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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792525/modelling-category-goodness-judgments-in-children-with-residual-sound-errors
#1
Sarah Hamilton Dugan, Noah Silbert, Tara McAllister, Jonathan L Preston, Carolyn Sotto, Suzanne E Boyce
This study investigates category goodness judgments of /r/ in adults and children with and without residual speech errors (RSEs) using natural speech stimuli. Thirty adults, 38 children with RSE (ages 7-16) and 35 age-matched typically developing (TD) children provided category goodness judgments on whole words, recorded from 27 child speakers, with /r/ in various phonetic environments. The salient acoustic property of /r/ - the lowered third formant (F3) - was normalized in two ways. A logistic mixed-effect model quantified the relationships between listeners' responses and the third formant frequency, vowel context and clinical group status...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790122/talking-points-a-modulating-circle-reduces-listening-effort-without-improving-speech-recognition
#2
Julia F Strand, Violet A Brown, Dennis L Barbour
Speech recognition is improved when the acoustic input is accompanied by visual cues provided by a talking face (Erber in Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 12(2), 423-425 1969; Sumby & Pollack in The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 26(2), 212-215, 1954). One way that the visual signal facilitates speech recognition is by providing the listener with information about fine phonetic detail that complements information from the auditory signal. However, given that degraded face stimuli can still improve speech recognition accuracy (Munhall et al...
May 22, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785714/lexical-learning-may-contribute-to-phonetic-learning-in-infants-a-corpus-analysis-of-maternal-spanish
#3
Daniel Swingley, Claudia Alarcon
In their first year, infants begin to learn the speech sounds of their language. This process is typically modeled as an unsupervised clustering problem in which phonetically similar speech-sound tokens are grouped into phonetic categories by infants using their domain-general inference abilities. We argue here that maternal speech is too phonetically variable for this account to be plausible, and we provide phonetic evidence from Spanish showing that infant-directed Spanish vowels are more readily clustered over word types than over vowel tokens...
May 21, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781702/first-language-raters-opinions-when-validating-word-recordings-for-a-newly-developed-speech-reception-threshold-test
#4
Seema Panday, Harsha Kathard, Mershen Pillay, Wayne Wilson
 The purpose of this study was to consider the value of adding first-language speaker ratings to the process of validating word recordings for use in a new speech reception threshold (SRT) test in audiology. Previous studies had identified 28 word recordings as being suitable for use in a new SRT test. These word recordings had been shown to satisfy the linguistic criteria of familiarity, phonetic dissimilarity and tone, and the psychometric criterion of homogeneity of audibility. Objectives: The aim of the study was to consider the value of adding first-language speakers' ratings when validating word recordings for a new SRT test...
March 29, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780871/computer-based-evaluation-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-during-a-picture-description-task
#5
Laura Hernández-Domínguez, Sylvie Ratté, Gerardo Sierra-Martínez, Andrés Roche-Bergua
Introduction: We present a methodology to automatically evaluate the performance of patients during picture description tasks. Methods: Transcriptions and audio recordings of the Cookie Theft picture description task were used. With 25 healthy elderly control (HC) samples and an information coverage measure, we automatically generated a population-specific referent. We then assessed 517 transcriptions (257 Alzheimer's disease [AD], 217 HC, and 43 mild cognitively impaired samples) according to their informativeness and pertinence against this referent...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779940/encoding-of-articulatory-kinematic-trajectories-in-human-speech-sensorimotor-cortex
#6
Josh Chartier, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Keith Johnson, Edward F Chang
When speaking, we dynamically coordinate movements of our jaw, tongue, lips, and larynx. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying articulation, we used direct cortical recordings from human sensorimotor cortex while participants spoke natural sentences that included sounds spanning the entire English phonetic inventory. We used deep neural networks to infer speakers' articulator movements from produced speech acoustics. Individual electrodes encoded a diversity of articulatory kinematic trajectories (AKTs), each revealing coordinated articulator movements toward specific vocal tract shapes...
May 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777983/young-infants-discrimination-of-subtle-phonetic-contrasts
#7
Megha Sundara, Céline Ngon, Katrin Skoruppa, Naomi H Feldman, Glenda Molina Onario, James L Morgan, Sharon Peperkamp
It is generally accepted that infants initially discriminate native and non-native contrasts and that perceptual reorganization within the first year of life results in decreased discrimination of non-native contrasts, and improved discrimination of native contrasts. However, recent findings from Narayan, Werker, and Beddor (2010) surprisingly suggested that some acoustically subtle native-language contrasts might not be discriminated until the end of the first year of life. We first provide countervailing evidence that young English-learning infants can discriminate the Filipino contrast tested by Narayan et al...
May 16, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772117/changing-words-and-sounds-the-roles-of-different-cognitive-units-in-sound-change
#8
Márton Sóskuthy, Paul Foulkes, Vincent Hughes, Bill Haddican
This study considers the role of different cognitive units in sound change: phonemes, contextual variants and words. We examine /u/-fronting and /j/-dropping in data from three generations of Derby English speakers. We analyze dynamic formant data and auditory judgments, using mixed effects regression methods, including generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs). /u/-fronting is reaching its end-point, showing complex conditioning by context and a frequency effect that weakens over time. /j/-dropping is declining, with low-frequency words showing more innovative variants with /j/ than high-frequency words...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764295/acoustic-sources-of-accent-in-second-language-japanese-speech
#9
Kaori Idemaru, Peipei Wei, Lucy Gubbins
This study reports an exploratory analysis of the acoustic characteristics of second language (L2) speech which give rise to the perception of a foreign accent. Japanese speech samples were collected from American English and Mandarin Chinese speakers ( n = 16 in each group) studying Japanese. The L2 participants and native speakers ( n = 10) provided speech samples modeling after six short sentences. Segmental (vowels and stops) and prosodic features (rhythm, tone, and fluency) were examined. Native Japanese listeners ( n = 10) rated the samples with regard to degrees of foreign accent...
May 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756636/recurrence-of-phonetic-responding
#10
Joshua Garner, Nancy A Neef, Ralph Gardner
This study determined if previously reinforced academic responding recurred when alternative responses were differentially reinforced and subsequently placed on extinction, and whether the magnitude of resurgence was related to the rate of differential reinforcement for the alternative behavior. Three kindergarten students read Greek letters aloud as arbitrary consonant-vowel blends. Resurgence was reliably demonstrated within and across participants, and the magnitude of resurgence was related to the prior rate of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745524/-an-acoustic-articulatory-study-of-the-nasal-finals-in-students-with-and-without-hearing-loss
#11
Qing Wang, Jing Bai, Peiyun Xue, Xueying Zhang, Pei Feng
The central aim of this experiment was to compare the articulatory and acoustic characteristics of students with normal hearing (NH) and school aged children with hearing loss (HL), and to explore the articulatory-acoustic relations during the nasal finals. Fourteen HL and 10 control group were enrolled in this study, and the data of 4 HL students were removed because of their high pronunciation error rate. Data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography. The acoustic data and kinematics data of nasal finals were extracted by the phonetics and data processing software, and all data were analyzed by t test and correlation analysis...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742545/perceptual-discrimination-of-speaking-style-under-cochlear-implant-simulation
#12
Terrin N Tamati, Esther Janse, Deniz Başkent
OBJECTIVES: Real-life, adverse listening conditions involve a great deal of speech variability, including variability in speaking style. Depending on the speaking context, talkers may use a more casual, reduced speaking style or a more formal, careful speaking style. Attending to fine-grained acoustic-phonetic details characterizing different speaking styles facilitates the perception of the speaking style used by the talker. These acoustic-phonetic cues are poorly encoded in cochlear implants (CIs), potentially rendering the discrimination of speaking style difficult...
May 9, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736593/pinyin-and-english-invented-spelling-in-chinese-speaking-students-who-speak-english-as-a-second-language
#13
Yi Ding, Ru-De Liu, Catherine A McBride, Chung-Hau Fan, Le Xu, Jia Wang
This study examined pinyin (the official phonetic system that transcribes the lexical tones and pronunciation of Chinese characters) invented spelling and English invented spelling in 72 Mandarin-speaking 6th graders who learned English as their second language. The pinyin invented spelling task measured segmental-level awareness including syllable and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including lexical tones and tone sandhi in Chinese Mandarin. The English invented spelling task manipulated segmental-level awareness including syllable awareness and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including word stress...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735418/lack-of-correlation-between-phonetic-magnetic-mismatch-field-and-plasma-d-serine-levels-in-humans
#14
Motomu Suga, Yuki Kawakubo, Yukika Nishimura, Kenji Hashimoto, Masato Yumoto, Kiyoto Kasai
OBJECTIVE: Uncovering molecular bases for auditory language processing in the human brain is a fundamental scientific challenge. The power and latency of the magnetic mismatch field (MMF) elicited by phoneme change, which are magnetoencephalographic indices of language function in its early stage of information processing, are theoretically thought to be modulated by N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) function, but no study has yet assessed this possibility. We have thus sought to demonstrate an association between phonetic MMF power/latency and levels of plasma d-serine, an intrinsic co-agonist of glycine binding sites on NMDAR, in adults...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731941/an-anthropometric-study-of-cranio-facial-measurements-and-their-correlation-with-vertical-dimension-of-occlusion-among-saudi-arabian-subpopulations
#15
REVIEW
Muhammed Irfan Majeed, Satheesh B Haralur, Muhammed Farhan Khan, Maram Awdah Al Ahmari, Nourah Falah Al Shahrani, Sharaz Shaik
BACKGROUND: Determining and restoring physiological vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is the critical step during complete mouth rehabilitation. The improper VDO compromises the aesthetics, phonetics and functional efficiency of the prosthesis. Various methods are suggested to determine the accurate VDO, including the facial measurements in the clinical situations with no pre-extraction records. The generalisation of correlation between the facial measurements to VDO is criticised due to gender dimorphism and racial differences...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716305/word-final-schwa-is-driven-by-intonation-the-case-of-bari-italian
#16
Martine Grice, Michelina Savino, Timo B Roettger
In order to convey pragmatic functions, a speaker has to select an intonation contour (the tune) in addition to the words that are to be spoken (the text). The tune and text are assumed to be independent of each other, such that any one intonation contour can be produced on different phrases, regardless of the number and nature of the segments they are made up of. However, if the segmental string is too short, certain tunes-especially those with a rising component-call for adjustments to the text. In Italian, for instance, loan words such as "chat" can be produced with a word final schwa when this word occurs at the end of a question...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716257/assessing-the-importance-of-several-acoustic-properties-to-the-perception-of-spontaneous-speech
#17
Ryan G Podlubny, Terrance M Nearey, Grzegorz Kondrak, Benjamin V Tucker
Spoken language manifests itself as change over time in various acoustic dimensions. While it seems clear that acoustic-phonetic information in the speech signal is key to language processing, little is currently known about which specific types of acoustic information are relatively more informative to listeners. This problem is likely compounded when considering reduced speech: Which specific acoustic information do listeners rely on when encountering spoken forms that are highly variable, and often include altered or elided segments? This work explores contributions of spectral shape, f0 contour, target duration, and time varying intensity in the perception of reduced speech...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714516/use-of-proprietary-names-by-prescribers-for-generic-products
#18
Vicky Borders-Hemphill, Irene Z Chan, Katelyn Brown, Briana Rider, Kellie Taylor, Grace Chai
BACKGROUND: Proprietary names are often used when prescribing drug products in the United States. The purpose of this study is to describe prescribers' use of proprietary names for generic products, branded-generic names, on prescription orders and to identify prescribing practice trends to inform the development and evaluation of new proprietary names. METHODS: To identify Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) with branded-generic names approved between January 2003 and December 2012, we utilized the database provided by the FDA Office of Communications, Drugs@FDA ...
March 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691765/increased-exposure-and-phonetic-context-help-listeners-recognize-allophonic-variants
#19
Malte C Viebahn, Paul A Luce
This study examines the influence of increased exposure and phonetic context on the recognition of words that are produced with nasal flaps in American English (e.g., the word center produced as cenner). Previous work has shown that despite their high frequency of occurrence, words produced with nasal flaps are recognized more slowly and less accurately compared with canonical pronunciation variants produced with /nt/, which occur less frequently. We conducted two experiments in order to investigate how exposure and phonetic context influence this reported processing disadvantage for flapped variants...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687640/priming-as-a-motivating-factor-in-sociophonetic-variation-and-change
#20
Lynn Clark
Understanding how and why pronunciations vary and change has been a dominant theme in variationist sociolinguistics (Labov, , ). Linguistic variability has also been an area of focus in psychology and cognitive science. Work from these two fields has shown that where variation exists in language, an alternative form, once used, persists in working memory and has a greater chance of reuse (Bock, ; Bock & Loebell, ; Branigan, Pickering, & Cleland, ). While there have been efforts to connect priming research with sociolinguistics at the level of grammar (Poplack, ; Travis, ), there has been less work which explicitly considers the potential role of priming as a motivating factor in accent variation and change...
April 24, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
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