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Samuel B Pattle, Natasa Utjesanovic, Athena Togo, Lucy Wells, Brendan Conn, Hannah Monaghan, Elizabeth Junor, Ingolfur Johannessen, Kate Cuschieri, Simon Talbot
Squamous cell carcinomas of the hypopharynx (HPSCC) and oropharynx (OPSCC) have markedly different patient outcomes. Differences in HPV prevalence between these two patient groups may account for some of this difference, but other molecular markers of prognosis or pathological phenotype have not been established. Copy number gain of oncogenes is a well-established molecular change contributing to HNSCC development. Quantitative PCR was used to explore copy number gains of specific genes (3q - PIK3CA, TP63; 11q13...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Mei Hong Zhu, Tae Sik Sung, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lauren E O'Kane, Kate O'Driscoll, Sang Don Koh, Kenton M Sanders
ICC generate electrical slow waves by coordinated openings of ANO1 channels, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) conductance. Efflux of Cl(-) during slow waves must be significant as there is high current density during slow wave currents and slow waves are of sufficient magnitude to depolarize the syncytium of smooth muscle cells and PDGFRα(+) cells to which they are electrically coupled. We investigated how the driving force for Cl(-) current is maintained in ICC. We found robust expression of Slc12a2 (which encodes a Na(+)K(+)Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC1) and immunohistochemical confirmation that NKCC1 is expressed in ICC...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Lizhao Guan, Yan Song, Jian Gao, Jianjun Gao, KeWei Wang
ANO1, a calcium-activated chloride channel, has been reported to be amplified or overexpressed in tissues of several cancers. However, reports on its roles in tumor progression obtained from cancer cell lines are inconsistent, suggesting that the role of ANO1 in tumorigenesis is likely dependent on either its expression level or cell-type expressing ANO1. To investigate the biological roles of ANO1 in different tumor cells, we, in this study, selected several cancer cell lines and a normal HaCaT cell line with high expression levels of ANO1, and examined the function of ANO1 in these cells using approaches of lentiviral knockdown and pharmacological inhibition...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Axel R Concepcion, Martin Vaeth, Larry E Wagner, Miriam Eckstein, Lee Hecht, Jun Yang, David Crottes, Maximilian Seidl, Hyosup P Shin, Carl Weidinger, Scott Cameron, Stuart E Turvey, Thomas Issekutz, Isabelle Meyts, Rodrigo S Lacruz, Mario Cuk, David I Yule, Stefan Feske
Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kazuaki Yamagata, Mitsutaka Sugimura, Miki Yoshida, Shinichi Sekine, Akiyo Kawano, Aiko Oyamaguchi, Hiroharu Maegawa, Hitoshi Niwa
Several trigeminal pain disorders show sex differences, and high levels of estrogens may underlie these differences. The interaction between transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and anoctamin 1 (ANO1) plays an important role in peripheral nociception. However, whether TRPV1 and ANO1 are involved in estrogen-modulated trigeminal pain sensitivity is unclear. In this study, we examined 17β-estradiol (E2) modulation of nociception through behavioral and immunohistological experiments following application of capsaicin (Cap), a selective TRPV1 agonist, onto the ocular surface in ovariectomized rats treated with high- (HE) or low-dose E2 (LE) for 2 days...
September 30, 2016: Endocrinology
Vanessa L Orr, Brian J Esselman, P Matisha Dorman, Brent K Amberger, Ilia A Guzei, R Claude Woods, Robert J McMahon
The pure rotational spectrum of diketene has been studied in the millimeter-wave region from ∼240 to 360 GHz. For the ground vibrational state and five vibrationally excited satellites (ν24, 2ν24, 3ν24, 4ν24, and ν16), the observed spectrum allowed for the measurement, assignment, and least-squares fitting a total of more than 10 000 distinct rotational transitions. In each case, the transitions were fit to single-state, complete or near-complete sextic centrifugally distorted rotor models to near experimental error limits using Kisiel's ASFIT...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Stephanie N Knezz, Terese A Waltz, Benjamin C Haenni, Nicola J Burrmann, Robert J McMahon
Photolysis (λ > 472 nm) of 2-diazo-3-pentyne (11) affords triplet 1,3-dimethylpropynylidene (MeC3Me, (3)3), which was characterized spectroscopically in cryogenic matrices. The infrared, electronic absorption, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of MeC3Me ((3)3) are compared with those of the parent system (HC3H) to ascertain the effect of alkyl substituents on delocalized carbon chains of this type. Quantum chemical calculations (CCSD(T)/ANO1) predict an unsymmetrical equilibrium structure for triplet MeC3Me ((3)3), but they also reveal a very shallow potential energy surface...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Chun-Hsiang Tan, Peter A McNaughton
Thermally activated ion channels are known to detect the entire thermal range from extreme heat (TRPV2), painful heat (TRPV1, TRPM3 and ANO1), non-painful warmth (TRPV3 and TRPV4) and non-painful coolness (TRPM8) through to painful cold (TRPA1). Genetic deletion of each of these ion channels, however, has only modest effects on thermal behaviour in mice, with the exception of TRPM8, the deletion of which has marked effects on the perception of moderate coolness in the range 10-25 °C. The molecular mechanism responsible for detecting non-painful warmth, in particular, is unresolved...
August 25, 2016: Nature
Ruiju Lu, Zhiwei Chen, Runhong Gao, Ting He, Yifei Wang, Hongwei Xu, Guimei Guo, Yingbo Li, Chenghong Liu, Jianhua Huang
To establish a high-efficiency system of isolated microspore culture for different barley genotypes, we investigated the effects of nitrogen sources and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in different barley genotypes. The results showed that the organic nitrogen sources greatly increased the callus induction, and the great reduction of total nitrogen sources would significantly decrease the callus induction. And the further optimization experiments revealed that the increasing of organic nitrogen sources was much important in callus induction while it seemed different in plant regeneration...
2016: BioMed Research International
Roberta Benedetto, Lalida Sirianant, Ines Pankonien, Podchanart Wanitchakool, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Ines Cabrita, Rainer Schreiber, Margarida Amaral, Karl Kunzelmann
TMEM16A/anoctamin 1/ANO1 and VRAC/LRRC8 are independent chloride channels activated either by increase in intracellular Ca(2+) or cell swelling, respectively. In previous studies, we observed overlapping properties for both types of channels. (i) TMEM16A/ANO1 and LRRC8 are inhibited by identical compounds, (ii) the volume-regulated anion channel VRAC requires compartmentalized Ca(2+) increase to be fully activated, (iii) anoctamins are activated by cell swelling, (iv) both channels have a role for apoptotic cell death, (v) both channels are possibly located in lipid rafts/caveolae like structures, and (vi) VRAC and anoctamin 1 currents are not additive when each are fully activated...
October 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Yanfeng Han, Annette M Shewan, Peter Thorn
The identification of ANO1/TMEM16A as the likely calcium-dependent chloride channel of exocrine glands has led to a more detailed understanding of its biophysical properties. This includes a calcium-dependent change in channel selectivity and evidence that HCO3 (-) permeability can be significant. Here we use freshly isolated pancreatic acini that preserve the luminal structure to measure intraluminal pH and test the idea that ANO1/TMEM16A contributes to luminal pH balance. Our data show that, under physiologically relevant stimulation with 10 pm cholesystokinin, the luminal acid load that results from the exocytic fusion of zymogen granules is significantly blunted by HCO3 (-) buffer in comparison with HEPES, and that this is blocked by the specific TMEM16A inhibitor T16inh-A01...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
S C Song, J A Beatty, C J Wilson
Striatal low-threshold spiking (LTS) interneurons spontaneously transition to a depolarized, oscillating state similar to that seen after sodium channels are blocked. In the depolarized state, whether spontaneous or induced by sodium channel blockade, the neurons express a 3- to 7-Hz oscillation and membrane impedance resonance in the same frequency range. The membrane potential oscillation and membrane resonance are expressed in the same voltage range (greater than -40 mV). We identified and recorded from LTS interneurons in striatal slices from a mouse that expressed green fluorescent protein under the control of the neuropeptide Y promoter...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tae Sik Sung, Kate O'Driscoll, Haifeng Zheng, Nicholas J Yapp, Normand Leblanc, Sang Don Koh, Kenton M Sanders
Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel expressed in many types of cells. Splice variants of ANO1 have been shown to influence the biophysical properties of conductance. It has been suggested that several new antagonists of ANO1 with relatively high affinity and selectivity might be useful for experimental and, potentially, therapeutic purposes. We investigated the effects of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) at 100-1,000 nM, a concentration range that might be achieved in cells during physiological activation of ANO1 channels, on blockade of ANO1 channels expressed in HEK-293 cells...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Makoto Tominaga
Capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and wasabi receptor TRPA1 are expressed in the unmyelinated C fiber nociceptors and activated by various nociceptive stimuli causing pain in our body. Their involvement in nociception was proven with behavior studies using mice lacking TRPV1 and TRPA1. TRPV1 was found to interact with a calcium-activated chloride channel, anoctamin1 (ANO1), and calcium ions entering the primary sensory neurons activated ANO1, leading to chloride efflux which resulted in further depolarization. This is a novel pain-enhancing mechanism...
April 2016: Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology
Yohan Seo, Ho K Lee, Jinhong Park, Dong-Kyu Jeon, Sungwoo Jo, Minjae Jo, Wan Namkung
Anoctamin1 (ANO1)/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM...
2016: PloS One
Young-Sun Lee, Jae Kwang Lee, Yeonju Bae, Bok-Soon Lee, Eunju Kim, Chang-Hoon Cho, Kanghyun Ryoo, Jiyun Yoo, Chul-Ho Kim, Gwan-Su Yi, Seok-Geun Lee, C Justin Lee, Sang Soo Kang, Eun Mi Hwang, Jae-Yong Park
Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) acts as a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel in various normal tissues, and its expression is increased in several different types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the regulation of ANO1 surface expression is important for determining its physiological and pathophysiological functions. However, the trafficking mechanism of ANO1 remains elusive. Here, we report that segment a (N-terminal 116 amino acids) of ANO1 is crucial for its surface expression, and we identified 14-3-3γ as a binding partner for anterograde trafficking using yeast two-hybrid screening...
2016: Scientific Reports
Young-Sun Lee, Yeonju Bae, Nammi Park, Jae Cheal Yoo, Chang-Hoon Cho, Kanghyun Ryoo, Eun Mi Hwang, Jae-Yong Park
Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) is a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that plays important physiological roles in normal and cancerous tissues. However, the plasma membrane trafficking mechanisms of ANO1 remain poorly characterized. In yeast two-hybrid screening experiments, we observed direct interactions of ANO1 with β-COP, which is a subunit of Coat Protein Complex I (COPI). This interaction was then confirmed using several in vitro and in vivo binding assays. Moreover, the cotransfection of β-COP with ANO1 into HEK293T cells led to decreased the surface expression and the channel activity of ANO1...
June 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Raphael Courjaret, Rawad Hodeify, Satanay Hubrack, Awab Ibrahim, Maya Dib, Sahar Daas, Khaled Machaca
Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) play important physiological functions in epithelia and other tissues. In frog oocytes the CaCC Ano1 regulates resting membrane potential and the block to polyspermy. Here, we show that Ano1 expression increases the oocyte surface, revealing a novel function for Ano1 in regulating cell morphology. Confocal imaging shows that Ano1 increases microvilli length, which requires ERM-protein-dependent linkage to the cytoskeleton. A dominant-negative form of the ERM protein moesin precludes the Ano1-dependent increase in membrane area...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Qiang Li, Xiaofei Zhi, Jianping Zhou, Ran Tao, Jiaxuan Zhang, Peisheng Chen, Oluf Dimitri Røe, Luning Sun, Lilin Ma
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are prognostic and predictive for several cancer types. Only limited data exist regarding prognostic or predictive impact of CTC on gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of CTC in GIST patients. RESULTS: A total of 121 GIST patients and 54 non-GIST samples were enrolled in the study. The cutoff value for ANO1 positive was 3*10-5 and 65 (54%) GIST patients were defined as ANO1 positive...
May 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Qian Wang, M Dennis Leo, Damodaran Narayanan, Korah P Kuruvilla, Jonathan H Jaggar
Anoctamin-1 [ANO1, also known as transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A)] is a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel expressed in arterial myocytes that regulates membrane potential and contractility. Signaling mechanisms that control ANO1 activity in arterial myocytes are poorly understood. In cerebral artery myocytes, ANO1 channels are activated by local Ca(2+) signals generated by plasma membrane nonselective cation channels, but the molecular identity of these proteins is unclear. Arterial myocytes express several different nonselective cation channels, including multiple members of the transient receptor potential receptor (TRP) family...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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