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eyeblink conditioning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902828/spontaneous-eyeblinks-during-breaking-continuous-flash-suppression-are-associated-with-increased-detection-times
#1
Filip Van Opstal, Esther De Loof, Tom Verguts, Axel Cleeremans
An eyeblink has a clear effect on low-level information processing because it temporarily occludes all visual information. Recent evidence suggests that eyeblinks can also modulate higher level processes (e.g., attentional resources), and vice versa. Despite these putative effects on different levels of information processing, eyeblinks are typically neglected in vision and in consciousness research. The main aim of this study was to investigate the timing and the effect of eyeblinks in an increasingly popular paradigm in consciousness research, namely breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854446/introduction-to-the-special-section-on-new-ideas-about-cerebellar-function
#2
Barbara J Knowlton
Richard Thompson's seminal contributions to neuroscience include the discovery of the cerebellar interpositus nucleus as the site of essential plasticity in the formation of the conditioned eyeblink response. In this section, context for this body of research is provided, as well as new findings on cerebellar function using a range of procedures. Current work on the role of the cerebellum in learning and memory include studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of plasticity in cortex and deep nuclei, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818269/cannabinoid-modulation-of-memory-consolidation-within-the-cerebellum
#3
Adam B Steinmetz, John H Freeman
Cannabinoid receptors contribute to learning and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The cerebellum contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors and manipulations of cannabinoid receptors affect synaptic plasticity within the cerebellar cortex. In vivo studies have found that cannabinoid agonists impair learning of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in rodents and humans. However, the role of cannabinoid receptors or endocannabinoids in memory consolidation within the cerebellum has not been examined...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753123/modeling-startle-eyeblink-electromyogram-to-assess-fear-learning
#4
Saurabh Khemka, Athina Tzovara, Samuel Gerster, Boris B Quednow, Dominik R Bach
Pavlovian fear conditioning is widely used as a laboratory model of associative learning in human and nonhuman species. In this model, an organism is trained to predict an aversive unconditioned stimulus from initially neutral events (conditioned stimuli, CS). In humans, fear memory is typically measured via conditioned autonomic responses or fear-potentiated startle. For the latter, various analysis approaches have been developed, but a systematic comparison of competing methodologies is lacking. Here, we investigate the suitability of a model-based approach to startle eyeblink analysis for assessment of fear memory, and compare this to extant analysis strategies...
October 18, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732048/evidence-for-multiple-processes-contributing-to-the-perruchet-effect-response-priming-and-associative-learning
#5
Gabrielle Weidemann, Amy McAndrew, Evan J Livesey, Ian P L McLaren
The Perruchet effect constitutes a robust demonstration that it is possible to dissociate conditioned responding and expectancy in a random partial reinforcement design across a variety of human associative learning paradigms. This dissociation has been interpreted as providing evidence for multiple processes supporting learning, with expectancy driven by cognitive processes that lead to a Gambler's fallacy, and the pattern of conditioned responding (CRs) the result of an associative learning process. An alternative explanation is that the pattern of CRs is the result of exposure to the unconditioned stimulus (US)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720737/relational-and-procedural-memory-systems-in-the-goldfish-brain-revealed-by-trace-and-delay-eyeblink-like-conditioning
#6
A Gómez, B Rodríguez-Expósito, E Durán, I Martín-Monzón, C Broglio, C Salas, F Rodríguez
The presence of multiple memory systems supported by different neural substrata has been demonstrated in animal and human studies. In mammals, two variants of eyeblink classical conditioning, differing only in the temporal relationships between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), have been widely used to study the neural substrata of these different memory systems. Delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time, depends on a non-relational memory system supported by the cerebellum and associated brainstem circuits...
October 6, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616473/interoceptive-cues-predicting-exteroceptive-events
#7
Jonas Zaman, Steven De Peuter, Ilse Van Diest, Omer Van den Bergh, Johan W S Vlaeyen
The growing body of research on interoceptive conditioning has predominantly focused on associative learning paradigms that investigated the formation of intero-interoceptive or extero-interoceptive associations. Yet, little research has explored whether interoceptive sensations can enter an intero-exteroceptive association. Therefore, in an interoceptive conditioning paradigm, healthy participants experienced a respiratory resistance for 8s, causing mild dyspnea (interoceptive conditioned stimulus, CS), that was either paired to an aversive electrocutaneous stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, US) (experimental condition, n=25), or presented in an unpaired fashion (control condition, n=25) during the acquisition phase...
September 8, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608482/model-driven-analysis-of-eyeblink-classical-conditioning-reveals-the-underlying-structure-of-cerebellar-plasticity-and-neuronal-activity
#8
Alberto Antonietti, Claudia Casellato, Egidio D'Angelo, Alessandra Pedrocchi
The cerebellum plays a critical role in sensorimotor control. However, how the specific circuits and plastic mechanisms of the cerebellum are engaged in closed-loop processing is still unclear. We developed an artificial sensorimotor control system embedding a detailed spiking cerebellar microcircuit with three bidirectional plasticity sites. This proved able to reproduce a cerebellar-driven associative paradigm, the eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), in which a precise time relationship between an unconditioned stimulus (US) and a conditioned stimulus (CS) is established...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591109/eyeblink-classical-conditioning-and-bold-fmri-of-anesthesia-induced-changes-in-the-developing-brain
#9
Daniil P Aksenov, Michael J Miller, Limin Li, Alice M Wyrwicz
Millions of children undergo general anesthesia each year in the USA alone, and a growing body of literature from animals and humans suggests that exposure to anesthesia at an early age can impact neuronal development, leading to learning and memory impairments later in childhood. Although a number of studies have reported behavioral and structural effects of anesthesia exposure during infancy, the functional manifestation of these changes has not been previous examined. In this study we used BOLD fMRI to measure the functional response to stimulation in the whisker barrel cortex of awake rabbits before and after learning a trace eyeblink classical conditioning paradigm...
August 30, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563293/autism-and-classical-eyeblink-conditioning-performance-changes-of-the-conditioned-response-related-to-autism-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis
#10
John P Welsh, Jeffrey T Oristaglio
Changes in the timing performance of conditioned responses (CRs) acquired during trace and delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) are presented for diagnostic subgroups of children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 6-15 years. Children diagnosed with autistic disorder (AD) were analyzed separately from children diagnosed with either Asperger's syndrome or Pervasive developmental disorder (Asp/PDD) not otherwise specified and compared to an age- and IQ-matched group of children who were typically developing (TD)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540891/sensory-system-development-influences-the-ontogeny-of-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#11
Mary E Goldsberry, John H Freeman
The developmental emergence of delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is dependent on the development of the sensory system stimulated by the conditioned stimulus (CS). However, trace EBC has traditionally been believed to be dependent on the development of forebrain structures, such as the hippocampus. If hippocampal development alone is limiting the developmental emergence of trace EBC, then using an earlier developing sensory modality should not affect the rate or asymptote of conditioning. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether using a vibration CS would facilitate the ontogeny of trace EBC relative to an auditory CS...
August 19, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517083/prefrontal-single-neuron-responses-after-changes-in-task-contingencies-during-trace-eyeblink-conditioning-in-rabbits
#12
Jennifer J Siegel
A number of studies indicate that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a role in mediating the expression of behavioral responses during tasks that require flexible changes in behavior. During trace eyeblink conditioning, evidence suggests that the mPFC provides the cerebellum with a persistent input to bridge the temporal gap between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Therefore, the mPFC is in a position to directly mediate the expression of trace conditioned responses. However, it is unknown whether persistent neural responses are associated with the flexible expression of behavior when task contingencies are changed during trace eyeblink conditioning...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487561/spatial-tuning-and-brain-state-account-for-dorsal-hippocampal-ca1-activity-in-a-non-spatial-learning-task
#13
Kevin Q Shan, Evgueniy V Lubenov, Maria Papadopoulou, Athanassios G Siapas
The hippocampus is a brain area crucial for episodic memory in humans. In contrast, studies in rodents have highlighted its role in spatial learning, supported by the discovery of place cells. Efforts to reconcile these views have found neurons in the rodent hippocampus that respond to non-spatial events but have not unequivocally dissociated the spatial and non-spatial influences on these cells. To disentangle these influences, we trained freely moving rats in trace eyeblink conditioning, a hippocampally dependent task in which the animal learns to blink in response to a tone...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391681/active-inference-and-learning-in-the-cerebellum
#14
Karl Friston, Ivan Herreros
This letter offers a computational account of Pavlovian conditioning in the cerebellum based on active inference and predictive coding. Using eyeblink conditioning as a canonical paradigm, we formulate a minimal generative model that can account for spontaneous blinking, startle responses, and (delay or trace) conditioning. We then establish the face validity of the model using simulated responses to unconditioned and conditioned stimuli to reproduce the sorts of behavior that are observed empirically. The scheme's anatomical validity is then addressed by associating variables in the predictive coding scheme with nuclei and neuronal populations to match the (extrinsic and intrinsic) connectivity of the cerebellar (eyeblink conditioning) system...
September 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388270/impaired-eye-blink-classical-conditioning-distinguishes-dystonic-patients-with-and-without-tremor
#15
E Antelmi, F Di Stasio, L Rocchi, R Erro, R Liguori, C Ganos, F Brugger, J Teo, A Berardelli, J Rothwell, K P Bhatia
INTRODUCTION: Tremor is frequently associated with dystonia, but its pathophysiology is still unclear. Dysfunctions of cerebellar circuits are known to play a role in the pathophysiology of action-induced tremors, and cerebellar impairment has frequently been associated to dystonia. However, a link between dystonic tremor and cerebellar abnormalities has not been demonstrated so far. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with idiopathic isolated cervical dystonia, with and without tremor, were enrolled...
June 23, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362707/enhanced-startle-responsivity-24-hours-after-acute-stress-exposure
#16
Nadja Herten, Tobias Otto, Dirk Adolph, Bettina M Pause, Robert Kumsta, Oliver T Wolf
Cortisol release in a stressful situation can be beneficial for memory encoding and memory consolidation. Stimuli, such as odors, related to the stressful episode may successfully cue memory contents of the stress experience. The current investigation aimed at testing the potency of stress to influence startle responsivity 24 hr later and to implicitly reactivate emotional memory traces triggered by an odor involved. Participants were assigned to either a stress (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) or control (friendly TSST [f-TSST]) condition featuring an ambient odor...
October 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358456/the-motor-cortex-is-involved-in-the-generation-of-classically-conditioned-eyelid-responses-in-behaving-rabbits
#17
Claudia Ammann, Javier Márquez-Ruiz, María Á Gómez-Climent, José M Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart
UNLABELLED: Classical blink conditioning is a well known model for studying neural generation of acquired motor responses. The acquisition of this type of associative learning has been related to many cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar structures. However, until now, no one has studied the motor cortex (MC) and its possible role in classical eyeblink conditioning. We recorded in rabbits the activity of MC neurons during blink conditioning using a delay paradigm. Neurons were identified by their antidromic activation from facial nucleus (FN) or red nucleus (RN)...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350540/the-role-of-us-recency-in-the-perruchet-effect-in-eyeblink-conditioning
#18
Gabrielle Weidemann, Peter F Lovibond
In the Perruchet effect, there is a concurrent dissociation between participants' conditioned responses (CRs) and their expectancy of the unconditioned stimulus (US) across runs of repeated trials. The effect has been taken as evidence for multiple learning processes, but this conclusion follows only if the CR trend is the result of learning. Two experiments examined the role of US recency in generating the observed CR trend. A standard Perruchet condition was compared with a control condition in which US recency was controlled by presenting the US on every trial...
September 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279383/retention-of-eyeblink-conditioning-in-periweanling-and-adult-rats
#19
Kevin L Brown, John H Freeman
Eyeblink conditioning is a well-established model for studying the developmental neurobiology of associative learning and memory, though nothing is known regarding developmental differences in retention between periweanling and adult rats. The present study examined retention of eyeblink conditioning in periweanling (postnatal day 24 at the start of training) and adult rats 1, 7, or 28 days after acquisition. Retention was assessed by (1) a conditional stimulus (CS)-alone test session followed by (2) CS-unconditional stimulus (US) reacquisition tests...
December 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27219850/white-matter-deficits-mediate-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-cognitive-development-in-childhood
#20
Jia Fan, Sandra W Jacobson, Paul A Taylor, Christopher D Molteno, Neil C Dodge, Mark E Stanton, Joseph L Jacobson, Ernesta M Meintjes
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders comprise the spectrum of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 54 children (age 10.1 ± 1.0 years) from the Cape Town Longitudinal Cohort, for whom detailed drinking histories obtained during pregnancy are available: 26 with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 15 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 13 controls. Using voxelwise analyses, children with FAS/PFAS showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in four white matter (WM) regions and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in seven; three regions of FA and MD differences (left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), splenium, and isthmus) overlapped, and the fourth FA cluster was located in the same WM bundle (right ILF) as an MD cluster...
August 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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