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Tobacco and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908824/arteriographic-patterns-of-atherosclerosis-and-the-association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-ethnicity-in-chronic-critical-limb-ischemia
#1
Jayer Chung, J Gregory Modrall, Martyn Knowles, Qun Xiang, Lawrence A Lavery, Carlos H Timaran, R James Valentine
BACKGROUND: Disparate outcomes in critical limb ischemia (CLI) persist between ethnicities. The contribution of modifiable factors versus intrinsic biologic differences remains unclear. Hence, we aimed to quantify the associations between ethnicity and anatomic patterns of arterial occlusive disease in CLI, adjusting for known atherosclerotic risk factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center review of consecutive patients presenting to the vascular surgery service with CLI...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903086/the-association-of-smokeless-tobacco-use-and-pack-years-of-smokeless-tobacco-with-age-related-macular-degeneration-in-indian-population
#2
Sangeetha Srinvasan, Gayathri Swaminathan, Vaitheeswaran Kulothungan, Tarun Sharma, Rajiv Raman
PURPOSE: To explore the association of use and the influence of pack-year use of smokeless tobacco versus no use with that of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in rural and urban south Indian population. We hypothesized that the use and pack-years of use would be significantly associated with both early and late AMD. We therefore sought to examine subjects who gave a history of using smokeless tobacco and we quantified the usage as pack-years, to examine the association with that of early and late AMD...
November 30, 2016: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891376/smokeless-tobacco-and-stroke-a-clinico-epidemiological-follow-up-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#3
Subhransu Sekhar Jena, Shobhitendu Kabi, Baikuntha Nath Panda, B C Kameswari, Payal, Ishwar Chandra Behera, Subrat Kumar Tripathy, Seemanchana Mahanta
INTRODUCTION: Among the modifiable risk factors for stroke, tobacco smoking is well recognized. In some studies the use of Smokeless Tobacco (ST) has also been contributed as a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Use of ST is very common in South-East Asia. The form of ST varies according to the geographical and cultural variation. AIM: To study the various clinical symptoms and radiological findings of stroke due to different types of ST. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective hospital based study carried out over a period of 2 years...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881160/distribution-and-patterning-of-non-communicable-disease-risk-factors-in-indigenous-mbororo-and-non-autochthonous-populations-in-cameroon-cross-sectional-study
#4
Nyuyki Clement Kufe, George Ngufor, George Mbeh, Jean Claude Mbanya
BACKGROUND: Data on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) among indigenous populations are needed for interventions to improve health care. We conducted a survey in 2013 among rural indigenous Mbororo, Fulbe and other ethnic groups to determine the distribution of risk factors of NCDs in Cameroon. METHODS: We selected seven targets of NCD risk factors: tobacco use, alcohol use, diet (salt/sugar intake, vegetable/fruit consumption), raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, physical inactivity and weight measures...
November 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876171/cardiovascular-risk-factor-management-performance-in-canada-and-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Mostafa Alabousi, Peri Abdullah, David A Alter, Gillian L Booth, William Hogg, Dennis T Ko, Douglas G Manuel, Michael E Farkouh, Jack V Tu, Jacob A Udell
BACKGROUND: Comparative cardiovascular risk factor care across North America is unknown. We aimed to determine current performance in Canada and the United States (US). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of Medline and EMBASE (to June 1, 2014). Eligible studies reported on screening, awareness, treatment, or control rates for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and smoking. Categorical performance 'ratings' on the basis of the most successful US health plans were used to classify rates as suboptimal (< 50%), below target (50%-70%), above target (70%-90%), or optimal (> 90%)...
July 18, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869955/progress-with-the-strategic-action-plan-for-tackling-chronic-non-communicable-diseases-in-brazil-2011-2015
#6
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Taís Porto Oliveira, Maria Aline Siqueira Santos, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade, Marta Maria Alves da Silva
OBJECTIVE: to describe the actions undertaken by the Strategic Action Plan for Tackling Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Brazil, from 2011 to 2015. METHODS: the actions were identified through sectorial and interministerial meetings, annual forums, as well as document reviews of publications and laws on government websites. RESULTS: the actions found were: national surveys and monitoring of mortality and risk factor reduction targets; encouragement of physical activity, adequate nutrition and health promotion through the creation of the Health Gym Program (Programa Academia da Saúde); the publication of legislation on tobacco-free environments; free of charge drugs for hypertension, diabetes, and asthma; organization of the emergency service network for cardiovascular diseases; and expanding access to diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients...
April 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867947/association-of-insulin-treatment-versus-oral-hypoglycaemic-agents-with-diabetic-retinopathy-and-its-severity-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-cameroon-sub-saharan-africa
#7
Ahmadou M Jingi, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Mickael Essouma, Jean Joel R Bigna, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Augustin Ellong, Côme Ebana Mvogo
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease associated with multiple macro and microvascular complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR) being the commonest one. Recent literature has reported an increased risk of DR with insulin use. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study at the Ophthalmology Department of the Douala General Hospital (DGH) during a 2-year period to explore the association between insulin treatment and both DR and its severity as compared with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in Cameroonian T2DM patients aged ≥35 years, and who were all screened for DR through eye examination including exhaustive retinal evaluation...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865565/-ankle-brachial-index-screening-for-peripheral-artery-disease-in-high-cardiovascular-risk-patients-prospective-observational-study-of-370-asymptomatic-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk
#8
C Rada, S Oummou, F Merzouk, B Amarir, G Boussabnia, H Bougrini, D Benzaroual, S Elkarimi, M Elhattaoui
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial disease is a marker of systemic atherosclerosis; it is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease by measuring the ankle-brachial pressure index in patients at high cardiovascular risk and to study the risk factors associated with this disease. METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive and analytic cross-sectional study which focused on 370 patients seen at the medical consultation for atherosclerosis prevention...
November 16, 2016: Journal des Maladies Vasculaires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864954/prevalence-of-comorbidity-and-associated-risk-factors-in-adults-with-atopic-dermatitis
#9
Alexander Egeberg, Yuki M F Andersen, Gunnar H Gislason, Lone Skov, Jacob P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disorder, which may persist into adulthood, however the prevalence of comorbidities in patients with AD is not well characterized. AD is considered a systemic disorder like psoriasis, which has raised a need for data on the comorbidity profile of patients with AD, to assess the potential risks, benefits, and complications in management of patients with AD. We described the occurrence of medical and psychiatric comorbidities and associated risk factors in adults with AD compared with psoriasis and the general population...
November 16, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864357/global-region-of-birth-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-type-2-diabetes-in-stockholm-sweden
#10
Liselotte Schäfer Elinder, Shawn Hakimi, Anton Lager, Emma Patterson
BACKGROUND: In Stockholm, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a public health concern and much more prevalent in areas with a high proportion of foreign-born individuals. One in five individuals in Stockholm County are born outside of Sweden, and we therefore investigated if global region of birth was associated with diabetes risk, adjusting for established risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the population-based Stockholm Public Health Survey 2010 (N = 69 115) was combined with registry-based information on country of birth grouped into eight global geographical regions...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853753/elevated-circulating-concentrations-of-interferon-gamma-in-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Moises A Huaman, George S Deepe, Carl J Fichtenbaum
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been associated with increased immune activation. We assessed circulating concentrations of interferon-gamma in persons with LTBI. METHODS: We used the 2011-2012 National Health Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) to identify adults with and without LTBI by QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) results. Non-LTBI persons were 1:1 age-, gender-, and race-matched to LTBI persons using propensity scores. We compared the plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma measured from the unstimulated, negative control QFT tube between LTBI and non-LTBI persons...
October 2016: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852512/the-association-of-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-and-ct-angiography-verified-coronary-atherosclerosis
#12
David F Yankelevitz, Matthew D Cham, Harvey Hecht, Rowena Yip, Joseph Shemesh, Jagat Narula, Claudia I Henschke
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the extent of atherosclerosis on coronary computed tomographic angiography to the extent of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHTS) exposure in asymptomatic never smokers. BACKGROUND: A dose-related association between SHTS and coronary artery calcium has been reported, but the total extent of atherosclerosis has not been investigated. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-eight never smokers, ages 40 to 80 years, completed a questionnaire assessing risk factors and extent of lifetime SHTS exposure, providing a total SHTS exposure score...
November 5, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844176/the-impact-of-minimum-wages-on-population-health-evidence-from-24-oecd-countries
#13
Otto Lenhart
This study examines the relationship between minimum wages and several measures of population health by analyzing data from 24 OECD countries for a time period of 31 years. Specifically, I test for health effects as a result of within-country variations in the generosity of minimum wages, which are measured by the Kaitz index. The paper finds that higher levels of minimum wages are associated with significant reductions of overall mortality rates as well as in the number of deaths due to outcomes that have been shown to be more prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status (e...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837357/characterizing-cardiovascular-health-and-evaluating-a-low-intensity-intervention-to-promote-smoking-cessation-in-a-food-assistance-population
#14
Mackenzie Perkett, Shannon M Robson, Varsha Kripalu, Christina Wysota, Charlotte McGarry, David Weddle, Mia A Papas, Freda Patterson
Food assistance recipients are at higher risk for poor cardiovascular health given their propensity to poor dietary intake and tobacco use. This study sought to evaluate the cardiovascular health status, and determine the impact of a low-intensity smoking cessation education intervention that connected mobile food pantry participants to state quit-smoking resources. A pre-post design with a 6-week follow-up was used to evaluate the impact of a 10-12 min smoking cessation education session implemented in five food pantries in Delaware...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829570/a-multi-state-analysis-of-postpartum-readmissions-in-the-united-states
#15
Mark A Clapp, Sarah E Little, Jie Zheng, Julian N Robinson
BACKGROUND: Readmission rates are used as a quality metric in medical and surgical specialties; however, little is known about obstetrics readmissions. OBJECTIVE: Our goals for this study were to describe the trends in postpartum readmissions over time; to characterize the common indications and associated diagnoses for readmissions; and to determine maternal, delivery, and hospital characteristics that may be associated with readmission. STUDY DESIGN: Postpartum readmissions occurring within the first 6 weeks after delivery in California, Florida, and New York were identified between 2004 and 2011 in State Inpatient Databases...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816807/tobacco-smoking-and-cytokine-levels-in-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue-impact-of-smoking-cessation
#16
Lukas Mach, Helena Bedanova, Miroslav Soucek, Michal Karpisek, Petr Nemec, Marek Orban
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a source of a number of cytokines which could act in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The potential relationship between known cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, dyslipidaemia or diabetes mellitus and EAT humoral signalling, has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we designed and conducted a cross-sectional study to determine whether selected cardiovascular risk factors are linked to levels of cytokines in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)...
October 13, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815376/impact-of-smoking-on-circulating-cardiac-troponin-i-concentrations-and-cardiovascular-events-in-the-general-population-the-hunt-study
#17
Magnus N Lyngbakken, Julia B Skranes, James A de Lemos, Ståle Nygård, Håvard Dalen, Kristian Hveem, Helge Røsjø, Torbjørn Omland
BACKGROUND: -Both tobacco smoking and circulating cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels are associated with the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF) and cardiovascular death. However, whether cardiac troponin I levels differ according to smoking status, or whether smoking modifies the prognostic relationship between cardiac troponin I and outcomes remain unclear. METHODS: -Using data from a large population-based cohort, we assessed the association between smoking and cTnI, and the impact of smoking on the associations between cTnI levels and the incidence of AMI, HF and cardiovascular death...
November 4, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814369/non-communicable-disease-risk-factors-among-employees-and-their-families-of-a-saudi-university-an-epidemiological-study
#18
Rasmieh Alzeidan, Fatemeh Rabiee, Ahmed Mandil, Ahmad Hersi, Amel Fayed
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors among Saudi university employees and their families; to estimate the cardiovascular risk (CVR) amongst the study population in the following 10years. METHODS: The NCD risk factors prevalence was estimated using a cross-sectional approach for a sample of employees and their families aged ≥ 18 years old, in a Saudi university (Riyadh in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; KSA). WHO STEPwise standardized tools were used to estimate NCD risk factors and the Framingham Coronary Heart Risk Score calculator was used to calculate the CVR...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811453/insulin-resistance-metabolic-syndrome-and-lipids-in-african-women
#19
E E Young, C N Okafor, M O Iroezindu, I S Agbalu
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is closely related to insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease. This study examined the prevalence of IR and metabolic syndrome as well as factors associated with IR among Nigerian women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-six women living in an urban area in Enugu, South-East Nigeria, were assessed. Demographic information included age, residence, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco intake and were collected with questionnaires...
November 2016: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810338/esculetin-a-phytochemical-endeavor-fortifying-effect-against-non-communicable-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Almesh Kadakol, Nisha Sharma, Yogesh Anant Kulkarni, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
Esculetin, a naturally occurring 6,7-dihydroxy derivative of coumarin has shown its potential role in various non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular, renal failure, cancer and neurological disorders. NCDs, responsible for about 70% of the deaths occurring globally are majorly attributed to tobacco or alcohol abuse, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diets. It can be managed by improving access to cost-effective treatment, care and prevention. The beneficial effects of esculetin in NCDs have been ascribed to its antioxidant, anti-proliferative and cytoprotective potential...
October 31, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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