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eyeblink conditioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407282/delayed-unpaired-extinction-as-a-treatment-for-hyperarousal-of-the-rabbit-nictitating-membrane-response-and-its-implications-for-treating-ptsd
#1
Bernard G Schreurs, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Lauren B Burhans
Treatment for PTSD (Post-traumatic stress disorder) is rarely available immediately after trauma and often delayed for weeks or months after an event. In a rabbit eyeblink conditioning model of PTSD, we have previously shown that presentations of a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) and shock unconditioned stimulus (US) in an explicitly unpaired manner known as unpaired extinction is effective in reducing CS responding and US hyperarousal even if shock intensity is reduced eight-fold and elicits only minimal responding...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384197/if-or-when-uncertainty-s-role-in-anxious-anticipation
#2
Ken P Bennett, Jacqueline S Dickmann, Christine L Larson
Uncertainty is often associated with subjective distress and a potentiated anxiety response. Occurrence uncertainty, or the inability to predict if a threat will occur, has rarely been compared experimentally with temporal uncertainty, or the inability to predict when a threat will occur. The current study aimed to (a) directly compare the anxiogenic effects of anticipating these two types of uncertain threat, as indexed by the eyeblink startle response, and (b) assess the relationship between startle response to occurrence and temporal uncertainty and individual differences in self-reported intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety...
January 31, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370235/time-limited-involvement-of-caudal-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-trace-eyeblink-conditioning-retrieval-is-dependent-on-conditioned-stimulus-intensity
#3
Xuan Li, Guang-Yan Wu, Juan Yao, Yi Yang, Jian-Ning Ye, Jian-Feng Sui
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been widely investigated for its roles in learning and memory. The present study investigated the time-limited involvement of the caudal anterior cingulate cortex (cACC) of the mPFC in the retrieval process for a simple associative motor learning, trace eyeblink conditioning (tEBC), using a 75 dB or 100 dB tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS). The GABAA receptor agonist muscimol was injected into the cACC of guinea pigs at 1 day or 4 weeks after tEBC acquisition. When muscimol was administered 1 day after tEBC acquisition, the conditioned response (CR) of the 75 dB group was severely impaired, whereas the CR of the 100 dB group exhibited no significant change relative to the control...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330006/cue-and-context-conditioning-to-respiratory-threat-effects-of-suffocation-fear-and-implications-for-the-etiology-of-panic-disorder
#4
Christoph Benke, Manuela G Alius, Alfons O Hamm, Christiane A Pané-Farré
Interoceptive threats play a crucial role in the etiology of panic disorder (PD). While body sensations may become conditioned stimuli (CS) when paired with such interoceptive threats (cue conditioning), the environment in which such interoceptive threats occur may also be learned as a predictor of threat (context conditioning). Suffocation fear (SF) might facilitate these associative learning processes if threats of suffocation become relevant as unconditioned stimuli (US). To investigate whether SF affects associative learning during such respiratory threat, we used mild dyspnea as CS that predicted the occurrence of strong dyspnea (US) in one context (predictable), was not related to the occurrence of the US in another context (unpredictable) or was presented in a different context (safe) in which no US was delivered...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291580/the-effect-of-panic-disorder-versus-anxiety-sensitivity-on-event-related-potentials-during-anticipation-of-threat
#5
Elizabeth S Stevens, Anna Weinberg, Brady D Nelson, Emily E E Meissel, Stewart A Shankman
Attention-related abnormalities are key components of the abnormal defensive responding observed in panic disorder (PD). Although behavioral studies have found aberrant attentional biases towards threat in PD, psychophysiological studies have been mixed. Predictability of threat, an important feature of threat processing, may have contributed to these mixed findings. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, a dimensional trait associated with PD, may yield stronger associations with cognitive processes than categorical diagnoses of PD...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243588/dynamic-modulation-of-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-during-pavlovian-eyeblink-conditioning-in-mice
#6
Michiel Manuel Ten Brinke, Shane Heiney, Xiaolu Wang, Martina Proietti-Onori, Henk-Jan Boele, Jacob Bakermans, Javier F Medina, Zhenyu Gao, Chris I De Zeeuw
While research on the cerebellar cortex is crystallizing our understanding of its function in learning behavior, many questions surrounding its downstream targets remain. Here, we evaluate the dynamics of cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IpN) neurons over the course of Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning. A diverse range of learning-induced neuronal responses was observed, including increases and decreases in activity during the generation of conditioned blinks. Trial-by-trial correlational analysis and optogenetic manipulation demonstrate that facilitation in the IpN drives the eyelid movements...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154809/facilitated-acquisition-of-the-classically-conditioned-eyeblink-response-in-active-duty-military-expressing-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms
#7
Justin D Handy, Pelin Avcu, Nora Ko, Alejandro Ortiz, Michael J Doria, Richard J Servatius
OBJECTIVE: Learning diathesis models underscore the role of hyper-conditioning in the development of PTSD following trauma exposure. Eyeblink classical conditioning is one method of examining associative learning biases independent of fear and threat produced by trauma. Facilitated learning is apparent in individuals self-expressing PTSD symptoms, as well as behaviorally inhibited (BI) temperament, a vulnerability factor for PTSD. Here, we examine eyeblink conditioning in active duty military personnel and relate learning with PTSD symptomology...
November 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115280/real-time-cerebellar-neuroprosthetic-system-based-on-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-motor-learning
#8
Tao Xu, Na Xiao, Xiaolong Zhai, Pak Kwan Chan, Chung Tin
Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach: The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054591/us-alone-trials-presented-during-acquisition-do-not-disrupt-classical-eyeblink-conditioning-empirical-and-computational-findings
#9
M T Allen, C E Myers, D Williams, R J Servatius
Studies of partial reinforcement in eyeblink conditioning have typically shown slower learning of a CS-US association when paired CS-US trials are interleaved with CS-alone trials. However, recent work has shown that CS-US learning is not slowed by interleaved US-alone trials. This discrepancy is surprising since both partial reinforcement protocols reduce the total number of paired CS-US trials. Previously, Kimble et al. (1955) reported that inserting a block of US-alone trials during CS-US training did not disrupt eyeblink acquisition...
October 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051391/trace-eyeblink-conditioning-is-associated-with-changes-in-synaptophysin-immunoreactivity-in-the-cerebellar-interpositus-nucleus-in-guinea-pigs
#10
Rui Li, Qi Li, Xiao-Lei Chu, Tao Tao, Lan Li, Cheng-Qi He, Fang-You Gao
Synaptic plasticity plays a role during trace eyeblink conditioning (TEBC). Synaptophysin (Syn) is a major integral transmembrane protein, located particularly in the synaptic vesicles, and is considered a molecular marker of synapses. In addition, Syn immunoreactivity is an important indicator of synaptic plasticity. In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to assess changes in Syn expression in the cerebellar IN of guinea pigs exposed to TEBC and pseudoconditioning. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between Syn immunoreactivity and the percentage of trace-conditioned responses...
October 19, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968654/optogenetic-inhibition-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pontine-nuclei-projections-during-the-stimulus-free-trace-interval-impairs-temporal-associative-motor-learning
#11
Guang-Yan Wu, Shu-Lei Liu, Juan Yao, Xuan Li, Bing Wu, Jian-Ning Ye, Jian-Feng Sui
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is closely involved in many higher-order cognitive functions, including learning to associate temporally discontiguous events (called temporal associative learning). However, direct evidence for the role of mPFC and the neural pathway underlying modulation of temporal associative motor learning is sparse. Here, we show that optogenetic inhibition of the mPFC or its axon terminals at the pontine nuclei (PN) during trace intervals or whole trial period significantly impaired the trace eyeblink conditioning (TEC), but had no significant effects on TEC during the conditioned stimulus or intertrial interval period...
September 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893553/caffeine-has-no-effect-on-eyeblink-conditioning-in-mice
#12
Anders Rasmussen, Anna C H G Ijpelaar, Chris I De Zeeuw, Henk-Jan Boele
Caffeine is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. In the brain, caffeine acts as an antagonist for the adenosine A1 and A2B receptors. Since A1 receptors are highly concentrated in the cortex of the cerebellum, we hypothesized that caffeine could potentially affect learning tasks that require the cerebellar cortex, such as eyeblink conditioning. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of low (5mg/kg) and high (50mg/kg) doses of caffeine, injected intraperitoneally before training, on eyeblink conditioning in mice...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882692/hippocampal-theta-phase-contingent-memory-retrieval-in-delay-and-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#13
Tomi Waselius, Eveliina Pöllänen, Jan Wikgren, Markku Penttonen, Miriam S Nokia
Hippocampal theta oscillations (3-12Hz) play a prominent role in learning. It has been suggested that encoding and retrieval of memories are supported by different phases of the theta cycle. Our previous study on trace eyeblink conditioning in rabbits suggests that the timing of the conditioned stimulus (CS) in relation to theta phase affects encoding but not retrieval of the memory trace. Here, we directly tested the effects of hippocampal theta phase on memory retrieval in two experiments conducted on adult female New Zealand White rabbits...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869676/alcohol-improves-cerebellar-learning-deficit-in-myoclonus-dystonia-a-clinical-and-electrophysiological-investigation
#14
Anne Weissbach, Elisa Werner, Julien F Bally, Sinem Tunc, Sebastian Löns, Dagmar Timmann, Kirsten E Zeuner, Vera Tadic, Norbert Brüggemann, Anthony Lang, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer
OBJECTIVE: To characterize neurophysiological subcortical abnormalities in myoclonus-dystonia and their modulation by alcohol administration. METHODS: Cerebellar associative learning and basal ganglia-brainstem interaction were investigated in 17 myoclonus-dystonia patients with epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene mutation and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls by means of classical eyeblink conditioning and blink reflex recovery cycle before and after alcohol intake resulting in a breath alcohol concentration of 0...
October 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809846/the-use-of-trace-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-to-assess-hippocampal-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#15
Tuan D Tran, Aenia Amin, Keith G Jones, Ellen M Sheffer, Lidia Ortega, Keith Dolman
Neonatal rats were administered a relatively high concentration of ethyl alcohol (11.9% v/v) during postnatal days 4-9, a time when the fetal brain undergoes rapid organizational change and is similar to accelerated brain changes that occur during the third trimester in humans. This model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) produces severe brain damage, mimicking the amount and pattern of binge-drinking that occurs in some pregnant alcoholic mothers. We describe the use of trace eyeblink classical conditioning (ECC), a higher-order variant of associative learning, to assess long-term hippocampal dysfunction that is typically seen in alcohol-exposed adult offspring...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802836/neocortical-prodynorphin-expression-is-transiently-increased-with-learning-implications-for-time-and-learning-dependent-neocortical-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation
#16
Ryan Loh, Sean Collins, Roberto Galvez
There are several lines of evidence that indicate a prominent role for the opioid system in the acquisition and consolidation of learned associations. Specifically, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation has been demonstrated to alter various behavioral tasks including whisker trace eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). WTEB is an associative conditioning paradigm in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; Whisker stimulation) is paired following a short stimulus free trace interval with a salient unconditioned stimulus that elicits a blink response (US; Eye shock)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799954/effects-of-systemic-glutamatergic-manipulations-on-conditioned-eyeblink-responses-and-hyperarousal-in-a-rabbit-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Lauren B Burhans, Carrie A Smith-Bell, Bernard G Schreurs
Glutamatergic dysfunction is implicated in many neuropsychiatric conditions, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Glutamate antagonists have shown some utility in treating PTSD symptoms, whereas glutamate agonists may facilitate cognitive behavioral therapy outcomes. We have developed an animal model of PTSD, based on conditioning of the rabbit's eyeblink response, that addresses two key features: conditioned responses (CRs) to cues associated with an aversive event and a form of conditioned hyperarousal referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM)...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735144/entorhinal-tau-pathology-disrupts-hippocampal-prefrontal-oscillatory-coupling-during-associative-learning
#18
Stephanie E Tanninen, Bardia Nouriziabari, Mark D Morrissey, Rami Bakir, Robert D Dayton, Ronald L Klein, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
A neural signature of asymptomatic preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is disrupted connectivity between brain regions; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we tested whether a preclinical pathologic feature, tau aggregation in the entorhinal cortex (EC) is sufficient to disrupt the coordination of local field potentials (LFPs) between its efferent regions. P301L-mutant human tau or green fluorescent protein (GFP) was virally overexpressed in the EC of adult rats. LFPs were recorded from the dorsal hippocampus and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex while the rats underwent trace eyeblink conditioning where they learned to associate 2 stimuli separated by a short time interval...
October 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682237/phasic-and-tonic-neuron-ensemble-codes-for-stimulus-environment-conjunctions-in-the-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#19
Maryna Pilkiw, Nathan Insel, Younghua Cui, Caitlin Finney, Mark D Morrissey, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) is thought to bind sensory events with the environment where they took place. To compare the relative influence of transient events and temporally stable environmental stimuli on the firing of LEC cells, we recorded neuron spiking patterns in the region during blocks of a trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm performed in two environments and with different conditioning stimuli. Firing rates of some neurons were phasically selective for conditioned stimuli in a way that depended on which room the rat was in; nearly all neurons were tonically selective for environments in a way that depended on which stimuli had been presented in those environments...
July 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611360/learning-and-timing-of-voluntary-blink-responses-match-eyeblink-conditioning
#20
Anders Rasmussen, Dan-Anders Jirenhed
Can humans produce well-timed blink responses to a neutral stimulus voluntarily, without receiving any blink-eliciting, unconditional, stimulus? And if they can, to what degree does classical eyeblink conditioning depend on volition? Here we show that voluntary blink responses learned in two paradigms that did not involve any unconditional blink-eliciting stimuli, display timing that is as good, or better than, the timing of blink responses learned in a standard eyeblink conditioning paradigm. The exceptional timing accuracy likely stems from the fact that, in contrast to previous studies, we challenged our participants to blink in a timed manner, and not merely to blink so as to avoid the corneal air puff...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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