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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330900/overexpression-of-microrna408-enhances-photosynthesis-growth-and-seed-yield-in-diverse-plants
#1
Jiawei Pan, Dahui Huang, Zhonglong Guo, Zheng Kuang, He Zhang, Xinyu Xie, Zengfeng Ma, Shaopei Gao, Manuel T Lerdau, Chengcai Chu, Lei Li
The ability of a plant to produce grain, fruit, or forage depends ultimately on photosynthesis. There have been few attempts, however, to study microRNAs, which are a class of endogenous small RNAs post-transcriptionally programming gene expression, in relation to photosynthetic traits. We focused on miR408, one of the most conserved plant miRNAs, and overexpressed it in parallel in Arabidopsis, tobacco, and rice. The transgenic plants all exhibited increased copper content in the chloroplast, elevated abundance of plastocyanin, and an induction of photosynthetic genes...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330845/the-association-between-smoking-and-cancer-incidence-in-brca1-and-brca2-mutation-carriers
#2
Kwang-Pil Ko, Shana J Kim, Tomasz Huzarski, Jacek Gronwald, Jan Lubinski, Henry T Lynch, Susan Armel, Sue K Park, Beth Karlan, Christian F Singer, Susan L Neuhausen, Steven A Narod, Joanne Kotsopoulos
Tobacco smoke is an established carcinogen, but the association between tobacco smoking and cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the association between tobacco smoking and cancer incidence in a cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. The study population consisted of unaffected BRCA mutation carriers. Information on lifestyle including smoking histories, reproductive factors, and past medical histories was obtained through questionnaires...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329763/efficacy-and-safety-of-varenicline-for-smoking-cessation-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-france-anrs-144-inter-activ-a-randomised-controlled-phase-3-clinical-trial
#3
Patrick Mercié, Julie Arsandaux, Christine Katlama, Samuel Ferret, Aurélie Beuscart, Christian Spadone, Claudine Duvivier, Jacques Reynes, Nathalie Wirth, Laetitia Moinot, Antoine Bénard, David Zucman, Xavier Duval, Jean-Michel Molina, Bruno Spire, Catherine Fagard, Geneviève Chêne
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is common in people living with HIV, but high-quality evidence on interventions for smoking cessation is not available in this population. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of varenicline with counselling to aid smoking cessation in people living with HIV. METHODS: The ANRS 144 Inter-ACTIV randomised, parallel, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial was done at 30 clinical hospital sites in France. People living with HIV who had smoked at least ten cigarettes per day for 1 year or longer, were motivated to stop smoking, were not dependent on another psychoactive substance, and had no history of depression or suicide attempt were eligible...
January 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327524/uttar-pradesh-association-of-physicians-of-india-position-statement-tobacco-use-and-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Sanjay Kalra, Sarita Bajaj, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, D Himanshu, Veerendra Atam, Kauser Usman, Veerendra Singh, Shyam Chand Chaudhary, S Chakravorty, Anupam Wakhlu, Jalees Fatma, Sanjay Tandon, Anuj Maheshwari, Abha Gupta, Anjum Parvez, Jaya Chakravarty, R R Chaudhary, A K Singh, K K Sawlani, Manoj Mathur, N K Soni, Om Kumari Gupta, Madhukar Rai, Sudhir Agarwal
Tobacco use is one of the main preventable causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The global disease burden due to tobacco use is huge with projected mortality of eight million lives per year by 2030. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as a constellation of cardiovascular and endocrine risk factors such as insulin resistance, obesity, raised blood pressure, and abnormal lipid profile. The relationship between tobacco use and MS has been well established. Also, the causal association between tobacco use and development of individual components of MS is well established...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324248/varenicline-for-tobacco-dependence-treatment-in-alcohol-dependent-smokers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ryan T Hurt, Jon O Ebbert, Ivana T Croghan, Darrell R Schroeder, Richard D Hurt, J Taylor Hays
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is prevalent among persons with alcohol abuse and dependence. Varenicline has been shown to be the most effective pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation and may decrease alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of varenicline for increasing smoking abstinence rates in smokers with alcohol abuse or dependence. METHODS: Participants were eligible for enrollment if they were 18 years or older, smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day for at least 6 months, had current alcohol abuse or dependence, and were interested in quitting smoking...
January 2, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321619/ultraviolet-b-enhances-the-resistance-of-multiple-plant-species-to-lepidopteran-insect-herbivory-through-the-jasmonic-acid-pathway
#6
Jinfeng Qi, Mou Zhang, Chengkai Lu, Christian Hettenhausen, Qing Tan, Guoyan Cao, Xudong Zhu, Guoxing Wu, Jianqiang Wu
Land plants protect themselves from ultraviolet-B (UV-B) by accumulating UV-absorbing metabolites, which may also function as anti-insect toxins. Previous studies have shown that UV-B enhances the resistance of different plant species to pierce-sucking pests; however, whether and how UV-B influences plant defense against chewing caterpillars are not well understood. Here we show that UV-B treatment increased Spodoptera litura herbivory-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production in Arabidopsis and thereby Arabidopsis exhibited elevated resistance to S...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320344/a-profile-of-individuals-with-anti-tobacco-message-fatigue
#7
Jiyeon So, Lucy Popova
OBJECTIVES: Message fatigue, a phenomenon of being tired of repeated exposure to messages promoting the same health behavior, may reduce the effectiveness of anti-tobacco messages, such as warning labels. As an initial step towards understanding the phenomenon, we examined predictors of anti-tobacco message fatigue. METHODS: An online study (N = 1838) involving a non-probability sample of nonsmokers and smokers in the United States assessed anti-tobacco message fatigue and individual-level factors including demographic variables and smoking status...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319815/chemical-analysis-and-simulated-pyrolysis-of-tobacco-heating-system-2-2-compared-to-conventional-cigarettes
#8
Xiangyu Li, Yanbo Luo, Xingyi Jiang, Hongfei Zhang, Fengpeng Zhu, Shaodong Hu, Hongwei Hou, Qingyuan Hu, Yongqiang Pang
Introduction: Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2, marketed as iQOS), is a heat-not-burn (HNB) tobacco product that has been successfully introduced to global markets. Despite its expanding market, few independent and systematic researches into THS 2.2 have been carried out to date. Methods: We tested a comprehensive list of total particulate matter (TPM), water, tar, nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, aromatic amines, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, N-nitrosamines, phenol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon under both ISO and HCI regimes...
January 8, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319726/second-hand-tobacco-smoke-adversely-affects-the-bone-of-immature-rats
#9
Rodrigo César Rosa, Sângela Cunha Pereira, Fabrizio Antônio Gomide Cardoso, Abadio Gonçalves Caetano, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de Santiago, José Batista Volpon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure on longitudinal growth of the tibia of growing rats and some parameters of bone quality. METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly divided into four groups: control: rats were sham exposed; 30 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 30 days; 45 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 45 days; and 60 days: rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 60 days. Blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of cotinine and alkaline phosphatase...
December 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313652/lung-cancer-smoking-cessation
#10
Kelly M Latimer
Smoking cessation for patients who smoke should be a top priority for physicians. Nicotine dependence should be considered a chronic disease, with the expectation that relapse is normal. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians screen all adults for tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to adults who use tobacco. It also recommends use of the 5 As (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in discussing tobacco use with patients...
January 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313407/sense-of-coherence-smoking-status-biochemical-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-body-mass-in-blue-collar-workers-short-report
#11
Anna Najder
The crucial cause of cardiovascular disorders is atherosclerosis developed by abnormal cholesterols levels or disorders affecting blood glucose. One of the best-known cardiovascular risk factors is also tobacco smoking. Simultaneously, sense of coherence (SoC) as a personal resource motivating to managing one's own health behaviors, such as avoiding tobacco smoking, was reported to be protective against coronary heart disease. Such association was observed in white-collar workers but not in blue-collar workers...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304395/electronic-cigarettes-for-adults-with-tobacco-dependence-enrolled-in-a-tobacco-treatment-program-a-pilot-study
#12
Stephen R Baldassarri, Steven L Bernstein, Geoffrey L Chupp, Martin D Slade, Lisa M Fucito, Benjamin A Toll
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have emerged as a potential harm-reducing alternative for tobacco smokers. However, the role ECs might play in treatment settings is unclear. We conducted an exploratory study of treatment-seeking smokers enrolling in a standard tobacco treatment program who were provided with either a nicotine or non-nicotine EC to use as needed to cease tobacco smoking. METHODS: Treatment-seeking smokers received standard tobacco treatment for 8weeks and were given nicotine transdermal patch therapy, behavioral counseling, and either a nicotine or non-nicotine EC to use as needed...
November 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302543/level-of-tobacco-dependence-among-tobacco-users-in-an-urban-slum-of-puducherry-a-pilot-study
#13
Bijaya Nanda Naik, Marie Gilbert Majella, S Parthibane, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar
Context: Successful tobacco quit by the tobacco users can avoid millions of premature death. However, the physical dependence on tobacco use results in frequent relapse most commonly due to withdrawal symptoms. Aims: The aim of this study was to study the level of tobacco dependence among tobacco users in an urban slum of Puducherry. Materials and Methods: This facility-based descriptive pilot study was conducted among patients aged 15 years or above attending an urban health and training center in an urban slum of Puducherry...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298737/a-feasible-model-for-early-intervention-for-high-risk-substance-use-in-the-emergency-department-setting
#14
Rebecca Howard, Stephanie Fry, Andrew Chan, Brigid Ryan, Yvonne Bonomo
Objective In response to escalating alcohol and other drug (AOD)-related emergency department (ED) presentations, a tertiary Melbourne hospital embedded experienced AOD clinical nurse consultants in the ED on weekends to trial a model for screening, assessment and brief intervention (BI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relative contributions of AOD to ED presentations and to pilot a BI model.Methods Using a customised AOD screening tool and a framework for proactive case finding, screened participants were offered a comprehensive AOD assessment and BI in the ED...
January 4, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298318/experience-based-mediation-of-feeding-and-oviposition-behaviors-in-the-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#15
Pu Hu, Hui-Ling Li, Hong-Fei Zhang, Qian-Wen Luo, Xian-Ru Guo, Gao-Ping Wang, Wei-Zheng Li, Guohui Yuan
Experience is well known to affect sensory-guided behaviors in many herbivorous insects. Here, we investigated the effects of natural feeding experiences of Helicoverpa armigera larvae on subsequent preferences of larval approaching and feeding, as well as the effect of host-contacting experiences of mated females on subsequent ovipositional preference. The results show that the extent of experience-induced preference, expressed by statistical analysis, depended on the plant species paired with the experienced host plant...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297197/socioeconomic-status-and-cardiovascular-risk-score
#16
Ewa Podolecka, Agnieszka Doryńska, Paweł Nadrowski, Michał Skrzypek, Magdalena Kwaśniewska, Wojciech Drygas, Andrzej Pająk, Krystyna Kozakiewicz
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and death both in men and women. Well known is the influence of such factors as: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, age and sex on the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis. Apart from the typical risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, there is also a significant association between the incidence of those diseases and the socioeconomic status (SES). AIM: The aim of this study was to establish the correlation between the socioeconomic status and the cardiovascular disease risk assessed according to the SCORE algorithm...
January 3, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295483/differences-between-dual-users-and-switchers-center-around-vaping-behavior-and-its-experiences-rather-than-beliefs-and-attitudes
#17
Karolien Adriaens, Dinska Van Gucht, Frank Baeyens
(1) Background: Many smokers completely switch to vaping (switchers), whereas others use e-cigarettes (e-cigs) alongside tobacco cigarettes (dual users). To the extent that dual users substantially lower the number of cigarettes, they will reduce health risks from smoking. However, from a medical point of view, exclusive vaping is preferable to dual use; (2) Methods: Using an online questionnaire we assessed behavioral, cognitive and attitudinal aspects of e-cig use in smoking and ex-smoking vapers; (3) Results: Our sample consisted of 19% dual users and 81% switchers...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290288/differences-in-incidence-and-survival-of-oral-cavity-and-pharyngeal-cancers-between-germany-and-the-united-states-depend-on-the-hpv-association-of-the-cancer-site
#18
L Jansen, N Buttmann-Schweiger, S Listl, M Ressing, B Holleczek, A Katalinic, S Luttmann, K Kraywinkel, H Brenner
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of squamous cell oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OCPC) has changed rapidly during the last years, possibly due to an increase of human papilloma virus (HPV) positive tumors and successes in tobacco prevention. Here, we compare incidence and survival of OCPC by HPV-relation of the site in Germany and the United States (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age-standardized and age-specific incidence and 5-year relative survival was estimated using data from population-based cancer registries in Germany and the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 13 database...
January 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289868/avoiding-the-ingestion-of-cytotoxic-concentrations-of-ethanol-may-reduce-the-risk-of-cancer-associated-with-alcohol-consumption
#19
Emilio Guillén-Mancina, José Manuel Calderón-Montaño, Miguel López-Lázaro
Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication...
December 27, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287665/tobacco-dependence-treatment-in-the-emergency-department-a-randomized-trial-using-the-multiphase-optimization-strategy
#20
Steven L Bernstein, James Dziura, June Weiss, Ted Miller, Katrina A Vickerman, Lauretta E Grau, Michael V Pantalon, Lorien Abroms, Linda M Collins, Benjamin Toll
BACKGROUND: Tobacco dependence remains the leading preventable cause of death in the developed world. Smokers are disproportionately from lower socioeconomic groups, and may use the hospital emergency department (ED) as an important source of care. A recent clinical trial demonstrated the efficacy of a multicomponent intervention to help smokers quit, but the independent contributions of those components is unknown. METHODS: This is a full-factorial (16-arm) randomized trial in a busy hospital ED of 4 tobacco dependence interventions: brief motivational interviewing, nicotine replacement therapy, referral to a telephone quitline, and a texting program...
December 26, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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