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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163285/effects-of-phonological-training-on-the-reading-and-reading-related-abilities-of-hong-kong-children-with-dyslexia
#1
Li-Chih Wang
This study aimed to investigate phonological awareness training by examining outcomes among Chinese children who learn Chinese without phonetic system training. Fifty-six Hong Kong children from the 3rd to 6th grades were recruited. Two-thirds of the children had been officially identified as dyslexic by the local government, and the remainder were considered high risk for dyslexia. The children were divided equally into a control group and an experimental group, with the groups matched as closely as possible by age and gender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160743/left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-sensitivity-to-phonetic-competition-in-receptive-language-processing-a-comparison-of-clear-and-conversational-speech
#2
Xin Xie, Emily Myers
The speech signal is rife with variations in phonetic ambiguity. For instance, when talkers speak in a conversational register, they demonstrate less articulatory precision, leading to greater potential for confusability at the phonetic level compared with a clear speech register. Current psycholinguistic models assume that ambiguous speech sounds activate more than one phonological category and that competition at prelexical levels cascades to lexical levels of processing. Imaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is modulated by phonetic competition between simultaneously activated categories, with increases in activation for more ambiguous tokens...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150618/lexical-processing-of-chinese-sub-character-components-semantic-activation-of-phonetic-radicals-as-revealed-by-the-stroop-effect
#3
Su-Ling Yeh, Wei-Lun Chou, Pokuan Ho
Most Chinese characters are compounds consisting of a semantic radical indicating semantic category and a phonetic radical cuing the pronunciation of the character. Controversy surrounds whether radicals also go through the same lexical processing as characters and, critically, whether phonetic radicals involve semantic activation since they can also be characters when standing alone. Here we examined these issues using the Stroop task whereby participants responded to the ink color of the character. The key finding was that Stroop effects were found when the character itself had a meaning unrelated to color, but contained a color name phonetic radical (e...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#4
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131119/r-h-stetson-motor-phonetics-a-study-of-speech-movements-in-action-2nd-ed-amsterdam-north-holland-publishing-co-1951
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131077/book-discussions-a-novel-format-for-transporting-classic-works-into-present-day-phonetics-research
#6
Oliver Niebuhr, Catherine T Best
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109694/teaching-semantic-radicals-facilitates-inferring-new-character-meaning-in-sentence-reading-for-nonnative-chinese-speakers
#7
Thi Phuong Nguyen, Jie Zhang, Hong Li, Xinchun Wu, Yahua Cheng
This study investigates the effects of teaching semantic radicals in inferring the meanings of unfamiliar characters among nonnative Chinese speakers. A total of 54 undergraduates majoring in Chinese Language from a university in Hanoi, Vietnam, who had 1 year of learning experience in Chinese were assigned to two experimental groups that received instructional intervention, called "old-for-new" semantic radical teaching, through two counterbalanced sets of semantic radicals, with one control group. All of the students completed pre- and post-tests of a sentence cloze task where they were required to choose an appropriate character that fit the sentence context among four options...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104329/voice-onset-time-vot-at-50-theoretical-and-practical-issues-in-measuring-voicing-distinctions
#8
Arthur S Abramson, D H Whalen
Just over fifty years ago, Lisker and Abramson proposed a straightforward measure of acoustic differences among stop consonants of different voicing categories, voice onset time (VOT). Since that time, hundreds of studies have used this method. Here, we review the original definition of VOT, propose some extensions to the definition, and discuss some problematic cases. We propose a set of terms for the most important aspects of VOT and a set of Praat labels that could provide some consistency for future cross-study analyses...
July 2017: Journal of Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103359/age-related-changes-in-temporal-and-spectral-cue-weights-in-speech
#9
Joseph C Toscano, Charissa R Lansing
Listeners weight acoustic cues in speech according to their reliability, but few studies have examined how cue weights change across the lifespan. Previous work has suggested that older adults have deficits in auditory temporal discrimination, which could affect the reliability of temporal phonetic cues, such as voice onset time (VOT), and in turn, impact speech perception in real-world listening environments. We addressed this by examining younger and older adults' use of VOT and onset F0 (a secondary phonetic cue) for voicing judgments (e...
November 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094994/keep-listening-grammatical-context-reduces-but-does-not-eliminate-activation-of-unexpected-words
#10
Julia F Strand, Violet A Brown, Hunter E Brown, Jeffrey J Berg
To understand spoken language, listeners combine acoustic-phonetic input with expectations derived from context (Dahan & Magnuson, 2006). Eye-tracking studies on semantic context have demonstrated that the activation levels of competing lexical candidates depend on the relative strengths of the bottom-up input and top-down expectations (cf. Dahan & Tanenhaus, 2004). In the grammatical realm, however, graded effects of context on lexical competition have been predicted (Magnuson, Tanenhaus, & Aslin, 2008), but not demonstrated...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093976/prosthetic-rehabilitation-of-child-victim-of-avulsion-of-anterior-teeth-with-orthodontic-mini-implant
#11
Natalice Sousa de Oliveira, Gabriella Lopes de Rezende Barbosa, Lincoln Dias Lanza, Henrique Pretti
The treatment of choice in cases of avulsed permanent teeth is the immediate reimplantation. However, this conduct does not always work favorably, either by failures in the initial approach or by inappropriate interventions. In this sense, the aim of this study is to present an alternative prosthetic rehabilitation with the use of orthodontic mini-implants in the anterior region. This case reports a ten-year-old child with history of avulsion of superior central incisors. The therapeutic approach was planned to promote physiological teeth contacts and acceptable esthetics and phonetics...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092604/specificity-for-coarticulatory-vowel-nasality-in-lexical-representations
#12
Georgia Zellou
Surface-level phonetic details are used during word recognition. Yet, questions remain about how these details are encoded in lexical representations and the role of memory and attention during this process. The current study utilizes lexical repetition priming to examine the effect of a delay between hearing a word repeated with either the same or different coarticulatory patterns on lexical recognition. Listeners were faster to recognize repeated words with the same patterns of coarticulatory nasality, confirming that subphonemic information is encoded in the lexicon...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092603/the-phonetics-and-phonology-of-geminate-consonants
#13
Donna Erickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092591/continued-search-for-better-prediction-of-aided-speech-understanding-in-multi-talker-environments
#14
Jing Xia, Sridhar Kalluri, Christophe Micheyl, Ervin Hafter
To better understand issues of hearing-aid benefit during natural listening, this study examined the added demand placed by the goal of understanding speech over the more typically studied goal of simply recognizing speech sounds. The study compared hearing-aid benefit in two conditions, and examined factors that might account for the observed benefits. In the phonetic condition, listeners needed only identify the correct sound to make a correct response. In the semantic condition, listeners had to understand what they had heard to respond correctly, because the answer did not include any keywords from the spoken speech...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092567/effects-of-ejective-stops-on-preceding-vowel-duration
#15
Gašper Beguš
One of the most widely studied observations in linguistic phonetics is that, all else being equal, vowels are longer before voiced than before voiceless obstruents. The causes of this phonetic generalization are, however, poorly understood and several competing explanations have been proposed. No studies have so far measured vowel duration before stops with yet another laryngeal feature: ejectives. This study fills this gap and presents results from an experiment that measures vowel duration before stops with all three laryngeal features in Georgian and models effects of both closure and voice onset time (VOT) on preceding vowel duration at the same time...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092541/intonation-and-talker-variability-in-the-discrimination-of-spanish-lexical-stress-contrasts-by-spanish-german-and-french-listeners
#16
Sandra Schwab, Volker Dellwo
The perception of stress is highly influenced by listeners' native language. In this research, the authors examined the effect of intonation and talker variability (here: phonetic variability) in the discrimination of Spanish lexical stress contrasts by native Spanish (N = 17), German (N = 21), and French (N = 27) listeners. Participants listened to 216 trials containing three Spanish disyllabic words, where one word carried a different lexical stress to the others. The listeners' task was to identify the deviant word in each trial (Odd-One-Out task)...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082046/tooth-reattachment-and-palatal-veneer-on-a-multidisciplinary-approach-of-crown-fractures-in-upper-central-incisors
#17
Vanessa Machado, Ricardo Alves, Luísa Lopes, João Botelho, José João Mendes
Dental trauma is more common in young patients and its sequelae may have great impact on the esthetics, functions, and phonetics. This paper reports a case of trauma in both central incisors in a young 17-year-old patient who was treated using adhesive tooth fragment reattachment on tooth 2.1 and a palatal indirect composite veneer on tooth 1.1. Regarding the available literature and fracture extension, the treatment approach proposed for this case provided good functional and esthetic outcomes. Clinical and radiographic results after 1 year were successful...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081568/second-language-attainment-and-first-language-attrition-the-case-of-vot-in-immersed-dutch-german-late-bilinguals
#18
Antje Stoehr, Titia Benders, Janet G van Hell, Paula Fikkert
Speech of late bilinguals has frequently been described in terms of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) from the native language (L1) to the second language (L2), but CLI from the L2 to the L1 has received relatively little attention. This article addresses L2 attainment and L1 attrition in voicing systems through measures of voice onset time (VOT) in two groups of Dutch-German late bilinguals in the Netherlands. One group comprises native speakers of Dutch and the other group comprises native speakers of German, and the two groups further differ in their degree of L2 immersion...
October 2017: Second Language Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076957/reducing-and-sustaining-duplicate-medical-record-creation-by-usability-testing-and-system-redesign
#19
Adjhaporn Khunlertkit, Leonard Dorissaint, Allen Chen, Lori Paine, Peter J Pronovost
OBJECTIVES: Duplicate medical record creation is a common and consequential health care systems error often caused by poor search system usability and inappropriate user training. METHODS: We conducted two phases of scenario-based usability testing with patient registrars working in areas at risk of generating duplicate medical records. Phase 1 evaluated the existing search system, which led to system redesigns. Phase 2 tested the redesigned system to mitigate potential errors before health system-wide implementation...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075775/acoustics-of-clear-and-noise-adapted-speech-in-children-young-and-older-adults
#20
Rajka Smiljanic, Rachael C Gilbert
Purpose: This study investigated acoustic-phonetic modifications produced in noise-adapted speech (NAS) and clear speech (CS) by children, young adults, and older adults. Method: Ten children (11-13 years of age), 10 young adults (18-29 years of age), and 10 older adults (60-84 years of age) read sentences in conversational and clear speaking style in quiet and in noise. A number of acoustic measurements were obtained. Results: NAS and CS were characterized by a decrease in speaking rate and an increase in 1-3 kHz energy, sound pressure level (SPL), vowel space area (VSA), and harmonics-to-noise ratio...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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