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Tobacco and diabetes

Thomas W Gaither, Mohannad A Awad, Gregory P Murphy, Ian Metzler, Thomas Sanford, Michael L Eisenberg, Siobhan Sutcliffe, E Charles Osterberg, Benjamin N Breyer
BACKGROUND: Bicycle riding has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation and exercise, especially among women, and previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cycling and sexual dysfunction, albeit using non-validated questionnaires. AIM: We aimed to explore the relationship between cycling and sexual and urinary dysfunction. METHODS: Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs across 5 English-speaking countries...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
André O Werneck, Edilson S Cyrino, Paul J Collings, Enio R V Ronque, Célia L Szwarcwald, Luís B Sardinha, Danilo R Silva
BACKGROUND: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Ersilia M DeFilippis, Avinainder Singh, Sanjay Divakaran, Ankur Gupta, Bradley L Collins, David Biery, Arman Qamar, Amber Fatima, Mattheus Ramsis, Daniel Pipilas, Roxanna Rajabi, Monica Eng, Jon Hainer, Josh Klein, James L Januzzi, Khurram Nasir, Marcelo F Di Carli, Deepak L Bhatt, Ron Blankstein
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is increasingly prevalent among young adults but data on cardiovascular outcomes remain limited. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the prevalence of cocaine and marijuana use in adults with their first myocardial infarction (MI) at ≤50 years and determine its association with long-term outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed records of patients presenting with a Type 1 MI at ≤50 years at two academic hospitals from 2000-2016...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Stefano Menini, Carla Iacobini, Luisa de Latouliere, Isabella Manni, Vittoria Ionta, Claudia Blasetti Fantauzzi, Carlo Pesce, Paola Cappello, Francesco Novelli, Giulia Piaggio, Giuseppe Pugliese
Diabetes is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer (PaC), together with obesity, Western diet and tobacco smoking. The common mechanistic link might be the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which characterizes all the above disease conditions and unhealthy habits. Surprisingly, however, the role of AGEs in PaC has not been examined yet, despite the evidence of a tumor-promoting role of RAGE, the receptor for AGEs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that AGEs promote PaC through RAGE activation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale, Dipak V Parmar, Parth Kavathia, Twinkle Rangnani, Jainy Thakkar, Girija Kartha
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Carl Joakim Brandt, Jane Clemensen, Jesper Bo Nielsen, Jens Søndergaard
OBJECTIVES: Assisting patients in lifestyle change using collaborative e-health tools can be an efficient treatment for non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive lung disease that are caused or aggravated by unhealthy living in the form of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity or tobacco smoking. In a prospective pilot study, we tested an online collaborative e-health tool in general practice. The aim of this study was to identify drivers of importance for long-term personal lifestyle changes from a patient perspective when using a collaborative e-health tool, including the support of peers and healthcare professionals...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Jovana M Pavlović, Aleksandar D Pavlovic, Milica V Bulajić, Dragica P Pešut
A previously known association of tuberculosis (TB), now a global emergency, with diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease of increasing prevalence worldwide, has resurfaced. DM is a recognised TB risk factor and M. tuberculosis infection usually disturbs glycoregulation. We aimed to estimate DM prevalence among TB patients and to analyse clinical and radiologic manifestations of TB in this group. The cross-sectional study included 1017 patients discharged with a TB diagnosis from a tertiary level facility in a five-year period...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Kavisa Ghosh, Indra N
Cadmium (Cd), a potent carcinogen present in almost all foods, poses a major health risk to humans. Major routes of exposure to Cd for humans are occupation, diet, and tobacco use. Cd elicits various deleterious effects on cellular molecules mainly by causing oxidant-antioxidant imbalance. Cd has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, Itai-itai disease, diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and myocardial infarction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Cd intake on erythrocytes and cardiac tissue in male albino Wistar rats...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Douglas W Jones, Philip P Goodney, Jens Eldrup-Jorgensen, Marc L Schermerhorn, Jeffrey J Siracuse, Jeanwan Kang, Jesse A Columbo, Bjoern D Suckow, David H Stone
OBJECTIVE: Performing lower extremity bypass (LEB) in actively smoking claudicants remains controversial. Whereas some surgeons advocate a strict nonoperative approach to active smokers, citing perceived inferior outcomes, others will proceed with surgical bypass if the patient is anatomically suited and medical management has failed. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of active smoking on LEB outcomes among claudicants. METHODS: All patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB for claudication in the Vascular Study Group of New England from 2003 to 2016 were analyzed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Sharon Daniel, Reut Rotem, Gideon Koren, Eitan Lunenfeld, Amalia Levy
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortions are the most common complication of pregnancy. Clotrimazole and miconazole are widely used vaginal-anti-mycotic agents used for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. A previous study has suggested an increased risk of miscarriage associated with these azoles, which may lead health professionals to refrain from their use even if clinically indicated. The aim of the current study was to assess the risk for spontaneous abortions following first trimester exposure to vaginal-anti-mycotics...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Brandon Haugen, Shannon E Karinshak, Victoria H Mann, Anastas Popratiloff, Alex Loukas, Paul J Brindley, Michael J Smout
The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES) complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile duct cancer, cholangiocarcinoma...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
V Aguilera, T Di Maira, I Conde, V Fornés-Ferrer, C Vinaixa, C Pallarés, A Carvalho-Gomes, A Cubells, M García, A Rubín, S Benlloch, L Gonzalez-Dieguez, J M Molina, L Puchades, X López-Labrador, M Prieto, M Berenguer
The association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation and cardiovascular risk has been reported in solid organ transplant populations; however, it has yet to be assessed in liver transplantation (LT). We aim to evaluate whether CMV reactivation is associated with cardiovascular events (CVE) in HCV-LT patients. Methods: LT patients (2010 and 2014) due to HCV cirrhosis were included. Clinically significant CMV (CS-CMV) was defined as viral load (VL)>5000 copies/mL, need of therapy or CMV disease. Baseline variables and end-point measures (CVE, survival, severe recurrent hepatitis C, de novo tumors and diabetes) were collected...
March 1, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Aileen Baecker, Xing Liu, Carlo La Vecchia, Zuo-Feng Zhang
To facilitate regionally specific liver cancer prevention and control, this study estimates the fraction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases attributable to five major liver cancer risk factors by geographic region. Prevalence estimates of major HCC risk factors, including chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, obesity, and diabetes, were extracted for each country from the literature, along with recent incidence and risk estimate data, to calculate regionally specific population attributable fractions...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Shih-Han Hung, Li-Ting Kao, Chung-Chien Huang, Ben-Chang Shia, Herng-Ching Lin
Although it is known that inflammatory processes elevate the risk of cancer, to date the association between chronic tonsillitis and tonsil cancer remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chronic tonsillitis with tonsil cancer based on a population-based database in Taiwan. We retrieved data for this study from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. This case-control study included 489 patients with tonsil cancer and 2445 matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for having been previously diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis between patients with tonsil cancer and the controls...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Jessie Pullar, Luke Allen, Nick Townsend, Julianne Williams, Charlie Foster, Nia Roberts, Mike Rayner, Bente Mikkelsen, Francesco Branca, Kremlin Wickramasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) disproportionately affect low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMICs) where 80% of global NCD related deaths occur. LLMICs are the primary focus of interventions to address development and poverty indicators. We aimed to synthesise the evidence of these interventions' impact on the four primary NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and cancer) and their common behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use)...
2018: PloS One
Erika Aparecida Silveira, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Marianne de Oliveira Falco, Rodrigo de Castro Cardoso, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira Vitorino
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus...
February 22, 2018: AIDS Care
Christopher P Childers, Anaar E Siletz, Emily S Singer, Claire Faltermeier, Q Lina Hu, Clifford Y Ko, Gregory J Golladay, Stephen L Kates, Elizabeth C Wick, Melinda Maggard-Gibbons
Background: Use of enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) can improve patient outcomes, yet national implementation of these pathways remains low. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ; funder), the American College of Surgeons, and the Johns Hopkins Medicine Armstrong Institute for Patent Safety and Quality have developed the Safety Program for Improving Surgical Care and Recovery-a national effort to catalyze implementation of practices to improve perioperative care and enhance recovery of surgical patients...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
Meena K Yadav, K S Yadav
Type II diabetic mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that impairs normal insulin production and glucose transport to the liver and muscles. In the India, about 1-5% population suffer from diabetes or related complication. So there is need to cure this disease. DM chronic auditory complications may include spiral ganglia atrophy, degeneration of the vestibulocochlear nerve myelin sheath, reduction of the number of spiral lamina nerve fibres, and thickening of the capillary walls of the stria vascularis and small arteries...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Kalpana Sharma, Devjani Das, Manish Joshi, Dipjyoti Barman, A J Sarma
This study is intended to analyze the clinical profile and outcomes of deep neck space infection in diabetic patients in our tertiary care centre. A prospective study of 1 year duration from 30th September 2015 to 30th September 2016 at department of Otorhinolaryngology, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati. A total of 45 diabetic patients who presented with DNSI are included in this study. Their demographic profile, etiology, bacteriology, treatment, duration of hospital stay, complications and outcomes have been analyzed...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Matthew Tyler Boden
AIMS: To examine prevalence, functioning and treatment associated with all DSM-5 12-month mood, anxiety, eating and substance use disorders among people with diabetes in data obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. METHODS: Through multistage stratified randomized sampling a sample representative of the United States civilian population was obtained. Prevalence of diabetes (Type 1 and 2), DSM-5 disorders, physical and mental functioning, and treatment utilization were assessed via telephone interview...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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