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Tobacco and diabetes

M Formánek, D Jančatová, P Komínek, P Matoušek, K Zeleník
OBJECTIVE: The human papillomavirus causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Although human papillomavirus prevalence is high, the incidence of papillomatosis is low. Thus, factors other than human papillomavirus infection probably contribute to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. This study investigated whether patients with papillomatosis are more often infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and chlamydia trachomatis and whether laryngopharyngeal reflux occurs in this group of patients more often...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Jose R Bucheli, Ahmad Manshad, Mark D Ehrhart, Jenny Camacho, Mark R Burge
Smoking is the leading cause of avoidable death and is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Previous studies on the impact of passive smoking have not been applied to a Hispanic-majority population. We investigated the association between active smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and pre-diabetes risk in a New Mexico population. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes risk increases with increasing smoking status after adjustment for important covariates. We screened 219 adults from an ongoing study who were categorized according to their smoking status (never smoker, current smoker, previous smoker) and their exposure to ETS (exposed or unexposed)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Rafael Castillo
: Similar to the trend worldwide, hypertension (HTN) is also the single most attributable cause for mortality in South-East Asia (SEA). But while in developed regions, the prevalence of HTN appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, the rates in SEA continue to rise. Around a third of the adult population in SEA have elevated blood pressure (BP) with nearly 1.5 million deaths (9.4% of total deaths) attributable to HTN annually.In several countries in SEA, awareness level of HTN is less than 50% but in the more affluent countries in the region, awareness ranges from 56% to 70%...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Al V Taira, Gregory S Merrick, Robert W Galbreath, Wayne M Butler, Edward Adamovich
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate brachytherapy patients impacts overall mortality (OM) in patients with lower pretreatment serum testosterone levels compared with those with normal or high baseline serum testosterone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 2001 to May 2014, 1916 patients underwent brachytherapy and had a pretreatment serum testosterone. Baseline serum testosterone values were collected prospectively before initiation of therapy...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Manuel C Vallejo, Ahmed F Attaallah, Robert E Shapiro, Osama M Elzamzamy, Michael G Mueller, Warren S Eller
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after cesarean delivery (CD) and identify the risk factors in a rural population. METHODS: We identified 218 SSI patients by International Classification of Disease codes and matched them with 3131 parturients (control) from the electronic record database in a time-matched retrospective quality assurance analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The incidence of SSI after CD was 7...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Young Dae Kim, Yo Han Jung, Gustavo Saposnik
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, differing patterns of stroke risk factor profiles have been noted in East Asian countries over the past decades...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke
Noël Christopher Barengo, Diana Carolina Tamayo, Teresa Tono, Jaakko Tuomilehto
AIMS: (i) To develop a diabetes mellitus risk score model for the Colombian population (ColDRISC); and (ii) to evaluate the accuracy of the ColDRISC unknown Type 2 diabetes mellitus METHODS: Cross-sectional screening study of the 18-74 years-old population of a health-care insurance company (n=2060) in northern Colombia. Lifestyle habits and risk factors for diabetes mellitus were assessed by an interview using a questionnaire consisting of information regarding sociodemographic factors, history of diabetes mellitus, tobacco consumption, hypertension, nutritional and physical activity habits...
October 7, 2016: Primary Care Diabetes
G V Padmalatha, Radhika M Bavle, Gadavalli Vera Venkata Satyakiran, K Paremala, M Sudhakara, Soumya Makarla
INTRODUCTION: Periodontal diseases, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss and affect at least one tooth in 80% of adults worldwide, with the main cause being a bacterial plaque. Among subgingival plaque bacterial species, Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major etiological agent causing tooth loss. Diabetics and smokers are two patient groups at high risk for periodontal disease. The increase in the number of this organism with the coexistence of other pathogenic microbes leads to rapid destruction of the periodontium, premature loss of teeth and also because of its virulence has implications in systemic pathology...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Jaffer A Shariff, Kavita P Ahluwalia, Panos N Papapanou
BACKGROUND: Recreational use of cannabis following its legalization in several countries poses an emergent oral and periodontal health concern. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between frequent recreational cannabis (marijuana and hashish) use and periodontitis prevalence among U.S adults. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2011-12) were analyzed. The primary outcome (periodontitis) was defined using the CDC/AAP classification as well as continuous measurements of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (AL)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Xiaowei Gong, Haiyan Wang, Yadong Yuan
The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the first therapeutic-target-achieving (TTA) time of warfarin therapy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PTE). Between January 2008 and June 2013, patients with PTE confirmed by transpulmonary arterial enhanced computed tomographic pulmonary angiography or pulmonary ventilation perfusion scanning were included in the present study. Data collected included demographic information, history of tobacco and alcohol intake, basic diseases (stable and unstable hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, cancer/cerebral infarction, old myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation), liver and kidney function, the haemoglobin and platelet count of the blood, international normalized ratio monitoring, warfarin dosage adjustment and medication combinations...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
David K Cundiff, Paul S Agutter
BACKGROUND: Nutrition researchers recently recognized that deficiency of vitamin K2 (menaquinone: MK-4-MK-13) is widespread and contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The deficiency of vitamin K2 or vitamin K inhibition with warfarin leads to calcium deposition in the arterial blood vessels. METHODS: Using publicly available sources, we collected food commodity availability data and derived nutrient profiles including vitamin K2 for people from 168 countries...
August 24, 2016: Curēus
Hasanat Sharif, Hamza Zaheer Ansari, Awais Ashfaq, Wasiq Faraz Rawasia, Gulshan Bano, Shiraz Hashmi
OBJECTIVE: To build a clinical predictive model to determine the need for transfusing blood and its products in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures in South East Asian population. STUDY DESIGN: Analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2006 to October 2014. METHODOLOGY: Information on pre-, intra- and postoperative variables were collected for all adult patients who underwent on-pump CABG...
September 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Saikat Datta, Jayanta Kumar Roy, Manasi Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), principally cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes are the leading causes of death and disability globally. The basic element of NCD prevention is the identification of the common risk factors and their prevention and control. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases, in Siliguri city of West Bengal, India using WHO Steps approach. METHODS: Between April 2012 to July 2012, 779 adults of 18-64 years from Siliguri city were chosen by 30-cluster sampling...
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cátia Jesus, Inês Jesus, Mark Agius
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD), also known as manic-depressive illness, is a condition characterized by unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Bipolar disorder is known to be a chronic and disabling disease associated with higher incidence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemias, hypertension and tobacco use which all together are known risk factors for the development of Cardiovascular diseases. With this research we wish to collect evidence to show how Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) affect Patients with Bipolar disease, the burden it can have in patients lives, to understand how this problem has been assessed so far and present suggestions that may improve the health care of these patients...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Daniel Płaczkiewicz, Marek Puźniak, Andrzej Kleinrok
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to show the prevalence of hypertension and major risk factors of cardiovascular disease among healthy adults in an agricultural region of south-eastern Poland, and the changes which have occurred in this area during the 12-year follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHOD: 1,233, mostly rural inhabitants of Zamosc County without previous history of diabetes and CVD were subjected to analysis. Prevalence of hypertension and major cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated...
September 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Jay H Lubin, David Couper, Pamela L Lutsey, Hiroshi Yatsuya
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking, various metabolic and lipid-related factors and hypertension are well-recognized cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Since smoking affects many of these factors, use of a single imprecise smoking metric, e.g., ever or never smoked, may allow residual confounding and explain inconsistencies in current assessments of interactions. METHODS: Using a comprehensive model in pack-years and cigarettes/day for the complex smoking-related relative risk (RR) of CVD to reduce residual confounding, we evaluated interactions with non-tobacco risk factors, including additive (non-synergistic) and multiplicative (synergistic) forms...
September 20, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Thomas F Whayne
Carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA) represents a significant form of atherosclerosis with stroke as a major consequence. Whether it is a unique form of atherosclerosis is not established. However, this is not of major clinical relevance as no specific preventive measures over and above the established ones for cardiovascular risk are well established. Major risk factors for CAA are elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypertension, and increased inflammation...
September 20, 2016: Angiology
Fan Kee Hoo, Yoke Loong Foo, Sazlyna Mohd Sazlly Lim, Siew Mooi Ching, Yang Liang Boo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is relatively uncommon in young adults as compared to the older population. Our objective was to assess the prevalence, demographic distribution, and risk factors for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients less than 45 years of age admitted to a Malaysian tertiary care centre. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, retrospective, and single centre study with random sampling of the patients admitted for ACS to hospital from January 2005 to December 2013...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Rafael Castillo
: Similar to the trend worldwide, hypertension (HTN) is also the single most attributable cause for mortality in South-East Asia (SEA). But while in developed regions, the prevalence of HTN appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, the rates in SEA continue to rise. Around a third of the adult population in SEA have elevated blood pressure (BP) with nearly 1.5 million deaths (9.4% of total deaths) attributable to HTN annually.In several countries in SEA, awareness level of HTN is less than 50% but in the more affluent countries in the region, awareness ranges from 56% to 70%...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Anna Caliò, Kathleen A Warfel, John N Eble
Renomedullary interstitial cell tumors are common incidental findings in kidney specimens. Despite their frequency, little is known about their morphology and pathogenesis. Kidneys from 402 unselected autopsies were sectioned at 1 to 2 mm intervals, and all lesions were examined histologically. A total of 421 renomedullary interstitial cell tumors were present in 150 patients (37%), ranging from 1 to 23 tumors per patient (mean=3). There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, hypertension, heart weight, tobacco smoking, diabetes mellitus, and renal function between patients with renomedullary interstitial cell tumors and those without...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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