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Tobacco dependence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728645/elevated-behavioral-economic-demand-for-alcohol-in-a-community-sample-of-heavy-drinking-smokers
#1
Michael Amlung, James MacKillop, Peter M Monti, Robert Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smokers are more likely to consume alcohol at higher levels and experience poorer response to treatment for alcohol problems than are nonsmokers. One previous study in university students suggests that a potential reason for the high overlap between alcohol and tobacco use is that concurrent smoking is associated with overvaluation of alcohol, as reflected in elevated behavioral economic demand. The present study sought to extend these initial findings in a community sample with heavier levels of alcohol and tobacco use...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727662/paraphilic-thoughts-behaviors-and-sex-addiction-in-a-sample-of-persons-who-use-drugs-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Jales Clemente, Sandra Cristina Pillon, Jair de Jesus Mari, Claudio Jeronimo da Silva, Paulo Roberto Henrique Santana, Alessandra Diehl
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of paraphilic thoughts/behaviors (including paraphilic disorders) with and without sexual addiction and sexual-related conditions in a sample of substance disorder patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of substance-dependent individuals who sought outpatient treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. Data included sociodemographic information, drug of choice, responses to questions about sexual behavior, and to the following standardized questionnaires: (a) Sexual Addiction Screening Test, and (b) Childhood Trauma Questionnaire...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726715/overexpression-of-the-osimp-gene-increases-the-accumulation-of-inositol-and-confers-enhanced-cold-tolerance-in-tobacco-through-modulation-of-the-antioxidant-enzymes-activities
#3
Rong-Xiang Zhang, Li-Jun Qin, De-Gang Zhao
Inositol is a cyclic polyol that is involved in various physiological processes, including signal transduction and stress adaptation in plants. l-myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) is one of the metal-dependent phosphatase family members and catalyzes the last reaction step of biosynthesis of inositol. Although increased IMPase activity induced by abiotic stress has been reported in chickpea plants, the role and regulation of the IMP gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) remains poorly understood. In the present work, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence coding IMPase in the cold tolerant rice landraces in Gaogonggui, which is named as OsIMP...
July 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726253/%C3%AE-9-and-%C3%AE-7-containing-receptors-mediate-the-pro-proliferative-effects-of-nicotine-in-the-a549-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#4
Vanessa Mucchietto, Francesca Fasoli, Susanna Pucci, Milena Moretti, Roberta Benfante, Annalisa Maroli, Simona Di Lascio, Cristiano Bolchi, Marco Pallavicini, Cheryl Dowell, Michael McIntosh, Francesco Clementi, Cecilia Gotti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tobacco smoke contains many classes of carcinogens and although nicotine is unable to initiate tumorigenesis in humans and rodents, it promotes tumour growth and metastasis in lung tumours by acting on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The aim of this study was to identify molecularly, biochemically and pharmacologically which nAChR subtypes are expressed and functionally activated by nicotine in lung cancer cell lines. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used A549 and H1975 adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from lung tumour to test the in vitro effects of nicotine, and nAChR subtype-specific peptides and compounds...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720080/long-term-effectiveness-of-mailed-nicotine-replacement-therapy-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-5-year-follow-up
#5
Vladyslav Kushnir, Peter Selby, Laurie Zawertailo, Rachel F Tyndale, Scott T Leatherdale, John A Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Our group recently completed a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of providing 5 weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; in the form of the nicotine patch) by expedited postal mail without behavioral assistance to regular adult smokers interested in receiving it. The findings revealed that mailed provision of nicotine patches resulted in more than a doubling of quit rates at a six-month follow-up compared to a no intervention control group. While this trial provided evidence for the effectiveness of mailed nicotine patches in promoting cessation, the findings speak only to the short term effectiveness of this approach...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719835/silencing-the-tobacco-gene-for-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-1-and-infection-by-potato-virus-y-cause-remodeling-of-cellular-organelles
#6
Farshad Rakhshandehroo, Saeed Rezaee, Peter Palukaitis
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) has been shown to be involved in DNA methylation, RNA silencing and regulating expression of other genes. RDR1 gene expression is stimulated by infection with potato virus Y° (PVY). Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants silenced for RDR1 gene expression showed morphological changes in mesophyll cells, associated with remodeling of the nuclei, chloroplasts and mitochondria. RDR1 silencing led to decreased nuclear size, increased heterochromatin content and aggregation, decreased numbers of chloroplasts, plus changes in shape, internal structures and integrity of chloroplasts and mitochondria...
July 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716128/tobacco-dependence-among-people-with-mental-illness-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study-from-southwest-ethiopia
#7
Zemenay Molla, Lamesa Dube, Wolfgang Krahl, Matiwos Soboka
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a health care issue in developed as well as in developing countries. Tobacco smoking among people with mental illness is significantly higher than in the general population. Tobacco smoking has negative effects on physical, mental and financial well-being of people with mental illness but little is known about tobacco dependence among mental health service users in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study attempted to assess the prevalence of tobacco dependence and associated factors among mental health service users at Jimma University teaching hospital...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715065/hypertension-dyslipidemia-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-poland
#8
Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Paweł Rogalski, Magdalena Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Justyna Stempkowska, Piotr Kocbach, Aldona Kowalczuk-Kot, Małgorzata Janczarek, Anna Grzeszczuk
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in HIV infected patients increases with aging and duration of the disease. Hypertension (HA), high cholesterol level obesity, diabetes, tobacco exposure and use of alcohol are among the traditional risk factors that contribute to CVD. AIM: was to determinate the incidence of HA, lipid disturbances and CVD risk in dependence on clinical, viral and biochemical factors. METHODS: Four hundred and seventeen HIV infected Caucasian adult patients from the four clinical centers in Poland were enrolled and analyzed on the basis of available medical data from the years 2013-2015...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710944/effect-of-acibenzolar-s-methyl-phototransformation-on-its-elicitation-activity-in-tobacco-cells
#9
Florent Lavergne, Claire Richard, Marc Saudreau, Jean-Stéphane Venisse, Boris Fumanal, Pascale Goupil
The plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH) undergoes phototransformation when exposed to solar radiation. Here we investigated the changes in its elicitation properties on BY-2 tobacco cells at different stages of the photochemical reaction. Both pure BTH and formulated BTH were irradiated in controlled conditions to achieve different extents of conversion. Both pure BTH (900 μM) and Bion(®) (0.4 g.L(-1)) induced BY-2 cell death, but BTH photoconverted to an extent of 25 ± 3% lowered the cell death rate...
July 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702864/tobacco-use-prevalence-and-outcomes-among-perinatal-patients-assessed-through-an-opt-out-cessation-and-follow-up-clinical-program
#10
Cole Buchanan, Georges J Nahhas, Constance Guille, K Michael Cummings, Cameron Wheeler, Erin A McClure
Purpose Cigarette smoking in the perinatal period is associated with costly morbidity and mortality for mother and infant, yet many women continue to smoke throughout their pregnancy and following delivery. This report describes tobacco use prevalence among perinatal smokers identified through an "opt-out" inpatient smoking cessation clinical service. Description Adult women admitted to the peripartum, delivery, and postpartum units at a large academic hospital were screened for tobacco use. Smokers were identified through their medical record and referred to a bedside consult and follow-up using an interactive voice response (IVR) system to assess smoking up to 30 days post-discharge...
July 12, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702043/adoption-of-the-2a-ribosomal-skip-principle-to-tobacco-mosaic-virus-for-peptide-display
#11
Juliane Röder, Rainer Fischer, Ulrich Commandeur
Plant viruses are suitable as building blocks for nanomaterials and nanoparticles because they are easy to modify and can be expressed and purified using plants or heterologous expression systems. Plant virus nanoparticles have been utilized for epitope presentation in vaccines, for drug delivery, as nanospheres and nanowires, and for biomedical imaging applications. Fluorescent protein fusions have been instrumental for the tagging of plant virus particles. The monomeric non-oxygen-dependent fluorescent protein iLOV can be used as an alternative to green fluorescent protein...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702034/cardr1-an-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-plays-a-positive-role-in-pepper-resistance-against-tmv
#12
Lei Qin, Ning Mo, Yang Zhang, Tayeb Muhammad, Guiye Zhao, Yan Zhang, Yan Liang
RNA silencing functions as a major natural antiviral defense mechanism in plants. RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) that catalyze the synthesis of double-stranded RNAs, are considered as a fundamental element in RNA silencing pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RDR1, 2 and 6 play important roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. Expression of RDR1 can be elevated following plant treatment with defense hormones and virus infection. RDR1 has been studied in several crop species, but not in pepper (Capsicum annuum L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698170/content-analysis-of-smartphone-apps-for-smoking-cessation-in-china-empirical-study
#13
Feng Cheng, Junfang Xu, Chunyan Su, Xiaoxing Fu, Jonathan Bricker
BACKGROUND: With 360 million smokers, China consumes more cigarettes than any other country in the world. Given that 620 million Chinese own smartphones, smartphone apps for smoking cessation are increasingly used in China to help smokers quit. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed and evaluated the contents of all smoking cessation apps (iOS and Android) available in China, applying the China Clinical Smoking Cessation Guideline (CCSCG; identical to the US Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence) as a framework for analysis...
July 11, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691155/construction-of-a-novel-synthetic-root-specific-promoter-and-its-characterization-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants
#14
Chakravarthi Mohan, Ashwin Narayan Jayanarayanan, Subramonian Narayanan
Synthetic promoter technology offers a framework for designing expression cassettes that could provide precise control of transgene expression. Such artificially designed promoters enable defined transgene regulation, reduce unwanted background expression, and can overcome homology-dependent gene silencing in transgenic plants. In the present study, a synthetic root-specific module was designed using characterized cis-acting elements, fused with minimal promoter (86 bp) from PortUbi882 promoter, and cloned in pCAMBIA1305...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687734/hpab-dependent-secretion-of-type-iii-effectors-in-the-plant-pathogens-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria
#15
Fabien Lonjon, David Lohou, Anne-Claire Cazalé, Daniela Büttner, Barbara Gomes Ribeiro, Claire Péanne, Stéphane Genin, Fabienne Vailleau
Plant pathogenic bacteria exerts their pathogenicity through the injection of large repertoires of type III effectors (T3Es) into plant cells, a mechanism controlled in part by type III chaperones (T3Cs). In Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, little is known about the control of type III secretion at the post-translational level. Here, we provide evidence that the HpaB and HpaD proteins do act as bona fide R. solanacearum class IB chaperones that associate with several T3Es. Both proteins can dimerize but do not interact with each other...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686840/carboxylate-counter-anions-in-electronic-cigarette-liquids-influence-on-nicotine-emissions
#16
Ahmad El Hellani, Rachel El-Hage, Rola Salman, Soha Talih, Alan Shihadeh, Najat Aoun Saliba
The wide pH range reported for electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids indicates that nicotine may be present in one or more chemical forms. The nicotine form affects the bioavailability and delivery of nicotine from inhaled products. Protonated nicotine are normally associated with counter anions in tobacco products. The chemical and physical properties of counter anions may differently influence the nicotine form and emissions in ECIG aerosols. In this study, we examined how these anions influence nicotine emissions as well as their evaporation behavior and potential decomposition during ECIG operation...
July 7, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683421/nicotine-biomarkers-and-rate-of-nicotine-metabolism-among-cigarette-smokers-taking-buprenorphine-for-opioid-dependency
#17
Noah R Gubner, Joseph Guydish, Gary L Humfleet, Neal L Benowitz, Sharon M Hall
BACKGROUND: Individual differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism contribute to differences in tobacco use, dependence, and efficacy of smoking cessation treatments and can be assessed using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker for CYP2A6 activity. Despite the high cigarette smoking rates observed in opioid users, no data have been reported on NMR among this population as they has been largely excluded from previous studies that have examined the relationship between tobacco use characteristics and rate of nicotine metabolism...
June 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683215/monitoring-lung-cancer-screening-utilization-and-outcomes-in-four-cancer-research-network-sites
#18
Michael K Gould, Lori C Sakoda, Debra P Ritzwoller, Michael J Simoff, Christine M Neslund-Dudas, Lawrence H Kushi, Lisa Carter-Harris, Heather Spencer Feigelson, George Minowada, V Paul Doria-Rose
RATIONALE: Lung cancer screening registries can monitor screening outcomes and improve quality of care. OBJECTIVES: To describe nascent lung cancer screening programs and share efficient data collection approaches for mandatory registry reporting in four integrated health care systems of the NCI-funded Cancer Research Network. METHODS: We documented the distinctive characteristics of lung cancer screening programs, provided examples of strategies to facilitate data collection, and described early challenges and possible solutions...
July 6, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682101/premenstrual-symptoms-and-factors-implicated-in-smoking-cessation-among-woman-smokers
#19
Raina D Pang, Nafeesa Andrabi, Adam M Leventhal
Premenstrual symptoms (PMS) may reduce smoking cessation success. Yet, little is known about the factors that may impact smoking cessation among women with elevated PMS, leaving little data to guide smoking cessation science and practice for this population. This cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data from laboratory studies focused on menstrual cycle effects and smoking. Premenopausal woman daily smokers (n = 157) completed self-report measures of tobacco dependence and other cessation-relevant factors (i...
July 6, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681280/elevated-nicotine-dependence-scores-among-electronic-cigarette-users-at-an-electronic-cigarette-convention
#20
Jona M Johnson, Jessica L Muilenburg, Stephen L Rathbun, Xiaozhong Yu, Luke P Naeher, Jia-Sheng Wang
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) conventions are trade shows held across the globe to promote e-cigarette products and provide a venue for users to socialize. E-cigarette users that attend these events likely represent the most intensive e-cigarette user group. No study has characterized addiction and behavior characteristics in this population. We surveyed 131 e-cigarette users attending a large Southeastern e-cigarette convention in Fall 2015. All questions from the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), select questions from the Penn State Electronic Cigarette Dependence Index, and novel user behavior questions were included...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Community Health
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