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eyeblink conditioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809846/the-use-of-trace-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-to-assess-hippocampal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#1
Tuan D Tran, Aenia Amin, Keith G Jones, Ellen M Sheffer, Lidia Ortega, Keith Dolman
Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802836/neocortical-prodynorphin-expression-is-transiently-increased-with-learning-implications-for-time-and-learning-dependent-neocortical-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation
#2
Ryan Loh, Sean Collins, Roberto Galvez
There are several lines of evidence that indicate a prominent role for the opioid system in the acquisition and consolidation of learned associations. Specifically, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation has been demonstrated to alter various behavioral tasks including whisker trace eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). WTEB is an associative conditioning paradigm in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; Whisker stimulation) is paired following a short stimulus free trace interval with a salient unconditioned stimulus that elicits a blink response (US; Eye shock)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799954/effects-of-systemic-glutamatergic-manipulations-on-conditioned-eyeblink-responses-and-hyperarousal-in-a-rabbit-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#3
Lauren B Burhans, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735144/entorhinal-tau-pathology-disrupts-hippocampal-prefrontal-oscillatory-coupling-during-associative-learning
#4
Stephanie E Tanninen, Bardia Nouriziabari, Mark D Morrissey, Rami Bakir, Robert D Dayton, Ronald L Klein, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
A neural signature of asymptomatic preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is disrupted connectivity between brain regions; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we tested whether a preclinical pathologic feature, tau aggregation in the entorhinal cortex (EC) is sufficient to disrupt the coordination of local field potentials (LFPs) between its efferent regions. P301L-mutant human tau or green fluorescent protein (GFP) was virally overexpressed in the EC of adult rats. LFPs were recorded from the dorsal hippocampus and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex while the rats underwent trace eyeblink conditioning where they learned to associate 2 stimuli separated by a short time interval...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682237/phasic-and-tonic-neuron-ensemble-codes-for-stimulus-environment-conjunctions-in-the-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#5
Maryna Pilkiw, Nathan Insel, Younghua Cui, Caitlin Finney, Mark D Morrissey, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) is thought to bind sensory events with the environment where they took place. To compare the relative influence of transient events and temporally stable environmental stimuli on the firing of LEC cells, we recorded neuron spiking patterns in the region during blocks of a trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm performed in two environments and with different conditioning stimuli. Firing rates of some neurons were phasically selective for conditioned stimuli in a way that depended on which room the rat was in; nearly all neurons were tonically selective for environments in a way that depended on which stimuli had been presented in those environments...
July 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611360/learning-and-timing-of-voluntary-blink-responses-match-eyeblink-conditioning
#6
Anders Rasmussen, Dan-Anders Jirenhed
Can humans produce well-timed blink responses to a neutral stimulus voluntarily, without receiving any blink-eliciting, unconditional, stimulus? And if they can, to what degree does classical eyeblink conditioning depend on volition? Here we show that voluntary blink responses learned in two paradigms that did not involve any unconditional blink-eliciting stimuli, display timing that is as good, or better than, the timing of blink responses learned in a standard eyeblink conditioning paradigm. The exceptional timing accuracy likely stems from the fact that, in contrast to previous studies, we challenged our participants to blink in a timed manner, and not merely to blink so as to avoid the corneal air puff...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610951/filling-the-gap-evidence-for-a-spatial-differentiation-in-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#7
Mauro F Larra, Andreas Behrje, Johannes B Finke, Terry D Blumenthal, Hartmut Schächinger
Trace eyeblink conditioning is used as a translational model of declarative memory but restricted to the temporal domain. Potential spatial aspects have never been experimentally addressed. We employed a spatiotemporal trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm in which a spatial dimension (application side of the unconditioned stimulus) was differentially coded by tone frequency of the conditioned stimulus and recorded conditioned reactions from both eyes. We found more and stronger conditioned reactions at the side predicted by the conditioned stimulus but only in aware participants...
July 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591570/compromised-survival-of-cerebellar-molecular-layer-interneurons-lacking-gdnf-receptors-gfr%C3%AE-1-or-ret-impairs-normal-cerebellar-motor-learning
#8
Maria Christina Sergaki, Juan Carlos López-Ramos, Stefanos Stagkourakis, Agnès Gruart, Christian Broberger, José María Delgado-García, Carlos F Ibáñez
The role of neurotrophic factors as endogenous survival proteins for brain neurons remains contentious. In the cerebellum, the signals controlling survival of molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) are unknown, and direct evidence for the requirement of a full complement of MLIs for normal cerebellar function and motor learning has been lacking. Here, we show that Purkinje cells (PCs), the target of MLIs, express the neurotrophic factor GDNF during MLI development and survival of MLIs depends on GDNF receptors GFRα1 and RET...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575003/establishment-and-transfer-of-classical-eyeblink-conditioning-using-electrical-microstimulation-of-the-hippocampus-as-the-conditioned-stimulus
#9
Juan Yao, Bing Wu, Guang-Yan Wu, Xuan Li, Jian-Ning Ye, Jian-Feng Sui
The present experiment was designed to determine whether classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) can be established by using electrical microstimulation of the hippocampus as a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an air-puff unconditioned stimulus (US). We intended to examine whether EBC transfer could occur when a CS was shifted between microstimulation of the hippocampus as a CS (Hip-CS) and tone as a CS (tone-CS) and to compare the difference in transfer effectiveness between delay EBC (dEBC) and trace EBC (tEBC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545908/influence-of-postnatal-glucocorticoids-on-hippocampal-dependent-learning-varies-with-elevation-patterns-and-administration-methods
#10
REVIEW
Dragana I Claflin, Kevin D Schmidt, Zachary D Vallandingham, Michal Kraszpulski, Michael B Hennessy
Recent interest in the lasting effects of early-life stress has expanded to include effects on cognitive performance. An increase in circulating glucocorticoids is induced by stress exposure and glucocorticoid effects on the hippocampus likely underlie many of the cognitive consequences. Here we review studies showing that corticosterone administered to young rats at the conclusion of the stress-hyporesponsiveness period affects later performance in hippocampally-mediated trace eyeblink conditioning. The nature and even direction of these effects varies with the elevation patterns (level, duration, temporal fluctuation) achieved by different administration methods...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542383/performance-in-eyeblink-conditioning-is-age-and-sex-dependent
#11
Karolina Löwgren, Rasmus Bååth, Anders Rasmussen, Henk-Jan Boele, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw, Germund Hesslow
A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533379/learned-response-sequences-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#12
Dan-Anders Jirenhed, Anders Rasmussen, Fredrik Johansson, Germund Hesslow
Associative learning in the cerebellum has previously focused on single movements. In eyeblink conditioning, for instance, a subject learns to blink at the right time in response to a conditional stimulus (CS), such as a tone that is repeatedly followed by an unconditional corneal stimulus (US). During conditioning, the CS and US are transmitted by mossy/parallel fibers and climbing fibers to cerebellar Purkinje cells that acquire a precisely timed pause response that drives the overt blink response. The timing of this conditional Purkinje cell response is determined by the CS-US interval and is independent of temporal patterns in the input signal...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533182/biased-visceral-perception-through-fear-learning-biased-intensity-judgements-of-visceral-sensations-after-learning-to-fear-visceral-stimuli-a-drift-diffusion-approach
#13
Jonas Zaman, Victoria J Madden, Julie Iven, Katja Wiech, Nathalie Weltens, Huynh Giao Ly, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with non-painful esophageal balloon distensions of two different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised pre-acquisition, acquisition and post-acquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522379/the-coding-question
#14
REVIEW
C R Gallistel
Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512010/cerebellar-learning-modulates-surface-expression-of-a-voltage-gated-ion-channel-in-cerebellar-cortex
#15
Jason R Fuchs, Shelby W Darlington, John T Green, Anthony D Morielli
Numerous experiments using ex vivo electrophysiology suggest that mammalian learning and memory involves regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in function. Yet, little is known about learning-related regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in expression. In two experiments, we examined changes in cell surface expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha-subunit Kv1.2 in a discrete region of cerebellar cortex after eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a well-studied form of cerebellar-dependent learning...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507031/memory-consolidation-within-the-central-amygdala-is-not-necessary-for-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning
#16
Adam B Steinmetz, Ka H Ng, John H Freeman
Amygdala lesions impair, but do not prevent, acquisition of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning suggesting that the amygdala modulates cerebellar learning. Two-factor theories of eyeblink conditioning posit that a fast-developing memory within the amygdala facilitates slower-developing memory within the cerebellum. The current study tested this hypothesis by impairing memory consolidation within the amygdala with inhibition of protein synthesis, transcription, and NMDA receptors in rats. Rats given infusions of anisomycin or DRB into the central amygdala (CeA) immediately after each eyeblink conditioning session were severely impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning, but were completely unimpaired in eyeblink conditioning...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474470/modulation-of-7%C3%A2-t-fmri-signal-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-and-nuclei-during-acquisition-extinction-and-reacquisition-of-conditioned-eyeblink-responses
#17
Thomas M Ernst, Markus Thürling, Sarah Müller, Fabian Kahl, Stefan Maderwald, Marc Schlamann, Henk-Jan Boele, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Jörn Diedrichsen, Chris I De Zeeuw, Mark E Ladd, Dagmar Timmann
Classical delay eyeblink conditioning is likely the most commonly used paradigm to study cerebellar learning. As yet, few studies have focused on extinction and savings of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Saving effects, which are reflected in a reacquisition after extinction that is faster than the initial acquisition, suggest that learned associations are at least partly preserved during extinction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acquisition-related plasticity is nihilated during extinction in the cerebellar cortex, but retained in the cerebellar nuclei, allowing for faster reacquisition...
May 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450079/sensory-system-development-influences-the-ontogeny-of-hippocampal-associative-coding-and-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#18
Mary E Goldsberry, Jangjin Kim, John H Freeman
Until recently, it was believed that hippocampal development was the primary rate-limiting factor in the developmental emergence of hippocampal forms of learning, such as trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC). Indeed, hippocampal neuronal activity shows an age-related increase in both complexity and task responsiveness during trace EBC. However, recent work from our laboratory suggests that sensory system development may also play a role. Training with the earlier-developing somatosensory system results in an earlier emergence of trace EBC in rats, suggesting that the development of sensory input to the hippocampus may influence the development of trace EBC...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#19
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
KEY POINTS: Dentate spikes are fast fluctuations of hilar local-field potentials that take place during rest and are thought to reflect input arriving from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus. During dentate spikes, neuronal firing in hippocampal input (dentate gyrus) and output (CA1/CA3) regions is uncoupled. To date, the behavioural significance of dentate spikes is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that disrupting the dentate spike-related uncoupling of the dentate gyrus and the CA1/CA3 subregions for 1 h after training retards associative learning...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396641/editorial-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-in-psychiatric-conditions-novel-uses-for-a-classic-paradigm
#20
EDITORIAL
Tracy L Greer, Lucien T Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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