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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734461/risk-factors-for-mortality-among-individuals-with-peripheral-arterial-disease
#1
Stephen M Amrock, Cherrie Z Abraham, Enjae Jung, Pamela B Morris, Michael D Shapiro
Morbidity and mortality from peripheral arterial disease (PAD) continues to increase. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are implicated in the development of PAD, yet the extent to which those risk factors correlate with mortality in such patients remains insufficiently assessed. Using data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of cardiovascular risk factors and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729040/-long-term-effects-of-intensive-intervention-on-changes-in-lifestyle-in-patients-with-hyperfibrinogenaemia-and-moderate-high-cardiovascular-risk
#2
Laura Illamola Martin, Juan José Rodríguez Cristobal, Carlos Alonso-Villaverde, Betlem Salvador-González, Irene Moral Pelaez
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the benefit on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) persists 5 years after an intensive intervention in lifestyle (LS) that lasted 2 years, in patients with hyperfibrinogenaemia and moderate or high cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: multicentre prospective observational study. LOCATION: 13 Primary Care Centres in Barcelona and Baix Llobregat. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 300 patients who completed the EFAP study (146 intervention group, 154 control group)...
July 17, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726795/a-retrospective-analysis-of-hypertension-screening-at-a-mass-gathering-in-india-implications-for-non-communicable-disease-control-strategies
#3
S Balsari, P Vemulapalli, M Gofine, K Oswal, R Merchant, S Saunik, G Greenough, T Khanna
Cardiovascular disease is the leading case of mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCD) in India. The government's National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke seeks to increase capacity building, screening, referral and management of NCDs across India, and includes community-based outreach and screening programmes. The government in India routinely provides basic care at religious mass gatherings. However, in 2015, at the Kumbh Mela in Nashik and Trimbakeshwar, the state government extended its services to include a hypertension screening programme...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716381/smoking-and-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-japan-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Shamima Akter, Atsushi Goto, Tetsuya Mizoue
Cigarette smoking is the leading avoidable cause of disease burden. Observational studies have suggested an association between smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies to investigate the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of T2DM in Japan, where the prevalence of smoking has been decreasing but remains high. We systematically searched MEDLINE and the Ichushi database to December 2015 and identified 22 eligible articles, representing 343,573 subjects and 16,383 patients with T2DM...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715065/hypertension-dyslipidemia-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-poland
#5
Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Paweł Rogalski, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Justyna Stempkowska, Piotr Kocbach, Aldona Kowalczuk-Kot, Małgorzata Janczarek, Anna Grzeszczuk
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in HIV infected patients increases with aging and duration of the disease. Hypertension (HA), high cholesterol level obesity, diabetes, tobacco exposure and use of alcohol are among the traditional risk factors that contribute to CVD. AIM: was to determinate the incidence of HA, lipid disturbances and CVD risk in dependence on clinical, viral and biochemical factors. METHODS: Four hundred and seventeen HIV infected Caucasian adult patients from the four clinical centers in Poland were enrolled and analyzed on the basis of available medical data from the years 2013-2015...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710952/indices-of-insulin-resistance-and-glucotoxicity-are-not-associated-with-bipolar-disorder-or-major-depressive-disorder-but-are-differently-associated-with-inflammatory-oxidative-and-nitrosative-biomarkers
#6
Kamila Landucci Bonifácio, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, Estefânia Gastaldello Moreira, Carine Coneglian de Farias, Luciana Higachi, Alissana Ester Iakmiu Camargo, Janaina Favaro Soares, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is a key factor in diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity and may occur in mood disorders and tobacco use disorder (TUD), where disturbances of immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways are important shared pathophysiological pathways. METHODS: This study aimed to a) examine IR and β-cell function as measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity and β cell function (HOMA-B) and glucotoxicity (conceptualized as increased glucose levels versus lowered HOMA-B values) in 74 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, with and or without MetS and TUD, versus 46 healthy controls, and b) whether IR is associated with IO&NS biomarkers, including nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp) and uric acid...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709650/anticoagulation-control-in-warfarin-treated-patients-undergoing-cardioversion-of-atrial-fibrillation-from-the-edoxaban-versus-enoxaparin-warfarin-in-patients-undergoing-cardioversion-of-atrial-fibrillation-trial
#7
Gregory Y H Lip, Naab Al-Saady, James Jin, Ming Sun, Michael Melino, Shannon M Winters, Dmitry Zamoryakhin, Andreas Goette
In the Edoxaban Versus Enoxaparin-Warfarin in Patients Undergoing Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation (ENSURE-AF) study (NCT 02072434), edoxaban was compared with enoxaparin-warfarin in 2,199 patients undergoing electrical cardioversion of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). In this multicenter prospective randomized open blinded end-point trial, we analyzed patients randomized to enoxaparin-warfarin. We determined time to achieve therapeutic range (TtTR); time in therapeutic range (TiTR); their clinical determinants; relation to sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco use, race risk (SAMe-TT2R2) score; and impact on primary end points (composite of stroke, systemic embolic event[SEE], myocardial infarction [MI], and cardiovascular death [CVD] and composite of major + clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding)...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705242/non-communicable-diseases-and-related-risk-behaviors-among-men-and-women-living-with-hiv-in-cambodia-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Pheak Chhoun, Chanrith Ngin, Sovannary Tuot, Khuondyla Pal, Martin Steel, Jennifer Dionisio, Hattie Pearson, Gitau Mburu, Carinne Brody, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: There is a growing concern for an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in people living with HIV. This concern is evident especially in developing countries where dietary and lifestyle risk factors associated with NCDs are becoming more prominent. This study explored the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia and related risk factors in men and women living with HIV in Cambodia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 510 adult people living with HIV randomly selected from one city and four provinces in Cambodia...
July 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704405/community-health-workers-for-non-communicable-diseases-prevention-and-control-in-developing-countries-evidence-and-implications
#9
Gursimer Jeet, J S Thakur, Shankar Prinja, Meenu Singh
BACKGROUND: National programs for non-communicable diseases (NCD) prevention and control in different low middle income countries have a strong community component. A community health worker (CHW) delivers NCD preventive services using informational as well as behavioural approaches. Community education and interpersonal communication on lifestyle modifications is imparted with focus on primordial prevention of NCDs and screening is conducted as part of early diagnosis and management...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689815/nicotine-promotes-blood-retinal-barrier-damage-in-a-model-of-human-diabetic-macular-edema
#10
Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Daniela Maria Rasà, Valentina La Cognata, Salvatore Saccone, Concetta Federico, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
More than 1 billion world's population actively smokes tobacco containing the bioactive component nicotine (NT). The biological role of this molecule is mediated through the activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors, widely distributed in various human tissues including retinal pigmented epithelium. The long-term assumption of NT contributes to several diseases development such as diabetic retinopathy. The major complication of this pathology is the diabetic macular edema (DME), characterized by macular area thinning and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673132/snus-use-during-the-life-course-and-risk-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components
#11
Marja Lisa Byhamre, Per E Gustafsson, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Maria Wennberg, Anne Hammarström, Patrik Wennberg
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between life-course exposure to snus and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood. DESIGN AND METHOD: Tobacco habits at baseline (age 16) and three follow-ups (ages 21, 30 and 43) were assessed among 880 participants in a population-based cohort in Northern Sweden. Presence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 was ascertained using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Odds ratios and CIs for risk of the metabolic syndrome and its components by snus use at 16, 21, 30 and 43 years were calculated using logistic regression...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671393/top-20-research-studies-of-2016-for-primary-care-physicians
#12
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
This article summarizes the top 20 original research studies and four practice guidelines of 2016, based on regular literature surveillance and as selected by members of the Canadian Medical Association. The studies, known as POEMs (patient-oriented evidence that matters), were rated highly because of their relevance, validity, and potential to change practice. Key hypertension treatment findings include reduced mortality (a benefit not demonstrated in lower-risk persons or persons with diabetes mellitus) but also an increase in harms with a more aggressive blood pressure target in high-risk persons with hypertension and without diabetes...
May 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670401/the-clinical-correlations-between-diabetes-cigarette-smoking-and-obesity-on-intervertebral-degenerative-disc-disease-of-the-lumbar-spine
#13
Ande M Jakoi, Gurpal Pannu, Anthony D'Oro, Zorica Buser, Martin H Pham, Neil N Patel, Patrick C Hsieh, John C Liu, Frank L Acosta, Raymond Hah, Jeffrey C Wang
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a nationwide private insurance database. Chi-square analysis and linear regression models were utilized for outcome measures. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate any relationship between lumbar degenerative disc disease, diabetes, obesity and smoking tobacco. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Diabetes, obesity, and smoking tobacco are comorbid conditions known to individually have effect on degenerative disc disease...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670258/insulin-resistance-diabetes-mellitus-and-thyroid-dysfunction-in-patients-with-palmoplantar-pustulosis-a-case-controlled-study
#14
Hatice Ataş, Müzeyyen Gönül
INTRODUCTION: Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic pustular inflammatory skin disease; however, its pathogenesis is not well understood. Several factors, such as genetics, tobacco use and autoimmune issues, may contribute to this disease. AIM: This research was conducted to investigate the relationships between insulin resistance, thyroid disease and PPP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with PPP and 27 age- and gender-matched controls were analysed for their smoking histories, thyroid function tests, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels, fasting glucose, fasting insulin levels and the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index for insulin resistance...
June 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660356/community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-predictors-in-a-contemporary-cohort-study
#15
Cristiane C Lamas, Lara E Coelho, Beatriz J Grinsztejn, Valdilea G Veloso
Community-acquired pneumonia represents the most frequent bacterial infection in patients with HIV/AIDS. PURPOSE: We aimed to assess variables associated with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among HIV-infected adults using ART. METHODS: A cohort study of HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years, enrolled from 2000 to 2015, on ART for at least 60 days, with primary outcome as the 1st episode of LRTI during follow-up. The independent variables included were sex at birth, age, race/skin color, educational level, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, cocaine use, diabetes mellitus, CD4 count, HIV viral load, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination...
June 28, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658812/factors-associated-with-physical-inactivity-among-adult-urban-population-of-puducherry-india-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#16
Ariarathinam Newtonraj, Natesan Murugan, Zile Singh, Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Anandan Velavan, Manikandan Mani
INTRODUCTION: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Increase in physical activity decreases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and improves psychological wellbeing. AIM: To study the level of physical inactivity among the adult population in an urban area of Puducherry in India and its associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 569 adult participants from an urban area of Pondicherry...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646795/offsetting-the-impact-of-smoking-and-e-cigarette-vaping-on-the-cerebrovascular-system-and-stroke-injury-is-metformin-a-viable-countermeasure
#17
Mohammad A Kaisar, Heidi Villalba, Shikha Prasad, Taylor Liles, Ali Ehsan Sifat, Ravi K Sajja, Thomas J Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Recently published in vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest that BBB impairment and increased risk for stroke by tobacco smoke (TS) closely resemble that of type-2 diabetes (2DM) and develop largely in response to common key modulators such oxidative stress (OS), inflammation and alterations of the endogenous antioxidative response system (ARE) regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Preclinical studies have also shown that nicotine (the principal e-liquid's ingredient used in e-cigarettes) can also cause OS, exacerbation of cerebral ischemia and secondary brain injury...
June 17, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645694/-comparative-analysis-effectiveness-of-nicotine-addiction-treatment-in-people-with-psychiatric-comorbidity
#18
R Godoy, F J Callejas, J Cruz, A I Tornero, P J Tárraga, J A Rodríguez-Montes
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not nicotine addiction treatment was less effective in psychiatric than in the healthy population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive and comparative cohort study was conducted in Albacete University Hospital during years 2008-2012 on all patients that attended the Tobacco Cessation Unit. The statistical tests used were Chi-squared, likelihood ratio, and the Student t test. Statistical significance P≤.05. RESULTS: The study included a total of 1,484 patients, of which 48...
June 20, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639257/large-scale-genome-wide-screening-of-circulating-micrornas-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-reveals-specific-signatures-in-late-stage-disease
#19
Estelle Chanudet, Magdalena B Wozniak, Liacine Bouaoun, Graham Byrnes, Anush Mukeriya, David Zaridze, Paul Brennan, David C Muller, Ghislaine Scelo
Circulating miRNAs have shown great promises as non-invasive diagnostic and predictive biomarkers in several solid tumors. While the miRNA profiles of renal tumors have been extensively explored, knowledge of their circulating counterparts is limited. Our study aimed to provide a large-scale genome-wide profiling of plasma circulating miRNA in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Plasma samples from 94 ccRCC cases and 100 controls were screened for 754 circulating micro-RNAs (miRNA) by TaqMan arrays. Analyses including known risk factors for renal cancer, namely age, sex, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, highlighted that circulating miRNA profiles were tightly correlated with the stage of the disease...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635358/disability-and-the-impact-of-need-for-periodontal-care-on-quality-of-life-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Maha El Tantawi, Adel AlAgl
Objective The need for periodontal care may negatively impact daily life. We compared the need for periodontal care and its impact on daily life between disabled and healthy adults in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 819 adults, a questionnaire was used to assess personal background factors; the impact of periodontitis on pain, avoiding foods, embarrassment, sleeplessness, work absence, and discontinuing daily activities; and risk factors (smoking, diabetes, toothbrushing, insurance, professional tooth cleaning, and dental visits)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
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