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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429400/the-circadian-clock-component-lhy-tells-a-plant-when-to-respond-photosynthetically-to-light-in-nature
#1
Youngsung Joo, Variluska Fragoso, Felipe Yon, Ian T Baldwin, Sang-Gyu Kim
The circadian clock is known to increase plant growth and fitness, and thought to prepare plants for photosynthesis at dawn and dusk; whether this happens in nature was unknown. We transformed the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata to silence two core clock components, NaLHY (irLHY) and NaTOC1 (irTOC1). We characterized growth and light-and dark-adapted photosynthetic rates (Ac ) throughout a 24 h day in empty vector-transformed (EV), irLHY, and irTOC1 plants in the field, and in NaPhyA-and NaPhyB1-silenced plants in the glasshouse...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429068/nicotine-deprivation-elevates-neural-representation-of-smoking-related-cues-in-object-sensitive-visual-cortex-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
Anne Havermans, Onno C P van Schayck, Eric F P M Vuurman, Wim J Riedel, Job van den Hurk
OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate whether tobacco addiction biases basic visual processing in favour of smoking-related images. We hypothesize that the neural representation of smoking-related stimuli in the lateral occipital complex (LOC) is elevated after a period of nicotine deprivation compared to a satiated state, but that this is not the case for object categories unrelated to smoking...
April 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426638/decreased-central-nervous-system-grey-matter-volume-gmv-in-smokers-affects-cognitive-abilities-a-systematic-review
#3
Martina Vňuková, Radek Ptáček, Jiří Raboch, George B Stefano
Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality, tobacco is consumed by approximately 22% of the adult population worldwide. Smoking is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affects brain processing, and is a recognized risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Tobacco toxins (e.g., nicotine at high levels) inhaled in smoke may cause disorders resulting in preclinical brain changes. Researchers suggest that there are differences in brain volume between smokers and non-smokers. This review examines these differences in brain grey matter volume (GMV)...
April 20, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424592/new-implications-for-the-melanocortin-system-in-alcohol-drinking-behavior-in-adolescents-the-glial-dysfunction-hypothesis
#4
Juan A Orellana, Waldo Cerpa, Maria F Carvajal, José M Lerma-Cabrera, Eduardo Karahanian, Cesar Osorio-Fuentealba, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
Alcohol dependence causes physical, social, and moral harms and currently represents an important public health concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcoholism is the third leading cause of death worldwide, after tobacco consumption and hypertension. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a growing trend in alcohol abuse among adolescents, characterized by the consumption of large doses of alcohol over a short time period. Since brain development is an ongoing process during adolescence, short- and long-term brain damage associated with drinking behavior could lead to serious consequences for health and wellbeing...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418068/recombinant-overexpression-of-dihydroneopterin-aldolase-catalyst-potentially-regulates-folate-biofortification
#5
Dhananjay K Pandey, Atul Kumar, Jitendra S Rathore, Nagendra Singh, Bhupendra Chaudhary
We aim to investigate the prospects of increased production of folate through the overexpression of heterologous dihydroneopterin aldolase catalyst. The gene encoding aldolase catalyst was cloned into an expression vector and the induced recombinant protein was purified through metal-affinity chromatography which appeared at 14 kDa position on polyacrylamide-gel. Remarkably, a periodic increase in the extracellular and intracellular folic acid concentration was observed at 4 h growth of induced recombinant DHNA samples than control in a pH-dependent manner...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418019/live-imaging-of-h3k9-acetylation-in-plant-cells
#6
Kazuki Kurita, Takuya Sakamoto, Noriyoshi Yagi, Yuki Sakamoto, Akihiro Ito, Norikazu Nishino, Kaori Sako, Minoru Yoshida, Hiroshi Kimura, Motoaki Seki, Sachihiro Matsunaga
Proper regulation of histone acetylation is important in development and cellular responses to environmental stimuli. However, the dynamics of histone acetylation at the single-cell level remains poorly understood. Here we established a transgenic plant cell line to track histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) with a modification-specific intracellular antibody (mintbody). The H3K9ac-specific mintbody fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (H3K9ac-mintbody-GFP) was introduced into tobacco BY-2 cells...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412653/the-relationship-between-dioxins-exposure-and-risk-of-prostate-cancer-with-steroid-hormone-and-age-in-vietnamese-men
#7
Xian Liang Sun, Teruhiko Kido, Seijiro Honma, Eitetsu Koh, Rie Okamoto, Ho Dung Manh, Shoko Maruzeni, Muneko Nishijo, Hideaki Nakagawa, Takeshi Nakano, Takumi Takasuga, Dang Duc Nhu, Nguyen Ngoc Hung, Le Ke Son
Although Vietnam's massive herbicide exposure in 1960s and 1970s was clearly injurious to health, not all causal relationships have been clarified. We therefore explored associations among dioxins, steroid hormones, age and prostate cancer risk in men. We compared serum levels of dioxin, steroid hormones and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in men aged 56-81years from herbicide-exposed hotspots (n=50) with those from non-sprayed regions (n=48). Mean serum levels of dioxin congeners in the hotspot group were 1...
April 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409128/the-use-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-bmp-and-pseudarthrosis-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Oberdan Ribeiro Gonçalves de Oliveira, Saul Pinheiro Rebouças Martins, Wyvison Gomes de Lima, Marília Maia Gomes
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are multi-functional growth factors to promote bone healing with the proposal of less morbidity compared to the usual methods of bone graft harvest. Pseudoarthrosis occur when the fusion attempt fails, a solid fusion is not achieved, or there is motion across the segment leading to it, and it can be clinically symptomatic as pain, deformity, neurocompression, or hardware failure. BMPs are used at spinal fusion as a tool for the treatment of degenerative, traumatic, neoplastic and infectious conditions of the spine...
March 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403319/assessment-of-factors-related-to-smokers-adherence-to-a-short-term-support-group-for-smoking-cessation-a-longitudinal-study-in-a-developing-country
#9
Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros, Maristela Ferigolo, Denise Conceição Mesquita Dantas
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine which individual characteristics of smokers are associated with their adherence to a support group for smoking cessation. Methods: Smokers from Porto Alegre, Brazil, were invited to participate in a support group for smoking cessation consisting of four weekly sessions. Demographic data, smoking history, presence of tobacco-related diseases, severity of nicotine dependence, stage of motivation, and symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated at baseline...
January 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401732/responses-of-neonicotinoid-resistant-and-susceptible-frankliniella-fusca-life-stages-to-multiple-insecticide-groups-in-cotton
#10
Anders S Huseth, Damon A D'Ambrosio, George G Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Detection of neonicotinoid resistance in populations of tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds, throughout the Southeastern US has motivated an examination of alternative insecticides to control problematic infestations on seedling cotton. The objective of this study was to refine understanding of stage-specific mortality and reduced oviposition of several common insecticides (acephate, abamectin, cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, imidacloprid, imidacloprid + thiodicarb, thiamethoxam) on neonicotinoid-resistant and susceptible F...
April 12, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399944/prospective-association-between-tobacco-smoking-and-death-by-suicide-a-competing-risks-hazard-analysis-in-a-large-twin-cohort-with-35-year-follow-up
#11
A E Evins, T Korhonen, T H Kinnunen, J Kaprio
BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking and suicide remains controversial. METHOD: A total of 16 282 twin pairs born before 1958 in Finland and alive in 1974 were queried with detailed health and smoking questionnaires in 1975 and 1981, with response rates of 89% and 84%. Smoking status and dose, marital, employment, and socio-economic status, and indicators of psychiatric and somatic illness were assessed at both time points. Emergent psychiatric and medical illness and vital status, including suicide determined by forensic autopsy, were evaluated over 35-year follow-up through government registries...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397160/implementation-of-a-tobacco-free-workplace-program-at-a-local-mental-health-authority
#12
Virmarie Correa-Fernández, William T Wilson, Deborah A Shedrick, Bryce Kyburz, Hannah L Samaha, Timothy Stacey, Teresa Williams, Cho Y Lam, Lorraine R Reitzel
Tobacco-free workplace policies that incorporate evidence-based practices can increase the reach and effectiveness of tobacco dependence treatment among underserved populations but may be underutilized due to limited knowledge about implementation processes. This paper describes the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco-free workplace program at a behavioral healthcare community center in Texas. The center participated in a tobacco-free workplace program implementation project that provided guidance and resources and allowed center autonomy in implementation...
April 10, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395145/socio-economic-costs-of-indoor-air-pollution-a-tentative-estimation-for-some-pollutants-of-health-interest-in-france
#13
Guillaume Boulanger, Thomas Bayeux, Corinne Mandin, Séverine Kirchner, Benoit Vergriette, Valérie Pernelet-Joly, Pierre Kopp
An evaluation of the socio-economic costs of indoor air pollution can facilitate the development of appropriate public policies. For the first time in France, such an evaluation was conducted for six selected pollutants: benzene, trichloroethylene, radon, carbon monoxide, particles (PM2.5 fraction), and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The health impacts of indoor exposure were either already available in published works or were calculated. For these calculations, two approaches were followed depending on the available data: the first followed the principles of quantitative health risk assessment, and the second was based on concepts and methods related to the health impact assessment...
April 7, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393896/effects-of-ibudilast-on-the-subjective-reinforcing-and-analgesic-effects-of-oxycodone-in-recently-detoxified-adults-with-opioid-dependence
#14
Verena E Metz, Jermaine D Jones, Jeanne Manubay, Maria Sullivan, Shanthi Mogali, Andrew Segoshi, Gabriela Madera, Kirk W Johnson, Sandra D Comer
Ibudilast, a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, is used clinically in Asia for the treatment of asthma and post-stroke dizziness. Recent preclinical studies have suggested that it also inhibits glial cell activation in rodents, and may alter opioid-mediated effects, including analgesia and withdrawal symptoms. The effects of ibudilast on the abuse potential of opioids in humans are largely unknown. The present study was designed to examine the influence of ibudilast on subjective (including drug craving), reinforcing, and analgesic effects of oxycodone in human volunteers diagnosed with opioid dependence (equivalent to moderate-severe opioid use disorder)...
April 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393367/increasing-popularity-of-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking-and-electronic-cigarette-use-implications-for-oral-healthcare
#15
REVIEW
C P Ramôa, T Eissenberg, S E Sahingur
Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing several systemic conditions including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Cigarette smoking is also detrimental to oral health as it increases the incidence and severity of oral cancer, periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis, as well as impacting negatively on the dental patients' response to therapy. Therefore, consideration of smoking behavior and recommendation of smoking cessation are important parts of dental treatment planning. However, cigarettes are no longer the most popular form of tobacco use among adolescents in the United States and globally...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392911/early-childhood-risk-factors-for-rhinoconjunctivitis-in-adolescence-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#16
Elisabeth Soegaard Christiansen, Henrik Fomsgaard Kjaer, Esben Eller, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Arne Høst, Charlotte Gotthard Mortz, Susanne Halken
BACKGROUND: Rhinoconjunctivitis is a global health problem and one of the most common chronic conditions in children. Development of rhinoconjunctivitis depends on both genetic and environmental factors. Many studies have investigated rhinoconjunctivitis, but only few studies have evaluated the risk factors for non-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children finding family history of atopic diseases and gender to be of importance. The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors in early life for rhinoconjunctivitis, allergic as well as non-allergic, in adolescence...
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391086/adolescent-smoking-experimentation-as-a-predictor-of-daily-cigarette-smoking
#17
James D Sargent, Joy Gabrielli, Alan Budney, Samir Soneji, Thomas A Wills
OBJECTIVE: The utility of studying substance use during early adolescence depends on how well indicies of lower-level experimentation predict the development of substance use problems. We examined associations between experimental cigarette use at T1, recanting of use 8 months later (T2), and daily smoking at 2 years (T4). METHODS: Longitudinal telephone survey of 6522 US youth aged 10-14, examining lifetime cigarette smoking (none, just puffing, 1-19, 20-100, >100) and recanting (i...
March 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389330/a-comparison-of-nicotine-dependence-among-exclusive-e-cigarette-and-cigarette-users-in-the-path-study
#18
Guodong Liu, Emily Wasserman, Lan Kong, Jonathan Foulds
Electronic cigarettes ("e-cigs") have recently gained in popularity, but their health risks, including dependence potential are unclear. This study analyzed the adult database from the Wave 1 Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative survey of tobacco use in the United States, to assess the relative level of dependence among adult, exclusive everyday users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. Of the total 32,320 observations from the Wave 1 PATH adult database, 3586 (5...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387864/psychometric-properties-of-fagerstr%C3%A3-m-test-for-nicotine-dependence-for-smokeless-tobacco-users-ftnd-st
#19
Nasir Mushtaq, Laura Beebe
Introduction: Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is the most commonly used measure of dependence among tobacco users. Psychometric properties of FTND have been validated among cigarette smokers, but the reliability and validity of its variant for smokeless tobacco (ST) users (FTND-ST) is not well documented. The objective of the present study is to evaluate reliability, construct validity, and structure model of FTND-ST. Methods: Data from 95 exclusive ST users living in Oklahoma were used for this study...
April 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383757/prenatal-and-adult-androgen-activities-in-alcohol-dependence
#20
B Lenz, C Mühle, B Braun, C Weinland, P Bouna-Pyrrou, J Behrens, S Kubis, K Mikolaiczik, M-R Muschler, S Saigali, M Sibach, P Tanovska, S E Huber, U Hoppe, A Eichler, H Heinrich, G H Moll, A Engel, T W Goecke, M W Beckmann, P A Fasching, C P Müller, J Kornhuber
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol dependence is more prevalent in men than in women. The evidence for how prenatal and adult androgens influence alcohol dependence is limited. We investigated the effects of prenatal and adult androgen activity on alcohol dependence. Moreover, we studied how the behaviours of pregnant women affect their children's prenatal androgen load. METHOD: We quantified prenatal androgen markers (e.g., second-to-fourth finger length ratio [2D : 4D]) and blood androgens in 200 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent in-patients and 240 controls (2013-2015, including a 12-month follow-up)...
April 6, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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