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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918457/effects-of-menthol-and-its-interaction-with-nicotine-conditioned-cue-on-nicotine-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#1
Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Ramachandram Avusula, Meiyu Zhang, Yongzhen Gong, Xiu Liu
RATIONALE: Increasing clinical evidence suggests that menthol, a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products, may contribute to smoking and nicotine dependence. Relapse to smoking behavior presents a formidable challenge for the treatment of tobacco addiction. An unresolved issue is whether the mentholation of tobacco products precipitates relapse to tobacco use in abstinent smokers. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effects of menthol on the perseverance and relapse of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats...
September 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912054/effectiveness-of-pharmacist-interventions-on-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-ckd-a-subgroup-analysis-of-the-randomized-controlled-rxeach-trial
#2
Yazid N Al Hamarneh, Ross T Tsuyuki, Charlotte A Jones, Braden Manns, Marcello Tonelli, Nairne Scott-Douglass, Kailash Jindal, Wendy Tink, Brenda R Hemmelgarn
BACKGROUND: Affecting a substantial proportion of adults, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. It has been reported that patients with CKD are underserved when it comes to CV risk reduction efforts. STUDY DESIGN: Prespecified subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults with CKD and at least 1 uncontrolled CV risk factor were enrolled from 56 pharmacies across Alberta, Canada...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910702/respiratory-atp-cost-and-benefit-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-with-nicotiana-tabacum-at-different-growth-stages-and-under-salinity
#3
Néstor Fernández Del-Saz, Antonia Romero-Munar, David Alonso, Ricardo Aroca, Elena Baraza, Jaume Flexas, Miquel Ribas-Carbo
Growth and maintenance partly depend on both respiration and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation in leaves. Under stress, ATP is needed to maintain the accumulated biomass. ATP production mostly proceeds from the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP), while respiration via the alternative oxidase pathway (AOP) may decrease the production of ATP per oxygen consumed, especially under phosphorus (P) limitation and salinity conditions. Symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is reputed by their positive effect on plant growth under stress at mature stages of colonization; however, fungal colonization may decrease plant growth at early stages...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910185/examining-the-effects-of-art-therapy-on-reoccurring-tobacco-use-in-a-taiwanese-youth-population-a-mixed-method-study
#4
Rei-Mei Hong, Su-Er Guo, Chun-Sheng Huang, Cheng Yin
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a primary risk factor affecting mental and physical health worldwide. Many chronic diseases are closely related to smoking. Adolescents in Taiwan are increasingly using tobacco, especially in rural areas. OBJECTIVES: This research project used a mixed-method study to examine the effects of art therapy on smoking cessation in rural Taiwanese youth smokers. METHODS: Participants from years 10-11, were drawn from three senior high schools in Taiwan...
September 14, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910178/interpersonal-and-intrapersonal-differences-among-adolescent-nonsmokers-ex-smokers-and-smokers
#5
Salvatore Ioverno, Roberto Baiocco, Fiorenzo Laghi, Valeria Verrastro, Carmen Odorifero, Marcella Dittrich
BACKGROUND: A large body of research has traced tobacco dependence among adolescents to a series of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors. However, there are remaining questions regarding the differences on these factors related to tobacco use. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate intrapersonal and interpersonal differences among adolescent nonsmokers, ex-smokers, and smokers. METHODS: We used data from a 3-year project designed to investigate and address tobacco dependence among 1071 students (Mage = 15...
September 14, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905874/ovarian-hormones-and-transdermal-nicotine-administration-independently-and-synergistically-suppress-tobacco-withdrawal-symptoms-and-smoking-reinstatement-in-the-human-laboratory
#6
Raina D Pang, Madalyn M Liautaud, Matthew G Kirkpatrick, Jimi Huh, John Monterosso, Adam M Leventhal
Modeling intra-individual fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone may provide unique insight into the effects of ovarian hormones on the etiology and treatment of nicotine dependence. This randomized placebo-controlled laboratory study tested the independent and interactive effects of intra-individual ovarian hormone variation and nicotine on suppression of tobacco withdrawal symptoms and smoking behavior. Female smokers randomized to 21 mg. nicotine (TNP; n=37) or placebo (PBO; n=43) transdermal patch following overnight abstinence completed three sessions occurring during hormonally distinct menstrual cycle phases...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900078/-polymorphic-variants-of-glutamate-receptor-grik5-grin2b-and-serotonin-receptor-htr2a-genes-are-associated-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
G F Korytina, L Z Akhmadishina, O V Kochetova, Y G Aznabaeva, Sh Z Zagidullin, T V Victorova
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory system that affects primarily distal respiratory pathways and lung parenchyma. Smoking tobacco is a major risk factor for COPD. The relationship of HTR4 (rs3995090), HTR2A (rs6313), GRIK5 (rs8099939), GRIN2B (rs2268132), and CHRNB4 (rs1948) gene polymorphisms and COPD, as well as the contribution of these polymorphisms to the variations in quantitative characteristics that describe respiratory function, smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence was assessed in an ethnically homogeneous Tatar population...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898403/healthcare-financing-systems-for-increasing-the-use-of-tobacco-dependence-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Floor A van den Brand, Gera E Nagelhout, Ayalu A Reda, Bjorn Winkens, Silvia M A A Evers, Daniel Kotz, Onno Cp van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, which makes it essential to stimulate smoking cessation. The financial cost of smoking cessation treatment can act as a barrier to those seeking support. We hypothesised that provision of financial assistance for people trying to quit smoking, or reimbursement of their care providers, could lead to an increased rate of successful quit attempts. This is an update of the original 2005 review. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to assess the impact of reducing the costs for tobacco smokers or healthcare providers for using or providing smoking cessation treatment through healthcare financing interventions on abstinence from smoking...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898302/-belief-system-regarding-cannabis-its-use-and-consequences-users-versus-non-users-in-colombian-university-students
#9
Gonzalo Galván, Álvaro Sánchez-Carballo, Ileana Gómez-Morales, Oscar Humánez-Julio, Manuel Guerrero-Martelo, Francisco Vásquez De la Hoz
Descriptive and comparative study of cross-sectional that had as objective to evaluate and compare the beliefs about cannabis, its use and potential consequences between two groups of Colombian university students, matched by gender and age. The frst group consisted of ordinary consumers of cannabis (n=35) the second group consisted of students that have never tried cannabis (n=35). The results showed that the group of consumers presents a moderate risk of abuse and only the 20% fulflled dependence criteria...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895153/characterization-of-an-antimicrobial-and-phytotoxic-ribonuclease-secreted-by-the-fungal-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#10
Graeme J Kettles, Carlos Bayon, Caroline A Sparks, Gail Canning, Kostya Kanyuka, Jason J Rudd
The fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) disease of wheat leaves. Zymoseptoria tritici secretes many functionally uncharacterized effector proteins during infection. Here, we characterized a secreted ribonuclease (Zt6) with an unusual biphasic expression pattern. Transient expression systems were used to characterize Zt6, and mutants thereof, in both host and non-host plants. Cell-free protein expression systems monitored the impact of Zt6 protein on functional ribosomes, and in vitro assays of cells treated with recombinant Zt6 determined toxicity against bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi...
September 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893086/older-african-american-homeless-experienced-smokers-attitudes-toward-tobacco-control-policies-results-from-the-hope-home-study
#11
Maya Vijayaraghavan, Pamela Olsen, John Weeks, Karma McKelvey, Claudia Ponath, Margot Kushel
PURPOSE: To examine attitudes toward tobacco control policies among older African American homeless-experienced smokers. APPROACH: A qualitative study. SETTING: Oakland, California. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two African American older homeless-experienced smokers who were part of a longitudinal study on health and health-related outcomes (Health Outcomes of People Experiencing Homelessness in Older Middle Age Study). METHOD: We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with each participant to explore beliefs and attitudes toward tobacco use and cessation, barriers to smoking cessation, and attitudes toward current tobacco control strategies including raising cigarette prices, smoke-free policies, and graphic warning labels...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893039/risk-of-psychiatric-morbidity-in-patients-with-tobacco-habits-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Amita Aditya, Apoorva Kaluskar, Shretika Pandya, Vineet Vinay, Akshay Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco cessation is a challenging arena for healthcare professionals. Many patients seem to be unable to quit tobacco despite of knowing its ill-effects and several efforts. It has been speculated that patients' psychosocial status may be associated with his/her dependence on tobacco and there could be some amount of psychiatric morbidity associated with chronic and compulsive use of tobacco. However, very few studies have been conducted to explore this aspect of tobacco dependence...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890649/recent-alcohol-tobacco-and-substance-use-variations-between-rural-and-urban-middle-and-high-school-students
#13
Jacob C Warren, K Bryant Smalley, K Nikki Barefoot
The use of addictive substances by adolescents is a major public health concern; however, rural vs. urban variations are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in the prevalence of recent use of 11 substances in grades 6-12 in a statewide sample of students from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (n = 513,909). We found that rural-urban differences in substance use depend largely upon grade level, with rural middle school students demonstrating higher rates of alcohol, smoking tobacco, and chewing tobacco use, and urban high school students demonstrating higher rates of illicit drugs...
2017: Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890062/national-utilization-and-outcomes-of-redo-lower-extremity-bypass-vs-endovascular-intervention-after-previous-failed-bypass-redo-lower-extremity-bypass-superior-to-endovascular-intervention
#14
J Hunter Mehaffey, Alexander Shannon, Robert B Hawkins, Anna Fashandi, Margret C Tracci, Irving L Kron, Gilbert R Upchurch, William P Robinson
BACKGROUND: Redo Lower extremity bypass (LEB) and infrainguinal endovascular intervention (IEI) are options to treat critical limb ischemia after a failed prior lower extremity bypass but the utilization and outcomes of each are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to compare 30-day Major Adverse Limb Events (MALE) and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE) after LEB and IEI in patients with a failed prior ipsilateral LEB and determine risk factors for each composite outcome...
September 7, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889345/knowledge-about-the-relation-between-tobacco-and-disease-and-the-attitude-toward-advising-the-cessation-of-its-consumption-among-a-group-of-spanish-dental-students
#15
Alejandro Ismael Lorenzo-Pouso, Mario Pérez-Sayáns, Daniel Pérez-López, Eva María Otero-Rey, Abel García-García, Andrés Blanco-Carrión
Tobacco is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the developed world. Smoking is associated with a large number of oral pathologies, such as cancer and periodontitis. Dental professionals can play a key role in preventing these health problems. The objectives of this study were (1) to analyze tobacco consumption habits among a group of Spanish dental students, and (2) to assess their knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes regarding procedures to help patients quit smoking. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry of Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, Spain)...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888160/nicotiana-benthamiana-matrix-metalloprotease-1-nmmp1-gene-confers-disease-resistance-to-phytophthora-infestans-in-tobacco-and-potato-plants
#16
Jang Ho Ha, Hyun A Jang, Ki-Beom Moon, Kwang Hyun Baek, Gyung Ja Choi, Doil Choi, Hye Sun Cho, Suk Yun Kwon, Jae-Heung Jeon, Sang-Keun Oh, Hyun-Soon Kim
We previously isolated Nicotiana benthamiana matrix metalloprotease 1 (NMMP1) from tobacco leaves. The NMMP1 gene encodes a highly conserved, Zn-containing catalytic protease domain that functions as a factor in the plant's defense against bacterial pathogens. Expression of NMMP1 was strongly induced during interactions between tobacco and one of its pathogens, Phytophthora infestans. To elucidate the role of the NMMP1 in defense of N. benthamiana against fungal pathogens, we performed gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884126/the-influence-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-on-the-copper-concentration-in-the-serum-depending-on-the-use-of-menopausal-hormone-therapy
#17
Maria Jasińska-Starczewska, Iwona Szydłowska, Bożena Mroczek, Maria Laszczyńska, Dariusz Chlubek, Ewa Kemicer-Chmielewska, Kornel Chełstowski, Beata Karakiewicz, Sylwester Ciećwież, Andrzej Starczewski
This study evaluated the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on serum concentration of copper in postmenopausal women depending on passive or active exposure to tobacco smoke or lack thereof. The study included healthy postmenopausal women aged 42-69 years, who used (n = 76) or did not use (n = 76) MHT. Salivary cotinine and serum copper concentrations were determined in all the study subjects. Salivary cotinine exceeded 14 ng/ml in 14 women from the MHT group (18.5%) and in 16 controls (21.1%). Up to 41 (27%) study subjects had serum copper above the upper normal limit (1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883244/the-association-between-tobacco-smoke-and-serum-immunoglobulin-e-levels-in-korean-adults
#18
Young Soo Kim, Hee Yeon Kim, Hyo-Suk Ahn, Tae Seo Sohn, Jae Yen Song, Young Bok Lee, Dong-Hee Lee, Jae-Im Lee, Seong Cheol Jeong, Hiun Suk Chae, Kyungdo Han, Chang Dong Yeo
Objective Smoking is common in patients with allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional association between the current smoking status and total and specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in Korean adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national cross-sectional study. We analyzed the data of subjects whose smoking status and serum IgE levels were of acceptable quality. Results A total of 1,963 subjects (1,118 never smokers, 340 ex-smokers, and 505 current smokers) were included...
September 6, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882123/electronic-cigarette-use-behaviors-and-motivations-among-smokers-and-non-smokers
#19
Thomas E Sussan, Fatima G Shahzad, Eefa Tabassum, Joanna E Cohen, Robert A Wise, Michael J Blaha, Janet T Holbrook, Shyam Biswal
BACKGROUND: The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs...
September 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878967/resisting-the-urge-to-smoke-inhibitory-control-training-in-cigarette-smokers
#20
Sally Adams, Claire Mokrysz, Angela S Attwood, Marcus R Munafò
Impaired response inhibition is an important factor in tobacco dependence. We examined the effects of inhibitory control training (ICT) on inhibition, smoking resistance and cigarette use. Smokers (n = 55) abstained from smoking for 12 h prior to testing. On the test day, participants recorded cigarette use and completed pre-training measures of global and cue-specific (smoking-related) response inhibition. Participants were randomized to either an active or a control ICT group. The active group was required to repeatedly inhibit a response towards smoking cues (100%), while the control group was required to inhibit a response towards smoking and neutral cues with equal frequency (50%)...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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