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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639985/implant-site-related-and-patient-based-factors-with-the-potential-to-impact-patients-satisfaction-quality-of-life-measures-and-perceptions-toward-dental-implant-treatment
#1
Ali Orkun Topçu, Nermin Yamalık, Güliz N Güncü, Tolga F Tözüm, Hakan El, Serdar Uysal, Nur Hersek
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at evaluating both the implant site-related and patient-based factors with the potential to affect the extent of patients' satisfaction and also their perceptions regarding dental implant treatment. Potential differences between the esthetic evaluations of dental patients and dental specialists were also considered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Implant-supported fixed prosthesis (n = 164) in 264 anterior esthetic implant sites were included...
June 19, 2017: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639708/young-infants-word-comprehension-given-an-unfamiliar-talker-or-altered-pronunciations
#2
Elika Bergelson, Daniel Swingley
To understand spoken words, listeners must appropriately interpret co-occurring talker characteristics and speech sound content. This ability was tested in 6- to 14-months-olds by measuring their looking to named food and body part images. In the new talker condition (n = 90), pictures were named by an unfamiliar voice; in the mispronunciation condition (n = 98), infants' mothers "mispronounced" the words (e.g., nazz for nose). Six- to 7-month-olds fixated target images above chance across conditions, understanding novel talkers, and mothers' phonologically deviant speech equally...
June 22, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621269/tooth-wear-patterns-among-khat-and-shammah-users-in-jazan-city-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Mohammed E Sayed, Ammar D Hamdi, Bassam M Hakami, Maryam H Mugri, Shilpa H Bhandi
AIM: The effect of Khat and Shammah habits, with the para-functional jaw activities that accompany them, on the structure and integrity of the natural dentition has not yet been investigated. The literature lacks studies that identify the patterns of tooth wear among Khat and Shammah users. Therefore, this study is the first attempt to address this concern in Jazan City population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 300 recruits among dental clinics in Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 1, 2015, to April 30, 2016...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618810/enhancement-effects-of-clear-speech-and-word-initial-position-in-korean-glides
#4
Seung-Eun Chang
The current study investigated the enhancement effect in Korean speakers' clear speech and word-initial position, using acoustic analyses of the Korean glides /w/ and /j/. The results showed that the transitions of glides /w/ and /j/ at onset were enhanced in clear speech with an expanded vowel space. An expanded vowel space was also observed in the word-initial position, but the expansion was not statistically significant. However, the significant interaction between speaking style and word position revealed that the articulatory and global modifications in clear speech were noticeably greater at onset in the word-medial compared to the word-initial position...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618803/effects-of-linear-and-nonlinear-speech-rate-changes-on-speech-intelligibility-in-stationary-and-fluctuating-maskers
#5
Martin Cooke, Vincent Aubanel
Algorithmic modifications to the durational structure of speech designed to avoid intervals of intense masking lead to increases in intelligibility, but the basis for such gains is not clear. The current study addressed the possibility that the reduced information load produced by speech rate slowing might explain some or all of the benefits of durational modifications. The study also investigated the influence of masker stationarity on the effectiveness of durational changes. Listeners identified keywords in sentences that had undergone linear and nonlinear speech rate changes resulting in overall temporal lengthening in the presence of stationary and fluctuating maskers...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610451/cognitive-function-is-largely-intact-in-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients
#6
Odelia Elkana, Miriam Adelson, Glen M Doniger, Anat Sason, Einat Peles
OBJECTIVES: To confirm our previous findings of less cognitive impairments (based on cognitive screening tools) among Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) patients who achieved take-home dose (THD) privileges. METHODS: a random sample of 65 Israeli MMT patients were studied using computerized, age and education standardized, cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, motor skills), and non-computerized phonetic and semantic verbal fluency. Cognitive scores were within ±1 standard deviation (SD) of average for most domains, including non-verbal IQ, attention and motor skills...
June 14, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601721/a-universal-bias-in-adult-vowel-perception-by-ear-or-by-eye
#7
Matthew Masapollo, Linda Polka, Lucie Ménard
Speech perceivers are universally biased toward "focal" vowels (i.e., vowels whose adjacent formants are close in frequency, which concentrates acoustic energy into a narrower spectral region). This bias is demonstrated in phonetic discrimination tasks as a directional asymmetry: a change from a relatively less to a relatively more focal vowel results in significantly better performance than a change in the reverse direction. We investigated whether the critical information for this directional effect is limited to the auditory modality, or whether visible articulatory information provided by the speaker's face also plays a role...
June 8, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600914/determination-of-occlusal-vertical-dimension-for-complete-dentures-patients-an-updated-review
#8
REVIEW
Mohammed Nasser Alhajj, Nadia Khalifa, Jaafar Abduo, Abdullah G Amran, Ibrahim A Ismail
Determination of the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) is an integral part of complete dentures fabrication. Due to the lack of teeth, the clinician faces the challenge of how to accurately establish the OVD of the new denture. Therefore, the purpose of this review article was to present, discuss and critique the available methods used in determining the OVD for complete dentures patients. This review identified two main streams to determine the OVD: (i) pre-extraction methods and (ii) post-extraction methods...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599541/prosodic-exaggeration-within-infant-directed-speech-consequences-for-vowel-learnability
#9
Frans Adriaans, Daniel Swingley
Perceptual experiments with infants show that they adapt their perception of speech sounds toward the categories of the native language. How do infants learn these categories? For the most part, acoustic analyses of natural infant-directed speech have suggested that phonetic categories are not presented to learners as separable clusters of sounds in acoustic space. As a step toward explaining how infants begin to solve this problem, the current study proposes that the exaggerated prosody characteristic of infant-directed speech may highlight for infants certain speech-sound tokens that collectively form more readily identifiable categories...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595176/individual-talker-and-token-covariation-in-the-production-of-multiple-cues-to-stop-voicing
#10
Meghan Clayards
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous research found that individual talkers have consistent differences in the production of segments impacting the perception of their speech by others. Speakers also produce multiple acoustic-phonetic cues to phonological contrasts. Less is known about how multiple cues covary within a phonetic category and across talkers. We examined differences in individual talkers across cues and whether token-by-token variability is a result of intrinsic factors or speaking style by examining within-category correlations...
June 9, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595174/interactive-prosodic-marking-of-focus-boundary-and-newness-in-mandarin
#11
Bei Wang, Yi Xu, Qifan Ding
The current study investigates whether and how focus, phrase boundary and newness can be simultaneously marked in speech prosody in Mandarin Chinese. Homophones were used to construct three syntactic structures that differed only in boundary condition, focus was elicited by preceding questions, while newness of postboundary words was manipulated as whether they had occurred in the previous text. Systematic analysis of F0 and duration showed that (1) duration was a reliable correlate of boundary strength regardless of focus location, while involvement of F0 was only in terms of lowering of phrase-final F0 minima and raising of phrase-initial F0 minima at a relatively strong boundary, (2) postfocus compression (PFC) of F0 was applied across all boundaries, including those with long silent pauses (over 200 ms), and postfocus F0 was lowered to almost the same degree in all boundary conditions, and (3) newness of postfocus words had no systematic effect on F0 or duration...
June 9, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584698/high-or-low-comparing-high-and-low-variability-phonetic-training-in-adult-and-child-second-language-learners
#12
Anastasia Giannakopoulou, Helen Brown, Meghan Clayards, Elizabeth Wonnacott
BACKGROUND: High talker variability (i.e., multiple voices in the input) has been found effective in training nonnative phonetic contrasts in adults. A small number of studies suggest that children also benefit from high-variability phonetic training with some evidence that they show greater learning (more plasticity) than adults given matched input, although results are mixed. However, no study has directly compared the effectiveness of high versus low talker variability in children...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581344/exploring-the-bilingual-phonological-space-early-bilinguals-discrimination-of-coronal-stop-contrasts
#13
Yevgeniy Vasilyevich Melguy
It is well known that the way monolingual listeners discriminate speech sounds is strongly influenced by their native (L1) sound system. Moreover, such perceptual constraints are not limited to monolinguals: multiple studies have found evidence of language-specificity in bilingual speech perception. However, the question of whether bilinguals have simultaneous access to both of their phonologies during non-native contrast discrimination has not been systematically examined. Namely, very few studies of bilinguals have specifically examined cases where a non-native contrast pair straddles the boundary between two sound systems, with one sound corresponding to a sound in the L1, and the other to a sound in the second language (L2), but with neither the L1 nor the L2 containing both...
June 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575731/empirical-test-of-the-performance-of-an-acoustic-phonetic-approach-to-forensic-voice-comparison-under-conditions-similar-to-those-of-a-real-case
#14
Ewald Enzinger, Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
In a 2012 case in New South Wales, Australia, the identity of a speaker on several audio recordings was in question. Forensic voice comparison testimony was presented based on an auditory-acoustic-phonetic-spectrographic analysis. No empirical demonstration of the validity and reliability of the analytical methodology was presented. Unlike the admissibility standards in some other jurisdictions (e.g., US Federal Rule of Evidence 702 and the Daubert criteria, or England & Wales Criminal Practice Directions 19A), Australia's Unified Evidence Acts do not require demonstration of the validity and reliability of analytical methods and their implementation before testimony based upon them is presented in court...
May 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562597/experience-with-speech-sounds-is-not-necessary-for-cue-trading-by-budgerigars-melopsittacus-undulatus
#15
Mary Flaherty, Micheal L Dent, James R Sawusch
The influence of experience with human speech sounds on speech perception in budgerigars, vocal mimics whose speech exposure can be tightly controlled in a laboratory setting, was measured. Budgerigars were divided into groups that differed in auditory exposure and then tested on a cue-trading identification paradigm with synthetic speech. Phonetic cue trading is a perceptual phenomenon observed when changes on one cue dimension are offset by changes in another cue dimension while still maintaining the same phonetic percept...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558542/examining-the-temporal-development-of-phonetic-and-lexical-learning-in-second-language
#16
Jeong-Im Han, Moongee Jeon, Sujin Oh
The purpose of this study was to investigate how second-language (L2) learners lexically encode confusable phonemes. Given the inconsistency of previous studies on whether and if so how learners can establish separate lexical representations of confusable categories, we examined (1) how phonetic categorization and lexical encoding abilities were developed at the early stage of learning and (2) whether there are any differences in those abilities between the words with a sound pair from a corresponding native language (L1)-dominant category and those lacking such category...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555118/laryngeal-features-are-phonetically-abstract-mismatch-negativity-evidence-from-arabic-english-and-russian
#17
Kevin T Schluter, Stephen Politzer-Ahles, Meera Al Kaabi, Diogo Almeida
Many theories of phonology assume that the sound structure of language is made up of distinctive features, but there is considerable debate about how much articulatory detail distinctive features encode in long-term memory. Laryngeal features such as voicing provide a unique window into this question: while many languages have two-way contrasts that can be given a simple binary feature account [±VOICE], the precise articulatory details underlying these contrasts can vary significantly across languages. Here, we investigate a series of two-way voicing contrasts in English, Arabic, and Russian, three languages that implement their voicing contrasts very differently at the articulatory-phonetic level...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548002/precursors-of-language-development-in-asc-a-longitudinal-single-subject-study-of-gestures-in-relation-to-phonetic-prosody
#18
Pia M Nordgren
We longitudinally investigated the development of deictic and general accompanying gestures in one 5-year-old boy with autism spectrum condition (ASC) and intellectual disability. The investigation was performed during an intervention focusing on phonological segments. The purpose was to see whether gestures developed in conjunction with language. We found that deictic and general accompanying gestures increased during the study, despite not being trained. There was also a positive temporal correlation between deictic gestures and speech...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544578/clinical-assessment-of-interdental-papilla-competency-parameters-in-the-esthetic-zone
#19
Karuna Joshi, C S Baiju, Himanshu Khashu, Sumidha Bansal, Isha B Maheswari
BACKGROUND: Interdental papilla occupies the space between two adjacent teeth. Its contour and health are regarded with utmost importance in esthetic dental therapy. The loss of papillary height can result in open gingival embrasures, phonetic problems, food impaction, and esthetic concerns: therefore in order to prevent its loss and to better understand the challenges of regenerating the lost gingival papillae, it is crucial to recognize the factors that influence papilla form. AIM: The purpose of this study is to evaluate various factors associated with the fill of interdental spaces by gingival papillae MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 interdental papillae in 30 patients were assessed with clinical and study models...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533736/telescopic-overdenture-a-case-report
#20
C S Shruthi, R Poojya, Swati Ram, Anupama
PATIENT: This report describes the case of a 68 year old female patient who presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing and poor aesthetics due to missing teeth. The patient was interested in saving the remaining natural teeth and desired minimal tissue coverage from the prosthesis. After consideration of all the factors involved, it was deemed advisable to resort to a palate free maxillary telescopic complete denture and a mandibular removable partial denture. DISCUSSION: Considering the age of the patient and the cost involved, implant supported prosthesis was ruled out as a treatment option for the patient...
March 2017: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
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