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cast nephropathy amyloidosis

Pallav Gupta, Devinder Singh Rana
As the life expectancy is increasing, there is a rise in elderly population and consequent increase in the patients with renal disease. There is an inconsistency between clinical and histopathological diagnosis in elderly, and so renal biopsy is important in these patients to decide appropriate clinical management and prognosis. This study outlines the importance of renal biopsy in elderly and describes the clinical and pathologic spectrum of renal diseases in patient ≥60 years. All patients (age ≥60 years) undergoing renal biopsies from January 2011 to December 2014 were included in this retrospective study...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
(no author information available yet)
Renal impairment (RI) is a common complication of multiple myeloma (MM), which is presented as chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute kidney injury (AKI). The typical pathological feature is cast nephropathy. Presently international system staging (ISS) is used in evaluating MM. Although the classic Durie-Salmon staging system could be still used in clinical practice, it may miss out some patients with renal impairment. For evaluations of RI in MM patients with CKD, it's recommended to assess the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by creatinine based formula CKD-epidemiology collaboration (EPI) or modification of diet in renal disease(MDRD) and to stage the renal injuries according to 2013 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD guidelines...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Jean-Baptiste Gibier, Viviane Gnemmi, François Glowacki, Eileen M Boyle, Benjamin Lopez, Evelyne MacNamara, Maxime Hoffmann, Raymond Azar, Thomas Guincestre, Franck Bourdon, Marie-Christine Copin, David Buob
Light chain cast nephropathy is the most common form of kidney disease in patients with multiple myeloma. Light chain casts may occasionally show amyloid staining properties, that is, green birefringence after Congo red staining. The frequency and clinical significance of this intratubular amyloid are poorly understood. Here, we retrospectively assessed the clinicopathological features of 60 patients with histologically proven light chain cast nephropathy with a specific emphasis on intratubular amyloid, especially, its association with extrarenal systemic light chain amyloidosis...
October 20, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Marie E Perrone, Anthony Chang, Kammi J Henriksen
Kidney diseases affect many hospitalized patients and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, kidney disease should be prevalent, but the frequency and spectrum of medical renal pathology in autopsy specimens has not been well documented. We sought to determine the spectrum of medical renal pathology in adult autopsy specimens and the frequency of overlooked diagnoses. We reviewed the hematoxylin- and eosin-stained kidney sections from 140 adult autopsies performed at a large teaching hospital over a 2-year period...
October 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Raphaël Kormann, Hélène François, Thibault Moles, Jacques Dantal, Nassim Kamar, Karine Moreau, Thomas Bachelet, Anne-Elisabeth Heng, Antoine Garstka, Charlotte Colosio, Didier Ducloux, Johnny Sayegh, Benjamin Savenkoff, Denis Viglietti, Rebecca Sberro, Eric Rondeau, Julie Peltier
Although post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is the second most common type of cancer in kidney transplantation (KT), plasma cell neoplasia (PCN) occurs only rarely after KT, and little is known about its characteristics and evolution. We included twenty-two cases of post-transplant PCN occurring between 1991 and 2013. These included 12 symptomatic multiple myeloma, eight indolent myeloma and two plasmacytomas. The median age at diagnosis was 56.5 years and the median onset after transplantation was 66...
2017: PloS One
Daniel W Ross, Rimda Wanchoo, Adriana Guigova, Cristina Ghiuzeli, Steven L Allen, Kenar D Jhaveri
Proximal tubules are a target for paraproteinemic diseases. Cast nephropathy, light chain deposition diseases, and amyloidosis are frequently encountered in patients with multiple myeloma. Rarely, a subset of patients develop light chain Fanconi syndrome (LCFS). LCFS has been reported with multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS), chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. No cases have been described with other hematologic malignancies...
November 2016: CEN Case Reports
Kamel El-Reshaid, Wael El-Reshaid, Dalal Al-Bader, Jozsef Varro, John Madda, Hosameldin Tawfik Sallam
Over the past four years, all patients with unexplained rapid progression of their renal disease were subjected to kidney biopsy, despite their small size (<9 cm), to define its etiology. Children, pregnant women, morbidly obese patients, and those with an unstable cardiovascular state, septicemia, bleeding diathesis as well as those kidney size with size <6 cm were excluded from the study. Doppler ultrasound was used to exclude renovascular/ischemic nephropathy. The procedure was performed by an interventional radiologist using a biopsy gun technique and under ultrasound guidance...
March 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Josephine M Vos, Joshua Gustine, Helmut G Rennke, Zachary Hunter, Robert J Manning, Toni E Dubeau, Kirsten Meid, Monique C Minnema, Marie-Jose Kersten, Steven P Treon, Jorge J Castillo
The incidence and prognostic impact of nephropathy related to Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) is currently unknown. We performed a retrospective study to assess biopsy-confirmed WM-related nephropathy in a cohort of 1391 WM patients seen at a single academic institution. A total of 44 cases were identified, the estimated cumulative incidence was 5·1% at 15 years. There was a wide variation in kidney pathology, some directly related to the WM: amyloidosis (n = 11, 25%), monoclonal-IgM deposition disease/cryoglobulinaemia (n = 10, 23%), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma infiltration (n = 8, 18%), light-chain deposition disease (n = 4, 9%) and light-chain cast nephropathy (n = 4, 9%), and some probably related to the WM: thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) (n = 3, 7%), minimal change disease (n = 2, 5%), membranous nephropathy (n = 1, 2%) and crystal-storing tubulopathy (n = 1, 2%)...
November 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Disha Arora, Mayank Uppal, Vindu Amitabh, Usha Agrawal
Light Chain Deposition Disease (LCDD) is a rare disease characterized by deposition of monoclonal non-amyloid light chains in multiple organs. We report an unusual histologic manifestation of LCDD in a 55-year-old female patient, who presented with nephrotic syndrome and an increased serum creatinine. This case of LCDD had features of cast nephropathy on biopsy which is diagnostic of myeloma kidney, when the patient was clinically asymptomatic. Serum electrophoresis showed no abnormal band. There was no other evidence of a B-cell clonal disorder or amyloidosis...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Imen Gorsane, S Barbouch, M Mayara, K Ben Abdelghani, R Goucha, F Ben Hamida, H Hedri, T Ben Abdallah
To determine the features of the different forms of kidney diseases associated with multiple myeloma (MM), we retrospectively studied 144 patients with kidney injury and MM at our institute from 1974 to 2014. The mean age of the patients was 60.1 years and the male:female ratio was 1.25. Renal disease was concomitant with the discovery of MM in 92% of cases. The mean follow-up of our patients was 2.1 years. Initial renal insufficiency was found in 131 (91%) patients. Cast nephropathy of the distal tubule was found in 110 (26%) patients, renal amyloidosis in 16 (11...
May 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
R Nada, A Kumar, V G Kumar, K L Gupta, K Joshi
Renal biopsy interpretation requires histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and electron microscopy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) sent for light microscopy can be used for DIF after antigen retrieval. However, complement staining has not been satisfactory. We standardized DIF using proteinase-K for antigen retrieval in FFPE renal biopsies. A pilot study was conducted on known cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), membranoproliferative type-1 (MPGN-1), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and anti-glomerular basement disease (anti-GBM)...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Yu-Tai Su, Xin-Sheng Xie, Hui Sun, Jie Ma, Ding-Ming Wan, Yan-Fang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical features of multiple myeloma with different renal pathology, and to evaluate its prognosis. METHODS: Clinical features and prognosis of 46 multiple myeloma patients with different renal pathology were analyzed retrospectively. According to renal pathology, the 46 patients were divided into 3 groups: cast nephropathy (24 cases), amyloidosis (15 cases) and other type (7 cases). RESULTS: By durie-Salmon staging system, 70...
April 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Benoit Brilland, Johnny Sayegh, Anne Croue, Frank Bridoux, Jean-François Subra, Jean-François Augusto
Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare multisystemic disorder associated with plasma cell proliferation. It mainly affects the kidney, but liver and heart involvement may occur, sometimes mimicking the picture of systemic amyloidosis. Liver disease in LCDD is usually asymptomatic and exceptionally manifests with severe cholestatic hepatitis. We report the case of a 66-year-old female with κ-LCDD and cast nephropathy in the setting of symptomatic multiple myeloma who, after a first cycle of bortezomib-dexamethasone chemotherapy, developed severe and rapidly worsening intrahepatic cholestasis secondary to liver κ-light chain deposition...
March 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Sanjeev Sethi, Fernando C Fervenza, S Vincent Rajkumar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monoclonal gammopathies result from an overt malignant process, such as multiple myeloma, or a premalignant process, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. The kidney is often affected in the setting of a monoclonal gammopathy. The term 'monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS)' was recently introduced to draw attention to renal diseases related to the monoclonal gammopathy. In this review, we define the pathology of these monoclonal gammopathy-associated kidney diseases...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Hideki Kato, Yoshihide Fujigaki, Shinichiro Asakawa, Yutaka Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Uozaki, Atsushi Komatsuda, Michio Nagata, Shunya Uchida
Multiple myeloma presents with various kidney injuries, including cast nephropathy, light chain deposition disease, and amyloidosis. Cast nephropathy is the most common form and mostly consists of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains with Tamm-Horsfall protein. Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis may affect all compartments of the kidney, but it is rare in the tubuli. We herein present a rare case with rapid progression of renal failure caused by the co-occurrence of intratubular amyloidosis and cast nephropathy due to multiple myeloma...
2015: Internal Medicine
I G Rekhtina, E V Zakharova, E S Stolyarevich, M N Sinitsina, E N Denisova
Despite of the fact that their clinical manifestations are similar, AL-amyloidosis (AL-A) and light chain deposition disease (LCDD) are individual nosological entities in view of considerable differences in their pathogenesis and pathomorphology. The paper describes a rare case of the concurrence of LCDD and AL-A in a patient with multiple myeloma. Clinically, there was dialysis-dependent renal failure, flail leg syndrome, myocardiopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. At the disease onset, his nephrobiopsy specimen could diagnose LCDD and myeloma or cast nephropathy...
2015: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Sophie Chauvet, Frank Bridoux, Laure Ecotière, Vincent Javaugue, Christophe Sirac, Bertrand Arnulf, Antoine Thierry, Nathalie Quellard, Serge Milin, Sébastien Bender, Jean-Michel Goujon, Arnaud Jaccard, Jean-Paul Fermand, Guy Touchard
BACKGROUND: Kidney diseases associated with immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy are poorly described, with few data for patient outcomes and renal response. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 35 patients from 8 French departments of nephrology were retrospectively studied. Inclusion criteria were: (1) detectable serum monoclonal IgM, (2) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60mL/min/1.73m(2) and/or proteinuria with protein excretion > 0...
November 2015: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Alexandra Presle, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio, Nathalie Schneider, François-Xavier Maquart, Laurent Ramont, Jean-Baptiste Oudart
Serum protein electrophoresis is commonly used in case of acute or chronic renal failure. It can lead to the etiologic diagnosis by detecting monoclonal gammopathies which are frequently complicated by renal failure, such as cast nephropathy, Randall's disease or amyloidosis, or to explore an associated inflammatory syndrome. We report the occurrence of two monoclonal components in a patient without any monoclonal component 10 days earlier. The sudden appearance of these two monoclonal components associated to the context of sepsis of urinary origin suggested the diagnosis of transient monoclonal gammopathy...
March 2015: Annales de Biologie Clinique
K K Gowda, K Joshi, R Nada, R Ramachandran, M Sachdeva
The renal diseases most frequently associated with myeloma include cast nephropathy (CN), amyloidosis and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease. Light chain proximal tubulopathy (LCPT) is reported less frequently. Majority of the cases with κ-restriction present with Fanconi syndrome (FS) and show crystals in proximal tubular epithelial cytoplasm. In contrast, those with λ-restriction are infrequently associated with FS and show cytoplasmic vacuolations in proximal tubular epithelial cytoplasm. Combination of morphologies in kidney affected by plasma cell dyscrasias is rare and co-existence of LCPT and CN is one of the rarest...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Turki Al-Hussain, Maged H Hussein, Hadeel Al Mana, Mohammed Akhtar
Monoclonal gammopathy is produced by neoplastic or non-neoplastic expansion of a clone of plasma cells or B lymphocytes. Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance is characterized by low levels of the monoclonal protein and a relatively small population of clonal lymphocytes or plasma cells in the bone marrow. In these cases, the patient is asymptomatic with no evidence of overt myeloma or lymphoma. The abnormal serum protein may be present as a complete immunoglobulin molecule or may consist of ≥1 of its components such as light chains or heavy chains...
March 2015: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
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