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Opiate titration

Stephan Walcher, John Koc, Volker Reichel, Frank Schlote, Uwe Verthein, Jens Reimer
BACKGROUND: Opioid maintenance treatment with methadone is regarded as gold standard in the therapy of opioid dependence. Identification of the 'right' methadone dose, however, remains challenging. We wanted to explore if the Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale (ODAS) is a helpful instrument in methadone titration. METHODS: Within this 12-months prospective naturalistic cohort study patients in stable maintenance treatment with methadone (Eptadone®) were included. Sociodemographic and clinical data were gathered at baseline, and months 3, 6, and 12...
2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Erik W Gunderson, Michael Sumner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate treatment retention, efficacy, and preference ratings among opioid-dependent patients transitioning between a buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving sublingual tablet formulation (BNX-RDT) and BNX film. METHODS: After a 2-day, blinded, fixed-dose induction with BNX-RDT (5.7/1.4 mg and 5.7/1.4 or 11.4/2.8 mg, respectively) or buprenorphine (8 mg and 8 or 16 mg, respectively), patients received open-label titrated doses of BNX-RDT or BNX film (generic buprenorphine induction group) during days 3 to 14...
March 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Ian Winston, Rebecca McDonald, Basak Tas, John Strang
Opiate overdose is the primary cause of death among injection-drug users, representing a major public health concern worldwide. Opiate overdose can be reversed through timely administration of naloxone, and users have expressed willingness to carry the antidote for emergency use (take-home naloxone). In November 2014, new WHO guidelines identified that naloxone should be made available to anyone at risk of witnessing an overdose. We present the case of a 46-year-old man in opioid-maintenance treatment who used take-home naloxone to rescue an overdose victim...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Rohit S Loomba, Karan Nijhawan, Saurabh Aggarwal, Rohit R Arora
INTRODUCTION: Supplemental oxygen has been used in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Once an official recommendation in the guidelines for the management of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, it is now mentioned as an intervention to be considered. Data for the use of supplemental oxygen or AMI are limited, and some data have suggested associated harm. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature and a subsequent meta-analysis of the data to determine the effect of high concentration oxygen versus titrated oxygen or room air in the setting of AMI...
March 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Taghogho Agarin, Andrea M Trescot, Aniefiok Agarin, Doreena Lesanics, Claricio Decastro
BACKGROUND: Available data have shown steady increases of drug overdose deaths between 1992 and 2011. We review evidenced-based recommendations provided by a few prominent North American pain societies and suggest ways on how health providers might help reduce opioid analgesic deaths by implementing these practices. OBJECTIVE: To identify health care providers' roles in reducing opioid analgesic deaths. STUDY DESIGN: A comprehensive review of current literature...
May 2015: Pain Physician
Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Kirsten Marchand, Kurt Lock, Jill Chettiar, David C Marsh, Suzanne Brissette, Aslam H Anis, Martin T Schechter
BACKGROUND: The North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) clinical trial compared the effectiveness of injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM) or hydromorphone (HDM) to oral methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). This study aimed to determine participants' perceptions of treatment delivered in NAOMI. METHODS: A qualitative sub-study was conducted with 29 participants (12 female): 18 (62.1%) received injectable DAM or HDM and 11 (37.9%) received MMT. A phenomenological theoretical framework was used...
2014: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Kate Thodey, Stephanie Galanie, Christina D Smolke
Opiates and related molecules are medically essential, but their production via field cultivation of opium poppy Papaver somniferum leads to supply inefficiencies and insecurity. As an alternative production strategy, we developed baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a microbial host for the transformation of opiates. Yeast strains engineered to express heterologous genes from P. somniferum and bacterium Pseudomonas putida M10 convert thebaine to codeine, morphine, hydromorphone, hydrocodone and oxycodone...
October 2014: Nature Chemical Biology
Laura Bernstein, Laura Nightingale
BACKGROUND: Effective and safe titration of medication has a major impact on patient comfort. Confusion surrounding the differing ranges and potencies of opiates and benzodiazepines can result in under- or overdosing of medication leading to inadequate control of symptoms or resultant toxicities respectively. Through staff feedback, teaching sessions and review of drug errors, we identified that staff used differing opioid conversion guides and lacked confidence when converting between benzodiazepines...
March 2014: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Patrick Coyne, Laurie Lyckholm, Barton Bobb, Donna Blaney-Brouse, Sarah Harrington, Leanne Yanni
Pain management in a hospital setting remains a challenge today. Many health care providers remain anxious and uninformed regarding analgesic titration within a hospital setting. Overcoming the potential risks to obtain the benefits of opiate titration is a challenge within any health care setting. Virginia Commonwealth University, a tertiary medical center which houses schools of medicine, nursing, and pharmacy, evaluated the use of algorithms for managing acute pain. This article describes the Pain Committee's efforts and offers one potential intervention for safe analgesic opioid titration, an algorithm for acute pain management...
December 2013: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Philipp Deindl, Lukas Unterasinger, Gregor Kappler, Tobias Werther, Christine Czaba, Vito Giordano, Sophie Frantal, Angelika Berger, Arnold Pollak, Monika Olischar
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of a neonatal pain and sedation protocol at 2 ICUs. METHODS: The intervention started with the evaluation of local practice, problems, and staff satisfaction. We then developed and implemented the Vienna Protocol for Neonatal Pain and Sedation. The protocol included well-defined strategies for both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions based on regular assessment of a translated version of the Neonatal Pain Agitation and Sedation Scale and titration of analgesic and sedative therapy according to aim scores...
July 2013: Pediatrics
Beatrice Setnik, Carl L Roland, Veeraindar Goli, Kenneth Sommerville, Lynn Webster
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether intact or crushed doses of an extended-release formulation of morphine sulfate surrounding an inner core of sequestered naltrexone (MSN) induces signs and symptoms of withdrawal in opioid-dependent patients. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover study. SETTING: Single center. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients with chronic moderate-to-severe noncancer pain receiving opioids were enrolled into the study; six completed the maintenance and treatment phases prior to early study discontinuation for issues with manufacturing; eight discontinued: adverse effects (4), noncompliance (1), patient decision (1), study termination (2)...
March 2013: Journal of Opioid Management
Kenneth M Dürsteler-MacFarland, Nadine S Farronato, Johannes Strasser, Jakob Boss, Marcus F Kuntze, Sylvie A Petitjean, Christoph Bürki, Gerhard A Wiesbeck
Cocaine dependence has proved difficult to treat, whether it occurs alone or in combination with opiate dependence. No intervention has been demonstrated to be uniquely effective. Patients might benefit most from combined pharmacotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic interventions. The present study sought to evaluate the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of methylphenidate (MP) and cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for cocaine dependence in diacetylmorphine-maintained patients. Sixty-two cocaine-dependent diacetylmorphine-maintained patients participated in a dual-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial with 4 treatment conditions...
February 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Jeffrey Glassberg
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease in the US, affecting approximately 100,000 individuals. In SCD, genetically mutated hemoglobin (HbS) forms rigid polymers when deoxygenated, giving red blood cells a characteristic sickled shape. Increased blood viscosity and cell adhesion produce intermittent vaso-occlusion. The vaso-occlusive phenotype of SCD, which is marked by higher hemoglobin, manifests with frequent painful crises and is associated with a higher risk for developing acute chest syndrome...
August 2011: Emergency Medicine Practice
Yoanna Skrobik
Little is known of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic delirium prevention and treatment in the critical care setting. Trials emphasizing early mobilization suggest that this nonpharmacologic approach is associated with an improvement in delirium incidence. Titration and reduction of opiate analgesics and sedatives may improve subsyndromal delirium rates. All critical care caregivers should rigorously screen for alcohol abuse, apply alcohol withdrawal scales in alcoholic patients, and titrate sedative drugs accordingly...
December 2011: Anesthesiology Clinics
Alyson J Bond, Kylie D Reed, Pete Beavan, John Strang
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To establish if slow-release oral morphine (SROM) is an acceptable maintenance medication in heroin users currently being prescribed injectable diamorphine, who are intolerant to supplementary methadone. DESIGN AND METHODS: Case note review of interviews and medication details before and after change in medication in 12 treatment-resistant chronic heroin users attending a supervised injecting clinic twice a day for prescribed injectable diamorphine plus supplementary oral methadone to ensure 24 h stability...
June 2012: Drug and Alcohol Review
Stephen H Dinwiddie, David B Glick, Morris B Goldman
BACKGROUND: Use of a short-acting opiate to potentiate anesthetic induction agents has been shown to increase seizure duration in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), but little is known of the effect of this combination on indices of seizure quality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether anesthetic modality affects commonly provided indices of seizure quality. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects were given propofol 2 mg/kg body weight for their first ECT session, at which time seizure threshold was titrated...
July 2012: Brain Stimulation
Anne Pelet, Bernard Favrat, Matthias Cavassini, Chin B Eap, Jacques Besson, Martine Monnat
OBJECTIVE: To determine methadone plasma trough and peak concentrations in patients presenting opiate withdrawal symptoms after introduction of nevirapine or efavirenz. To describe the disappearance of these symptoms after methadone titration based on plasma concentrations rather than on the symptoms. METHODS: Nine patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and either nevirapine or efavirenz treatment were monitored daily for opiate withdrawal in a specialized drug addiction center...
July 2011: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Meldon Kahan, Anita Srivastava, Brian Conway
The North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Vancouver and Montreal comparing heroin substitution treatment (HST) to methadone treatment (MT) for heroin addicts. The HST group had a higher treatment retention rate and lower illicit heroin use than the MT group. Despite the rigour with which the study was designed, systematic flaws have affected the interpretation of the results. In the MT arm, the dose was titrated slowly, contributing to the high early dropout rate...
March 2011: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Anne M Walling, Susan L Ettner, Tod Barry, Myrtle C Yamamoto, Neil S Wenger
BACKGROUND: When a patient is expected to die, the ideal plan of care focuses on comfort. Prior investigation of application of one institution's end-of-life symptom management order (ESMO) protocol suggested that comfort measures were often instituted too late and sometimes not at all. We studied patient factors associated with missed opportunities for use of an ESMO protocol and protocol adherence in order to identify areas for quality improvement. METHODS: We abstracted the terminal hospitalization medical record for all adult decedents hospitalized for at least 3 days between April 2005 and April 2006 (n = 496) at a university medical center...
April 2011: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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