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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050011/urine-ammonium-metabolic-acidosis-and-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Negiin Pourafshar, Shirin Pourafshar, Manoocher Soleimani
The metabolism of a typical Western diet generates 50-100 mEq of acid (H+) per day, which must be excreted in the urine for the systemic acid-base to remain in balance. The 2 major mechanisms that are responsible for the renal elimination of daily acid under normal conditions are ammonium (NH4+) excretion and titratable acidity. In the presence of systemic acidosis, ammonium excretion is intensified and becomes the crucial mechanism for the elimination of acid. The impairment in NH4+ excretion is therefore associated with reduced acid excretion, which causes excess accumulation of acid in the body and consequently results in metabolic acidosis...
October 19, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048271/microscale-thermophoresis-mst-for-studying-actin-polymerization-kinetics
#2
Andrea Topf, Peter Franz, Georgios Tsiavaliaris
Here, we present a MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST)-based assay for in vitro assessment of actin polymerization. By monitoring the thermophoretic behavior of ATTO488-labeled actin in a temperature gradient over time, we could follow polymerization in real time and resolve its three characteristic phases: nucleation, elongation, and steady-state equilibration. Titration experiments allowed us to evaluate the effects of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) on polymerization, including DNase I-induced inhibition and mDia2FH1FH2 (mDia2)-assisted acceleration of nucleation...
October 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048154/hexanuclear-and-trinuclear-metal-complexes-of-a-giant-octadecaaza-macrocycle
#3
Janusz Gregoliński, Katarzyna Ślepokura, Jerzy Lisowski
A large macrocyclic ligand containing six pyridine fragments and six diaminocyclopentane fragments is able to form hexanuclear Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes as well as a trinuclear Zn(II) complex. X-ray crystal structures of these complexes indicate quite different ligand conformations. In the hexanuclear Zn(II) derivative with chloride counteranions metal ions have a distorted-trigonal-bipyramidal geometry and occupy loop sections formed by the highly folded macrocycle, which adopts a globular shape. In the hexanuclear Ni(II) derivative with nitrate counteranions metal ions exhibit a distorted-octahedral geometry and the ligand conformation is much more open, while in the trinuclear Zn(II) complex the macrocycle wraps around the octahedral metal ions...
October 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047247/a-simulation-study-of-propofol-effect-site-concentration-for-appropriate-sedation-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-brain-mri-pharmacodynamic-analysis
#4
Se Hee Na, Young Song, So Yeon Kim, Hyo Jin Byon, Hwan Ho Jung, Dong Woo Han
PURPOSE: We aimed to establish the propofol effect-site concentration (Ce) for appropriate sedation by pharmacodynamic analysis and to determine the propofol Ce during occurrence of sedation-related side effects in pediatric patients undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 50 pediatric patients scheduled for brain MRI, sedation was induced with 2.0 mg/kg propofol; additional propofol doses were 0.5-1 mg/kg. Propofol Ce was simulated by inputting the propofol administration profiles of patients into a pediatric compartmental model (Choi model)...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046989/epilepsy-and-psychiatric-comorbidities-drug-selection
#5
REVIEW
Marco Mula
Purpose of review The pharmacological treatment of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities may sometimes represent a therapeutic challenge. This review is focused on the pharmacological management of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric problems in terms of rationalization of the antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment and the pharmacological management of the most clinically relevant psychiatric comorbidities, namely mood and anxiety disorders, psychoses, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 19, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046354/evidence-for-a-conserved-inhibitory-binding-mode-between-the-membrane-fusion-assembly-factors-munc18-and-syntaxin-in-animals
#6
Czuee Morey, C Nickias Kienle, Tobias H Klöpper, Pawel Burkhardt, Dirk Fasshauer
The membrane fusion necessary for vesicle trafficking is driven by the assembly of heterologous SNARE proteins orchestrated by the binding of Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins to specific syntaxin SNARE proteins. However, the precise mode of interaction between SM proteins and SNAREs is debated, as contrasting binding modes have been found for different members of the SM protein family, including the three vertebrate Munc18 isoforms. While different binding modes could be necessary given their roles in different secretory processes in different tissues, the structural similarity of the three isoforms makes this divergence perplexing...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046002/-optimal-diagnostics-and-therapy-for-microvascular-angina-pectoris
#7
Peter Ong, Udo Sechtem
Patients with microvascular angina are characterized by angina pectoris with proof of myocardial ischemia in the absence of any relevant epicardial stenosis and without myocardial disease (type 1 coronary microvascular dysfunction according to Crea and Camici). Structural and functional alterations of the coronary microvessels (diameter < 500 µm) are the reason for this phenomenon. Frequently such alterations are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Patients with angina pectoris without epicardial stenoses represent for 10 - 50 % of all patients undergoing coronary angiography depending on the clinical presentation...
October 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045567/individualized-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-obese-patients-during-general-anaesthesia-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-using-electrical-impedance-tomography
#8
C Nestler, P Simon, D Petroff, S Hammermüller, D Kamrath, S Wolf, A Dietrich, L M Camilo, A Beda, A R Carvalho, A Giannella-Neto, A W Reske, H Wrigge
Background: General anaesthesia leads to atelectasis, reduced end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), and diminished arterial oxygenation in obese patients. We hypothesized that a combination of a recruitment manoeuvre (RM) and individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can avoid these effects. Methods: Patients with a BMI ≥35 kg m-2 undergoing elective laparoscopic surgery were randomly allocated to mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume of 8 ml kg-1 predicted body weight and (i) an RM followed by individualized PEEP titrated using electrical impedance tomography (PEEPIND) or (ii) no RM and PEEP of 5 cm H2O (PEEP5)...
October 16, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045528/tumor-regression-and-preservation-of-graft-function-after-combination-with-anti-pd-1-immunotherapy-without-immunosuppressant-titration
#9
C-K Wu, G-D Juang, H-C Lai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045126/characterization-of-three-druggable-hotspots-in-the-aurora-a-tpx2-interaction-using-biochemical-biophysical-and-fragment-based-approaches
#10
Patrick J McIntyre, Patrick M Collins, Lukáš Vrzal, Kristian Birchall, Laurence H Arnold, Chido Mpamhanga, Peter J Coombs, Selena G Burgess, Mark W Richards, Anja Winter, Václav Veverka, Frank von Delft, Andy Merritt, Richard Bayliss
The mitotic kinase Aurora-A and its partner protein TPX2 (Targeting Protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2), are overexpressed in cancers and it has been proposed that they work together as an oncogenic holoenzyme. TPX2 is responsible for activating Aurora-A during mitosis, ensuring proper cell division. Disruption of the interface with TPX2 is therefore a potential target for novel anti-cancer drugs that exploit the increased sensitivity of cancer cells to mitotic stress. Here, we investigate the interface using co-precipitation assays and isothermal titration calorimetry to quantify the energetic contribution of individual residues of TPX2...
October 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044910/colorimetric-detection-of-oxalate-in-aqueous-solution-by-a-pyrogallol-red-based-cu-2-complex
#11
Koshiro Inoue, Shunichi Aikawa, Yasumasa Fukushima
The pyrogallol red (PR)-based Cu(2+) complex was proven to be an effective and selective colorimetric chemosensing ensemble for recognition of oxalate over other anions in a perfect aqueous solution. The addition of oxalate to the PR-Cu(2+) complex resulted in a colour change from purple to orange colour due to the regeneration of PR by the chelation of oxalate with Cu(2+) , while other anions did not induce any significant colour change. Moreover, it was revealed that no obvious interference was observed during the titrations with oxalate into each other anion...
October 18, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043989/antiviral-screening-of-four-plant-extracts-against-acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1
#12
Masoud Parsania, Mohammad-Bagher Rezaee, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Kamkar Jaimand, Seyed Milad Mousavi-Jazayeri, Mehdi Razazian, Mohammad Hossein Nadjarha
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes serious infections particularly in immunocompromised patients. Methanolic extract of four plants were evaluated for their anti-viral effects against acyclovir resistant HSV-1 in HeLa cell line. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) as well as the effective minimal cytotoxic concentration of each plant extract were evaluated by MTT assay. Antiviral effects of the plant extracts on HSV-1 were examined at different concentrations of the extract. The effective minimal cytotoxic concentration was evaluated at different times of virus replication after infection...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042890/effects-of-psychotropic-drugs-on-seizure-threshold-during-electroconvulsive-therapy
#13
Su-Hyuk Chi, Hyun-Ghang Jeong, Suji Lee, So-Young Oh, Seung-Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between seizure threshold (ST) and psychotropic drugs in patients treated with ECT. METHODS: We examined clinical data from 43 patients. ST was titrated at each treatment session. We examined associations between ST and psychotropic drugs using multivariate correlation analyses. Data are presented as initial ST, the difference in ST between the first and 10th sessions (ΔST10th), and the mean difference in ST between the first and last sessions (mean ΔSTlast)...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042446/clinical-and-metabolic-consequences-of-l-serine-supplementation-in-hereditary-sensory-and-autonomic-neuropathy-type-1c
#14
Mari Auranen, Jussi Toppila, Saranya Suriyanarayanan, Museer A Lone, Anders Paetau, Henna Tyynismaa, Thorsten Hornemann, Emil Ylikallio
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) may be the first genetic neuropathy amenable to a specific mechanism-based treatment, as L-serine supplementation can be used to lower the neurotoxic levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySL) that cause the neurodegeneration. The treatment is so far untested in HSAN1C caused by variants in the serine palmitoyl transferase subunit 2 (SPTLC2) gene. The aim of this study was to establish whether oral L-serine lowers 1-deoxySL in a patient with HSAN1C, to perform a dose escalation to find the minimal effective dose, and to assess the safety profile and global metabolic effects of the treatment...
October 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041942/patient-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-work-productivity-and-activity-impairment-during-treatment-with-alo-02-extended-release-oxycodone-and-sequestered-naltrexone-for-moderate-to-severe-chronic-low-back-pain
#15
Arnold J Weil, Elizabeth T Masters, Alexandra I Barsdorf, Almasa Bass, Glenn Pixton, Jacquelyn G Wilson, Gernot Wolfram
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing extended-release oxycodone and sequestered naltrexone, in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP) was studied in a 12-week randomized controlled trial. Primary efficacy endpoint results have been published previously (Rauck et al., 2015). The current paper focuses on patient-reported outcomes for health-related quality of life (HRQL), work productivity, and activity impairment that were assessed during this study...
October 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040928/calorimetric-and-spectroscopic-studies-of-the-interaction-between-zidovudine-and-human-serum-albumin
#16
Adrian Pîrnău, Mihaela Mic, Silvia Neamţu, Călin G Floare, Mircea Bogdan
A quantitative analysis of the interaction between zidovudine (AZT) and human serum albumin (HSA) was achieved using Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in combination with fluorescence and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. ITC directly measure the heat during a biomolecular binding event and gave us thermodynamic parameters and the characteristic association constant. By fluorescence quenching, the binding parameters of AZT-HSA interaction was determined and location to binding site I of HSA was confirmed. Via T1 NMR selective relaxation time measurements the drug-protein binding extent was evaluated as dissociation constants Kd and the involvement of azido moiety of zidovudine in molecular complex formation was put in evidence...
October 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040433/low-end-tidal-co2-as-a-real-time-severity-marker-of-intra-anaesthetic-acute-hypersensitivity-reactions
#17
A Gouel-Chéron, L de Chaisemartin, F Jönsson, P Nicaise-Roland, V Granger, A Sabahov, M-T Guinnepain, S Chollet-Martin, P Bruhns, C Neukirch, D Longrois
Background: Prompt diagnosis of intra-anaesthetic acute hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) is challenging because of the possible absence and/or difficulty in detecting the usual clinical signs and because of the higher prevalence of alternative diagnoses. Delayed epinephrine administration during AHR, because of incorrect/delayed diagnosis, can be associated with poor prognosis. Low end-tidal CO2 (etCO2) is known to be linked to low cardiac output. Yet, its clinical utility during suspected intra-anaesthetic AHR is not well documented...
October 10, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040270/analysis-of-the-interaction-of-plexin-b1-and-plexin-b2-with-rnd-family-proteins
#18
Thomas Wylie, Ritu Garg, Anne J Ridley, Maria R Conte
The Rnd family of proteins, Rnd1, Rnd2 and Rnd3, are atypical Rho family GTPases, which bind to but do not hydrolyse GTP. They interact with plexins, which are receptors for semaphorins, and are hypothesised to regulate plexin signalling. We recently showed that each Rnd protein has a distinct profile of interaction with three plexins, Plexin-B1, Plexin-B2 and Plexin-B3, in mammalian cells, although it is unclear which region(s) of these plexins contribute to this specificity. Here we characterise the binary interactions of the Rnd proteins with the Rho-binding domain (RBD) of Plexin-B1 and Plexin-B2 using biophysical approaches...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040074/use-of-non-linear-mixed-effects-modelling-and-regression-analysis-to-predict-the-number-of-somatic-coliphages-by-plaque-enumeration-after-3-hours-of-incubation
#19
Javier Mendez, Antonio Monleon-Getino, Juan Jofre, Francisco Lucena
The present study aimed to establish the kinetics of the appearance of coliphage plaques using the double agar layer titration technique to evaluate the feasibility of using traditional coliphage plaque forming unit (PFU) enumeration as a rapid quantification method. Repeated measurements of the appearance of plaques of coliphages titrated according to ISO 10705-2 at different times were analysed using non-linear mixed-effects regression to determine the most suitable model of their appearance kinetics. Although this model is adequate, to simplify its applicability two linear models were developed to predict the numbers of coliphages reliably, using the PFU counts as determined by the ISO after only 3 hours of incubation...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039212/propagation-and-titration-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-including-non-cell-culture-adapted-strains-using-ex-vivo-stimulated-chicken-bursal-cells
#20
Sebastien Mathieu Soubies, Céline Courtillon, Mouna Abed, Michel Amelot, Alassane Keita, Andrew Broadbent, Sonja Härtle, Bernd Kaspers, Nicolas Eterradossi
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a Birnaviridae family member of economic importance for poultry. This virus infects and destroys developing B lymphocytes in the cloacal bursa, resulting in a potentially fatal or immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Naturally-occurring viruses and many vaccine strains are not able to grow in in vitro systems without prior adaptation, which process often affects viral properties such as virulence. Primary bursal cells, which are the main target cells of lymphotropic IBDV in vivo, may represent an attractive system for the study of IBDV...
October 17, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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