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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167386/ischemic-stroke-profile-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-india-the-indo-us-collaborative-stroke-project
#1
P N Sylaja, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Subhash Kaul, M V Padma Srivastava, Dheeraj Khurana, Lee H Schwamm, Praveen Kesav, Deepti Arora, Aman Pannu, Tijy K Thankachan, Aneesh B Singhal
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Indo-US Collaborative Stroke Project was designed to characterize ischemic stroke across 5 high-volume academic tertiary hospitals in India. METHODS: From January 2012 to August 2014, research coordinators and physician coinvestigators prospectively collected data on 2066 patients with ischemic stroke admitted <2 weeks after onset. Investigator training and supervision and data monitoring were conducted by the US site (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston)...
November 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165123/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-hypertension-and-prehypertension-in-a-working-population-at-high-altitude-in-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Yang Shen, Chun Chang, Jingru Zhang, Ying Jiang, Bingying Ni, Yanling Wang
BACKGROUND: Little information is available on the epidemiology of hypertension and prehypertension at high altitude in China, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension and their risk factors among Chinese working population at high altitude regions. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in an occupational sample of 4198 employees aged 20-59 years on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau between May to July 2013. Information from a self-administered questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory measurements were obtained from each participant...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165111/population-profile-and-residential-environment-of-an-urban-poor-community-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#3
Md Khalequzzaman, Chifa Chiang, Bilqis Amin Hoque, Sohel Reza Choudhury, Saika Nizam, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Akiko Matsuyama, Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Syed Shariful Islam, Hiroyasu Iso, Atsuko Aoyama
OBJECTIVES: A population survey was conducted in an urban shantytown in Bangladesh, as a baseline study of future epidemiological studies. This paper aims to describe the findings of the study, including the population profile and residential environment of the urban poor. METHODS: We conducted a complete count household survey in an urban poor community in Dhaka. Using a brief structured questionnaire in Bengali language, trained interviewers visited each household and asked questions such as: duration of residence; ownership of house, toilet and kitchen; water supply; number of family members; age, sex, education, occupation, tobacco use, and history of diseases of each family member...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164121/a-pragmatic-study-shows-failure-of-dental-composite-fillings-is-genetically-determined-a-contribution-to-the-discussion-on-dental-amalgams
#4
Alexandre R Vieira, Marília B Silva, Kesia K A Souza, Arnôldo V A Filho, Aronita Rosenblatt, Adriana Modesto
Composite resins for posterior tooth restorations have become a viable alternative to dental amalgam. Failures sometimes cannot be easily explained, and we hypothesize that a genetic component may influence longevity of restorations. We aimed to determine if there is any evidence for a difference in the performance of amalgams versus composite resin in extensive posterior restorations. We also aimed to determine if risk factors such as age, sex, smoking tobacco, alcohol drinking, diabetes status, and periodontal health status may have a role in the failures of extensive anterior composite restorations...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149496/predictive-factors-for-osteoradionecrosis-of-the-jaws-a-retrospective-study
#5
Hans P Sathasivam, Gareth R Davies, Nicholas M Boyd
BACKGROUND: Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw (ORNJ) is a well-recognized complication of radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to assess predictive factors for the development of ORNJ. METHODS: A retrospective study of 325 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated at one institution between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2008, was conducted. Outcome measure was the presence/absence of ORNJ. Time to event was recorded and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to determine statistically significant predictive factors...
November 17, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149211/occupational-exposure-to-unburnt-tobacco-and-potential-risk-of-toxic-optic-neuropathy-a-cross-sectional-study-among-beedi-rollers-in-selected-rural-areas-of-coastal-karnataka-india
#6
Soujanya Kaup, Ansaba Naseer, Siddharudha Shivalli, Cynthia Arunachalam
BACKGROUND: Beedi also known as poor man's cigarette is manufactured in almost all major states of India. Beedi workers are exposed to various health risks. There is an increased risk of systemic absorption of tobacco through skin and mucous membrane. The optic nerve is susceptible to damage from several toxic substances including tobacco. This group of disorders is known as toxic optic neuropathy (TON). The association of TON with occupational exposure to unburnt tobacco in beedi rollers has not been explored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146122/health-and-wellbeing-of-indigenous-adolescents-in-australia-a-systematic-synthesis-of-population-data
#7
Peter S Azzopardi, Susan M Sawyer, John B Carlin, Louisa Degenhardt, Ngiare Brown, Alex D Brown, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia. METHODS: We undertook a systematic synthesis of population data to report the health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145260/reversible-severe-fatty-liver-induced-by-capecitabine-a-case-report
#8
Yiyan Jiang, Qiancheng He, Suxia Li, Chang Shi, Xiaolei Yang
RATIONALE: Capecitabine (CAP) is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat breast and gastrointestinal cancers. The most common adverse reactions of CAP primarily included gastrointestinal and dermatological effects. Whereas, the CAP-induced fatty liver had never been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this study, a-69-year old female presented a history of hypertension with regulated blood pressure, whereas diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hepatitis were excluded...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138190/prevalence-of-non-communicable-disease-risk-factors-among-poor-shantytown-residents-in-dhaka-bangladesh-a-community-based-cross-sectional-survey
#9
Md Khalequzzaman, Chifa Chiang, Sohel Reza Choudhury, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Mohammad Abdullah Al-Mamun, Abubakr Ahmed Abdullah Al-Shoaibi, Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Bilqis Amin Hoque, Syed Shariful Islam, Akiko Matsuyama, Hiroyasu Iso, Atsuko Aoyama
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors among the urban poor in Bangladesh. DESIGN: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional epidemiological study. SETTING: The study was conducted in a shantytown in the city of Dhaka. There were 8604 households with 34 170 residents in the community. Those households were categorised into two wealth strata based on the housing structure...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130612/caliber-and-fitness-of-the-axillary-artery-as-a-conduit-for-large-bore-cardiovascular-procedures
#10
Daniel M Arnett, James C Lee, Michael A Harms, Kathleen E Kearney, Mario Ramos, Bryn M Smith, Emily C Anderson, Rajiv Tayal, James M McCabe
OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the caliber and vascular health of the subclavian and axillary arteries as related to their potential utilization in complex cardiovascular procedures. BACKGROUND: Patients referred for advanced catheter-based therapies frequently have lower extremity peripheral vascular disease that may prohibit the use of large bore arterial catheters. Utilization of the upper extremity peripheral vasculature is rarely considered as an alternative access strategy...
November 11, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120831/epidemiology-of-areca-betel-nut-use-in-the-mariana-islands-findings-from-the-university-of-guam-university-of-hawai-i-cancer-center-partnership-program
#11
Yvette C Paulino, Eric L Hurwitz, Joanne C Ogo, Tristan C Paulino, Ashley B Yamanaka, Rachel Novotny, Lynne R Wilkens, Mary Jane Miller, Neal A Palafox
BACKGROUND: Areca (betel) nut is considered a Group 1 human carcinogen shown to be associated with other chronic diseases in addition to cancer. This paper describes the areca (betel) nut chewing trend in Guam, and health behaviors of chewers in Guam and Saipan. METHODS: The areca (betel) nut module in the Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was used to calculate the 5-year (2011-2015) chewing trend. To assess the association between areca (betel) nut chewing and health risks in the Mariana Islands, a cross-section of 300 chewers, ≥18years old, were recruited from households in Guam and Saipan...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099931/clinical-fractures-among-older-men-with-diabetes-are-mediated-by-diabetic-complications
#12
Richard H Lee, Richard Sloane, Carl Pieper, Kenneth W Lyles, Robert A Adler, Courtney Van Houtven, Joanne LaFleur, Cathleen Colón-Emeric
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus among older women has been associated with increased bone mineral density, but paradoxically increased fracture risk. Findings among older men have varied, and potential mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Methods: Retrospective study of male Veterans 65-99 years of age who received primary care in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) from 2000 to 2010, using administrative data from all 146 VHA medical centers linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare fee-for-service data...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099364/nutrition-for-oral-health-and-oral-manifestations-of-poor-nutrition-and-unhealthy-habits
#13
Matthew Pflipsen, Yevgeniy Zenchenko
The availability of proper nutrients is critical for the growth, development, maintenance, and repair of healthy dentition and oral tissues. Deficiencies particularly relevant to the dental practice are those in folate and other B complex vitamins; vitamins A, C, and D; calcium; fluoride; and protein. A lack of these nutrients affects nearly every structure in the oral cavity, causing or contributing to scurvy, cleft palate, enamel hypoplasia, poor mineralization, caries, and other pathoses. Damage to the dentition can also be observed in individuals with unhealthy habits; for example, a diet high in sugars will promote processes such as demineralization and caries...
November 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094912/recurrent-ischemic-stroke-strategies-for-prevention
#14
Rupal Oza, Kristen Rundell, Miriam Garcellano
Recurrent strokes make up almost 25% of the nearly 800,000 strokes that occur annually in the United States. Risk factors for ischemic stroke include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, sleep apnea, and obesity. Lifestyle modifications, including tobacco cessation, decreased alcohol use, and increased physical activity, are also important in the management of patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Antiplatelet therapy is recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke...
October 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082005/maternal-and-child-health-services-and-an-integrated-life-cycle-approach-to-the-prevention-of-non-communicable-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Luisa Brumana, Alvaro Arroyo, Nina R Schwalbe, Susanna Lehtimaki, David B Hipgrave
Described as the 'invisible epidemic', non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the world's leading cause of death. Most are caused by preventable factors, including poor diet, tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol and physical inactivity. Diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular and chronic lung diseases were responsible for 38 million (68%) of global deaths in 2012. Since 1990, proportionate NCD mortality has increased substantially as populations have aged and communicable diseases decline. The majority of NCD deaths, especially premature NCD deaths (<70 years, 82%), occur in low-income and middle-income countries, and among poor communities within them...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079329/acute-poststroke-depression-is-associated-with-thalamic-lesions-and-clinical-outcomes-a-case-control-study
#16
Tomoko Omura, Mahito Kimura, Kyongsong Kim, Masahiro Mishina, Takayuki Mizunari, Shiro Kobayashi, Akio Morita
BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of acute-phase stroke lesions and patient characteristics in poststroke depression (PSD) and its effect on the clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five and 30 days after admission, 175 patients self-reported their depressive symptoms on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with (n = 41) and without PSD (n = 134). Stroke severity was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS); the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to determine the functional outcome...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069328/the-relationship-between-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-acute-myocardial-infarction
#17
Moises A Huaman, Eduardo Ticona, Gustavo Miranda, Richard J Kryscio, Raquel Mugruza, Ernesto Aranda, Paola Rondan, David Henson, Cesar Ticona, Timothy R Sterling, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Beth A Garvy
Background: Tuberculosis has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated whether latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) associates with AMI. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in two large national public hospital networks in Lima, Peru between July 2015 and March 2017. Cases were patients with a first time diagnosis of type 1 (spontaneous) AMI. Controls were patients without a history of AMI...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065749/chronic-periodontitis-inflammatory-cytokines-and-interrelationship-with-other-chronic-diseases
#18
Elsa Maria Cardoso, Cátia Reis, Maria Cristina Manzanares-Céspedes
Periodontal diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, share common inflammatory risk factors with other systemic and chronic inflammatory disorders. Mucosal tissues, such as oral epithelia, are exposed to environmental stressors, such as tobacco and oral bacteria, that might be involved in promoting a systemic inflammatory state. Conversely, chronic disorders can also affect oral health. This review will summarize recent evidence for the interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and other prevalent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases...
October 25, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064542/elevated-leukocyte-count-as-a-harbinger-of-systemic-inflammation-disease-progression-and-poor-prognosis-a-review
#19
Piotr Paweł Chmielewski, Bartłomiej Strzelec
Total leukocyte count increases significantly in response to infection, trauma, inflammation, and certain diseases. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults include sex, hormonal milieu, genetic inheritance, stress level, diet, nutrition, and lifestyle (e.g. tobacco-induced inflammatory changes, chronic psychological stress, etc.). To date, numerous studies have reported that high but normal leukocyte counts at baseline predict increased cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in older adults...
October 24, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059414/nicotine-metabolism-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#20
Rachel J Keith, Daniel W Riggs, Daniel J Conklin, Pawel Lorkiewicz, Sanjay Srivastava, Aruni Bhatnagar, Andrew P DeFilippis
Introduction: Metabolism of nicotine has implications for addiction and may be altered in people with type 2 diabetes. Thus, our objective was to analyze nicotine metabolism in adults with and without type 2 diabetes who smoke. Methods: From an existing cross-sectional study, we analyzed nicotine metabolism in urine of 148 smokers, 36 type 2 diabetics (insulin or antidiabetic medication use and/or fasting glucose >126 mg/dL), and 112 non-diabetics. Nicotine metabolism was quantified as the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) = trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC) divided by COT...
September 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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