keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

eyeblink conditioning

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533379/learned-response-sequences-in-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#1
Dan-Anders Jirenhed, Anders Rasmussen, Fredrik Johansson, Germund Hesslow
Associative learning in the cerebellum has previously focused on single movements. In eyeblink conditioning, for instance, a subject learns to blink at the right time in response to a conditional stimulus (CS), such as a tone that is repeatedly followed by an unconditional corneal stimulus (US). During conditioning, the CS and US are transmitted by mossy/parallel fibers and climbing fibers to cerebellar Purkinje cells that acquire a precisely timed pause response that drives the overt blink response. The timing of this conditional Purkinje cell response is determined by the CS-US interval and is independent of temporal patterns in the input signal...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533182/biased-visceral-perception-through-fear-learning-biased-intensity-judgements-of-visceral-sensations-after-learning-to-fear-visceral-stimuli-a-drift-diffusion-approach
#2
Jonas Zaman, Victoria J Madden, Julie Iven, Katja Wiech, Nathalie Weltens, Huynh Giao Ly, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with non-painful esophageal balloon distensions of two different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised pre-acquisition, acquisition and post-acquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522379/the-coding-question
#3
REVIEW
C R Gallistel
Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512010/cerebellar-learning-modulates-expression-of-a-voltage-gated-ion-channel-in-cerebellar-cortex
#4
Jason R Fuchs, Shelby W Darlington, John T Green, Anthony D Morielli
Numerous experiments using ex vivo electrophysiology suggest that mammalian learning and memory involves regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in function. Yet, little is known about learning-related regulation of voltage-gated ion channels in terms of changes in expression. In two experiments, we examined changes in cell surface expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha-subunit Kv1.2 in a discrete region of cerebellar cortex after eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a well-studied form of cerebellar-dependent learning...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507031/memory-consolidation-within-the-central-amygdala-is-not-necessary-for-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning
#5
Adam B Steinmetz, Ka H Ng, John H Freeman
Amygdala lesions impair, but do not prevent, acquisition of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning suggesting that the amygdala modulates cerebellar learning. Two-factor theories of eyeblink conditioning posit that a fast-developing memory within the amygdala facilitates slower-developing memory within the cerebellum. The current study tested this hypothesis by impairing memory consolidation within the amygdala with inhibition of protein synthesis, transcription, and NMDA receptors in rats. Rats given infusions of anisomycin or DRB into the central amygdala (CeA) immediately after each eyeblink conditioning session were severely impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning, but were completely unimpaired in eyeblink conditioning...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474470/modulation-of-7%C3%A2-t-fmri-signal-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-and-nuclei-during-acquisition-extinction-and-reacquisition-of-conditioned-eyeblink-responses
#6
Thomas M Ernst, Markus Thürling, Sarah Müller, Fabian Kahl, Stefan Maderwald, Marc Schlamann, Henk-Jan Boele, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Jörn Diedrichsen, Chris I De Zeeuw, Mark E Ladd, Dagmar Timmann
Classical delay eyeblink conditioning is likely the most commonly used paradigm to study cerebellar learning. As yet, few studies have focused on extinction and savings of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Saving effects, which are reflected in a reacquisition after extinction that is faster than the initial acquisition, suggest that learned associations are at least partly preserved during extinction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acquisition-related plasticity is nihilated during extinction in the cerebellar cortex, but retained in the cerebellar nuclei, allowing for faster reacquisition...
May 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450079/sensory-system-development-influences-the-ontogeny-of-hippocampal-associative-coding-and-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#7
Mary E Goldsberry, Jangjin Kim, John H Freeman
Until recently, it was believed that hippocampal development was the primary rate-limiting factor in the developmental emergence of hippocampal forms of learning, such as trace eyeblink conditioning (EBC). Indeed, hippocampal neuronal activity shows an age-related increase in both complexity and task responsiveness during trace EBC. However, recent work from our laboratory suggests that sensory system development may also play a role. Training with the earlier-developing somatosensory system results in an earlier emergence of trace EBC in rats, suggesting that the development of sensory input to the hippocampus may influence the development of trace EBC...
April 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426128/hippocampal-electrical-stimulation-disrupts-associative-learning-when-targeted-at-dentate-spikes
#8
Miriam S Nokia, Irina Gureviciene, Tomi Waselius, Heikki Tanila, Markku Penttonen
Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396641/editorial-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-in-psychiatric-conditions-novel-uses-for-a-classic-paradigm
#9
EDITORIAL
Tracy L Greer, Lucien T Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385510/classical-conditioning-differences-associated-with-chronic-pain-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Daniel S Harvie, G Lorimer Moseley, Susan L Hillier, Ann Meulders
Prominent clinical models of chronic pain propose a fundamental role of classical conditioning in the development of pain-related disability. If classical conditioning is key to this process, then people with chronic pain may show a different response to pain-related conditioned stimuli than healthy control subjects. We set out to determine whether this is the case by undertaking a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature. To identify studies comparing classical conditioning between people with chronic pain and healthy control subjects, the databases MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, Scopus, and CINAHL were searched using key words and medical subject headings consistent with 'classical conditioning' and 'pain...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334243/erratum-to-functional-mri-of-human-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#11
Dominic T Cheng, Ernesta M Meintjes, Mark E Stanton, Neil C Dodge, Mariska Pienaar, Christopher M R Warton, John E Desmond, Christopher D Molteno, Bradley S Peterson, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#12
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230385/auditory-cue-absence-as-a-conditioned-stimulus-for-delay-eyeblink-conditioning
#13
Matthew M Campolattaro, Sean W Savage, Olga Lipatova
The present experiment was designed to determine if the absence of an auditory cue (i.e., a "tone-off" cue) would be an effective conditioned stimulus (CS) for delay eyeblink conditioning and to test if the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) is part of the sensory pathway for tone-off conditioning. Rats were given paired or unpaired delay eyeblink conditioning to examine if responding to a tone-off CS was due to an associative process. An inactivation technique was performed on a separate group of rats to determine if the MGN is needed to express tone-off conditioning...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219790/subunit-specific-synaptic-delivery-of-ampa-receptors-by-auxiliary-chaperone-proteins-tarp%C3%AE-8-and-gsg1l-in-classical-conditioning
#14
Joyce Keifer, Neeraj K Tiwari, Leah Buse, Zhaoqing Zheng
AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking has emerged as a fundamental concept for understanding mechanisms of learning and memory as well as many neurological disorders. Classical conditioning is a simple and highly conserved form of associative learning. Our studies use an ex vivo brainstem preparation in which to study cellular mechanisms underlying learning during a neural correlate of eyeblink conditioning. Two stages of AMPAR synaptic delivery underlie conditioning utilizing sequential trafficking of GluA1-containing AMPARs early in conditioning followed by replacement with GluA4 subunits later...
April 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203151/cerebellar-tdcs-effects-on-conditioned-eyeblinks-using-different-electrode-placements-and-stimulation-protocols
#15
Linda Beyer, Giorgi Batsikadze, Dagmar Timmann, Marcus Gerwig
There is good evidence that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition and timing of classically conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Animal studies suggest that the cerebellum is also important in CR extinction and savings. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was reported to modulate CR acquisition and timing in a polarity dependent manner. To extent previous findings three experiments were conducted using standard delay eyeblink conditioning. In a between-group design, effects of tDCS were assessed with stimulation over the right cerebellar hemisphere ipsilaterally to the unconditioned stimulus (US)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169393/functional-mri-of-human-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#16
Dominic T Cheng, Ernesta M Meintjes, Mark E Stanton, Neil C Dodge, Mariska Pienaar, Christopher M R Warton, John E Desmond, Christopher D Molteno, Bradley S Peterson, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126063/eyeblink-conditioning-with-a-noise-burst-as-unconditioned-stimulus
#17
José L Marcos Malmierca, Azahara Marcos de Vega
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine if a white noise burst could be used as an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) to produce differential conditioning of eyeblink responses that were recorded as EMG activity of the orbicularis oculi. METHOD: Two fear-relevant stimuli served as conditioned stimuli (CS). An angry woman’s face (CS+) was consistently followed by a white noise burst (US) with 100 dB intensity and 100 milliseconds in duration.  A fearful face of the same woman (CS-) was not followed by the US...
February 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119127/antagonizing-the-different-stages-of-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation-selectively-and-independently-attenuates-acquisition-and-consolidation-of-associative-memories
#18
Ryan Loh, Lily Chau, Ali Aijaz, Kevin Wu, Roberto Galvez
Previous work from our laboratory has shown that nonspecific kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonism in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can inhibit acquisition for the forebrain-dependent associative task, Whisker-Trace Eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). Although studies have demonstrated that KOR activation can alter stimuli salience, our studies controlled for these factors, demonstrating that KOR also plays a role in facilitating learning. KOR has two distinct phases of activation followed by internalization/downregulation, that each independently activate kinases and transcription factors known to mediate task acquisition and memory consolidation respectively...
April 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094321/the-reference-frame-of-the-tilt-aftereffect-measured-by-differential-pavlovian-conditioning
#19
Yusuke Nakashima, Yoichi Sugita
We used a differential Pavlovian conditioning paradigm to measure tilt aftereffect (TAE) strength. Gabor patches, rotated clockwise and anticlockwise, were used as conditioned stimuli (CSs), one of which (CS+) was followed by the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), whereas the other (CS-) appeared alone. The UCS was an air puff delivered to the left eye. In addition to the CS+ and CS-, the vertical test patch was also presented for the clockwise and anticlockwise adapters. The vertical patch was not followed by the UCS...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077515/medial-prefrontal-cortex-pontine-nuclei-projections-modulate-suboptimal-cue-induced-associative-motor-learning
#20
Guang-Yan Wu, Shu-Lei Liu, Juan Yao, Lin Sun, Bing Wu, Yi Yang, Xuan Li, Qian-Quan Sun, Hua Feng, Jian-Feng Sui
Diverse and powerful mechanisms have evolved to enable organisms to modulate learning and memory under a variety of survival conditions. Cumulative evidence has shown that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is closely involved in many higher-order cognitive functions. However, when and how the medial PFC (mPFC) modulates associative motor learning remains largely unknown. Here, we show that delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC) with the weak conditioned stimulus (wCS) but not the strong CS (sCS) elicited a significant increase in the levels of c-Fos expression in caudal mPFC...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
keyword
keyword
44918
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"