
#10
Jason R Fuchs, Shelby W Darlington, John T Green, Anthony D Morielli
Numerous experiments using ex vivo electrophysiology suggest that mammalian learning and memory involves regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in function. Yet, little is known about learning-related regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in expression. In two experiments, we examined changes in cell surface expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha-subunit Kv1.2 in a discrete region of cerebellar cortex after eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a well-studied form of cerebellar-dependent learning...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507031/memory-consolidation-within-the-central-amygdala-is-not-necessary-for-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning
#11
Adam B Steinmetz, Ka H Ng, John H Freeman
Amygdala lesions impair, but do not prevent, acquisition of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning suggesting that the amygdala modulates cerebellar learning. Two-factor theories of eyeblink conditioning posit that a fast-developing memory within the amygdala facilitates slower-developing memory within the cerebellum. The current study tested this hypothesis by impairing memory consolidation within the amygdala with inhibition of protein synthesis, transcription, and NMDA receptors in rats. Rats given infusions of anisomycin or DRB into the central amygdala (CeA) immediately after each eyeblink conditioning session were severely impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning, but were completely unimpaired in eyeblink conditioning...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474470/modulation-of-7%C3%A2-t-fmri-signal-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-and-nuclei-during-acquisition-extinction-and-reacquisition-of-conditioned-eyeblink-responses
#12
Thomas M Ernst, Markus Thürling, Sarah Müller, Fabian Kahl, Stefan Maderwald, Marc Schlamann, Henk-Jan Boele, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Jörn Diedrichsen, Chris I De Zeeuw, Mark E Ladd, Dagmar Timmann
Classical delay eyeblink conditioning is likely the most commonly used paradigm to study cerebellar learning. As yet, few studies have focused on extinction and savings of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Saving effects, which are reflected in a reacquisition after extinction that is faster than the initial acquisition, suggest that learned associations are at least partly preserved during extinction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acquisition-related plasticity is nihilated during extinction in the cerebellar cortex, but retained in the cerebellar nuclei, allowing for faster reacquisition...
May 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450079/sensory-system-development-influences-the-ontogeny-of-hippocampal-associative-coding-and-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#13
Mary E Goldsberry, Jangjin Kim, John H Freeman
Until recently, it was believed that hippocampal development was the primary rate-limiting factor in the developmental emergence of hippocampal forms of learning, such as trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC). Indeed, hippocampal neuronal activity shows an age-related increase in both complexity and task responsiveness during trace EBC. However, recent work from our laboratory suggests that sensory system development may also play a role. Training with the earlier-developing somatosensory system results in an earlier emergence of trace EBC in rats, suggesting that the development of sensory input to the hippocampus may influence the development of trace EBC...
April 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#14
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
KEY POINTS: Dentate spikes are fast fluctuations of hilar local-field potentials that take place during rest and are thought to reflect input arriving from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus. During dentate spikes, neuronal firing in hippocampal input (dentate gyrus) and output (CA1/CA3) regions is uncoupled. To date, the behavioural significance of dentate spikes is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that disrupting the dentate spike-related uncoupling of the dentate gyrus and the CA1/CA3 subregions for 1 h after training retards associative learning...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396641/editorial-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-in-psychiatric-conditions-novel-uses-for-a-classic-paradigm
#15
EDITORIAL
Tracy L Greer, Lucien T Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385510/classical-conditioning-differences-associated-with-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Daniel S Harvie, G Lorimer Moseley, Susan L Hillier, Ann Meulders
Prominent clinical models of chronic pain propose a fundamental role of classical conditioning in the development of pain-related disability. If classical conditioning is key to this process, then people with chronic pain may show a different response to pain-related conditioned stimuli than healthy control subjects. We set out to determine whether this is the case by undertaking a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature. To identify studies comparing classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy control subjects, the databases MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, Scopus, and CINAHL were searched using key words and medical subject headings consistent with 'classical conditioning' and 'pain...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334243/erratum-to-functional-mri-of-human-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#17
Dominic T Cheng, Ernesta M Meintjes, Mark E Stanton, Neil C Dodge, Mariska Pienaar, Christopher M R Warton, John E Desmond, Christopher D Molteno, Bradley S Peterson, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#18
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230385/auditory-cue-absence-as-a-conditioned-stimulus-for-delay-eyeblink-conditioning
#19
Matthew M Campolattaro, Sean W Savage, Olga Lipatova
The present experiment was designed to determine if the absence of an auditory cue (i.e., a "tone-off" cue) would be an effective conditioned stimulus (CS) for delay eyeblink conditioning and to test if the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) is part of the sensory pathway for tone-off conditioning. Rats were given paired or unpaired delay eyeblink conditioning to examine if responding to a tone-off CS was due to an associative process. An inactivation technique was performed on a separate group of rats to determine if the MGN is needed to express tone-off conditioning...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219790/subunit-specific-synaptic-delivery-of-ampa-receptors-by-auxiliary-chaperone-proteins-tarp%C3%AE-8-and-gsg1l-in-classical-conditioning
#20
Joyce Keifer, Neeraj K Tiwari, Leah Buse, Zhaoqing Zheng
AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has emerged as a fundamental concept for understanding mechanisms of learning and memory as well as many neurological disorders. Classical conditioning is a simple and highly conserved form of associative learning. Our studies use an ex vivo brainstem preparation in which to study cellular mechanisms underlying learning during a neural correlate of eyeblink conditioning. Two stages of AMPAR synaptic delivery underlie conditioning utilizing sequential trafficking of GluA1-containing AMPARs early in conditioning followed by replacement with GluA4 subunits later...
April 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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