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Anne-Kathrin Bräscher, Dietmar Zuran, Robert E Feldmann, Justus Benrath
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, a novel material SmartTrack(®) was introduced to replace the previous material used for Invisalign(®) aligners. We conducted this study to test how this transition was accepted by patients during ongoing Invisalign(®) treatment. METHODS: We surveyed a total of 72 patients (68 % women, 32 % men, mean age: 29.3 ± 9.2 years) who had worn the new material for a mean of 6 months. They completed a questionnaire with 25 items that compared both materials in terms of pain, pressure upon insertion, comfort, mucosal irritation, phonetics, discoloration, and taste...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
Nelson Roy, Rebecca A Fetrow, Ray M Merrill, Christopher Dromey
Purpose: Vocal hyperfunction, related to abnormal laryngeal muscle activity, is considered the proximal cause of primary muscle tension dysphonia (pMTD). Relative fundamental frequency (RFF) has been proposed as an objective acoustic marker of vocal hyperfunction. This study examined (a) the ability of RFF to track changes in vocal hyperfunction after treatment for pMTD and (b) the influence of dysphonia severity, among other factors, on the feasibility of RFF computation. Method: RFF calculations and dysphonia severity ratings were derived from pre- and posttreatment recordings from 111 women with pMTD and 20 healthy controls...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Benjamin Munson, Sarah K Schellinger, Jan Edwards
Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children's productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgements of children's productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgements of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgements of a parameter that is relatively less continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Satoko Hisanaga, Kaoru Sekiyama, Tomohiko Igasaki, Nobuki Murayama
Several behavioural studies have shown that the interplay between voice and face information in audiovisual speech perception is not universal. Native English speakers (ESs) are influenced by visual mouth movement to a greater degree than native Japanese speakers (JSs) when listening to speech. However, the biological basis of these group differences is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the time-varying processes of group differences in terms of event-related brain potentials (ERP) and eye gaze for audiovisual and audio-only speech perception...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Adrian Garcia-Sierra, Nairan Ramírez-Esparza, Patricia K Kuhl
The present investigation explored the relation between the amount of language input and neural responses in English monolingual (N=18) and Spanish-English bilingual (N=19) infants. We examined the mismatch negativity (MMN); both the positive mismatch response (pMMR) and the negative mismatch response (nMMR), and identify a relationship between amount of language input and brain measures of speech discrimination for native and non-native speech sounds (i.e., Spanish, English and Chinese). Brain responses differed as a function of language input for native speech sounds in both monolinguals and bilinguals...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Miwako Hisagi, Valerie L Shafer, Shigeru Miyagawa, Hadas Kotek, Ayaka Sugawara, Dimitrios Pantazis
We examined discrimination of a second-language (L2) vowel duration contrast in English learners of Japanese (JP) with different amounts of experience using the magnetoencephalography mismatch field (MMF) component. Twelve L2 learners were tested before and after a second semester of college-level JP; half attended a regular rate course and half an accelerated course with more hours per week. Results showed no significant change in MMF for either the regular or accelerated learning group from beginning to end of the course...
October 6, 2016: Brain Research
Paola Escudero, Karen E Mulak, Haley A Vlach
Infants often hear new words in the context of more than one candidate referent. In cross-situational word learning (XSWL), word-object mappings are determined by tracking co-occurrences of words and candidate referents across multiple learning events. Research demonstrates that infants can learn words in XSWL paradigms, suggesting that it is a viable model of real-world word learning. However, these studies have all presented infants with words that have no or minimal phonological overlap (e.g., BLICKET and GAX)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ricardo Morandi, Leonardo Moreira Cabral, Márcio de Moraes
An implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis is one of the treatment options for an individual with a completely edentulous maxilla. However, a screw-retained or cemented prosthesis can make oral hygiene difficult, especially for patients with a history of periodontal disease or disabilities. Compared with maxillary fixed dental prostheses, implant-supported overdentures offer similar retention and function and facilitate esthetics, phonetics, and hygiene. This report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with an edentulous maxilla and a severe maxillomandibular discrepancy that involved the use of a novel prefabricated telescopic system to retain an implant-supported removable dental prosthesis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Mathias Scharinger, Ulrike Domahs, Elise Klein, Frank Domahs
Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e...
September 23, 2016: Brain and Language
Wei Hu, Lin Mi, Zhen Yang, Sha Tao, Mingshuang Li, Wenjing Wang, Qi Dong, Chang Liu
Difficulties with second-language vowel perception may be related to the significant challenges in using acoustic-phonetic cues. This study investigated the effects of perception training with duration-equalized vowels on native Chinese listeners' English vowel perception and their use of acoustic-phonetic cues. Seventeen native Chinese listeners were perceptually trained with duration-equalized English vowels, and another 17 native Chinese listeners watched English videos as a control group. Both groups were tested with English vowel identification and vowel formant discrimination before training, immediately after training, and three months later...
2016: PloS One
Steven Gilbers, Christina Fuller, Dicky Gilbers, Mirjam Broersma, Martijn Goudbeek, Rolien Free, Deniz Başkent
In cochlear implants (CIs), acoustic speech cues, especially for pitch, are delivered in a degraded form. This study's aim is to assess whether due to degraded pitch cues, normal-hearing listeners and CI users employ different perceptual strategies to recognize vocal emotions, and, if so, how these differ. Voice actors were recorded pronouncing a nonce word in four different emotions: anger, sadness, joy, and relief. These recordings' pitch cues were phonetically analyzed. The recordings were used to test 20 normal-hearing listeners' and 20 CI users' emotion recognition...
October 2015: I-Perception
Kristina Klintö, Anette Lohmander
BACKGROUND: In recent years, analyses of cleft palate speech based on phonetic transcriptions have become common. However, the results vary considerably among different studies. It cannot be excluded that differences in assessment methodology, including the recording medium, influence the results. AIMS: To compare phonetic transcriptions from audio and audio/video recordings of cleft palate speech by means of outcomes of per cent correct consonants (PCC) and differences in consonant transcriptions...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Christian A Kell, Maritza Darquea, Marion Behrens, Lorenzo Cordani, Christian Keller, Susanne Fuchs
Phonetic detail and lateralization of inner speech during covert sentence reading as well as overt reading in 32 right-handed healthy participants undergoing 3T fMRI were investigated. The number of voiceless and voiced consonants in the processed sentences was systematically varied. Participants listened to sentences, read them covertly, silently mouthed them while reading, and read them overtly. Condition comparisons allowed for the study of effects of externally versus self-generated auditory input and of somatosensory feedback related to or independent of voicing...
September 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Dileep Nag Vinnakota, Krishna Chaitanya Kanneganti, Mahesh Pulagam, Praveen Kumar Reddy Karnati
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Many methods are reported in literature to determine freeway space (FWS), but they yield dissimilar measurements. PURPOSE: Recording FWS of patients during prosthetic rehabilitation is one of the important steps in dentistry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability to predict FWS using lateral profile photographs (LPPs) in edentulous participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three participants in the age range of 20-27 years who met the inclusion criteria were recruited...
July 2016: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
Joanne Cleland, James M Scobbie, Cornelia Heyde, Zoe Roxburgh, Alan A Wrench
Acoustic and articulatory studies demonstrate covert contrast in perceptually neutralised phonemic contrasts in both typical children and children with speech disorders. These covert contrasts are thought to be relatively common and symptomatic of phonetic speech disorders. However, clinicians in the speech therapy clinic have had no easy way of identifying this covertness. This study uses ultrasound tongue imaging to compare tongue contours for /t/and /k/in seven children with persistent velar fronting. We present a method of overlaying tongue contours to identify covert contrast at the articulatory level...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Mariana Lima da Costa Valente, Elcio Marcantonio, Rafael Silveira Faeda, Wagner Nunes de Paula, Andréa Cândido Dos Reis
This article describes a clinical case of gingival conditioning with provisional fixed prostheses to improve the esthetics of the soft tissues adjacent to fixed prostheses placed on malpositioned implants. Gradual application of pressure to the tissues is an easy, nontraumatic technique for inducing formation of papillae and reestablishing the appropriate shape and contour of the gingival tissues, thereby improving esthetics and phonetics. The proposed treatment proved to be effective in remodeling the surrounding soft tissues, providing suitable contours, and restoring esthetics and function lost due to surgical treatment with malpositioned implants...
September 2016: General Dentistry
Mina Fotuhi, Fariba Yadegari, Robab Teymouri
OBJECTIVES: Pre-linguistic vocalizations including early consonants, vowels, and their combinations into syllables are considered as important predictors of the speech and language development. The purpose of this study was to examine vowel development in babblings of normally developing Persian-learning infants. METHODS: Eight typically developing 6-8-month-old Persian-learning infants (3 boys and 5 girls) participated in this 4-month longitudinal descriptive-analytic study...
September 6, 2016: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
David W Gow, Bruna B Olson
Sentential context influences the way that listeners identify phonetically ambiguous or perceptual degraded speech sounds. Unfortunately, inherent inferential limitations on the interpretation of behavioral or BOLD imaging results make it unclear whether context influences perceptual processing directly, or acts at a post-perceptual decision stage. In this paper, we use Kalman-filter enabled Granger causation analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to distinguish between these possibilities. Using a retrospective probe verification task, we found that sentential context strongly affected the interpretation of words with ambiguous initial voicing (e...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Elena A Bulycheva, Vladimir N Trezubov, Ulia V Alpateva, Darya S Bulycheva
PURPOSE: To study sound pronunciation in patients with total edentulism before and after prosthodontic treatment using complete removable dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recordings of phonetically balanced phrases were made using a headset connected to a dictaphone to assess specific pronunciation defects in patients with total edentulism before and after prosthodontic treatment. The obtained sets of sounds were investigated using spectral analysis by calculating the average power spectra...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Robert J Summers, Peter J Bailey, Brian Roberts
The role of source properties in across-formant integration was explored using three-formant (F1+F2+F3) analogues of natural sentences (targets). In experiment 1, F1+F3 were harmonic analogues (H1+H3) generated using a monotonous buzz source and second-order resonators; in experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). Target formants were always presented monaurally; the receiving ear was assigned randomly on each trial. In some conditions, only the target was present; in others, a competitor for F2 (F2C) was presented contralaterally...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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